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% 



SOPHOCLES 



THE PLAYS AND FRAGMENTS. 



PART V. 



THE TRACHINIAE. 



lAiOum: C. J. CLAY & SONS, 
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS WAREHOUSE, 

Ave Maria Lane. 




Camfcrtofle: DEIGHTON, BELL AND CO. 

Iftpjifl: F. A. BROCKHAUS. 

$tto $orft: MACMILLAN AND CO. 



SOPHOCLES 



// 



THE PLAYS AND FRAGMENTS 



WITH CRITICAL NOTES, COMMENTARY, AND 
TRANSLATION IN ENGLISH PROSE, 



BY 

R. C. J EBB, Litt. D., 

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF GREEK AND FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, 
CAMBRIDGE, AND M.P. FOR THE UNIVERSITY : 

HON. D.C.L. OXON. : HON. LL.D. EDINBURGH, HARVARD, DUBLIN, AND GLASGOW; 

HON. DOCT. PHILOS., BOLOGNA. 



PART V. 
THE TRACHINIAE. 



EDITED FOR THE SYNDICS OF THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



CAMBRIDGE: 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 

1892 

[All Rights reserved,] 



TAMM«B> 

V.5" 



Cambrfoge: 

PRINTED BY C. J. CLAY, M.A. AND SONS, 
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction page ix 

§ i. Divergent views of the Trachiniae, Difficulty of judging 
it rightly. 

§ 2. The Heracles myth. — Argive legends. Boeotian legends. 
Thessalian legends. § 3. Heracles in the Homeric poems. 
§ 4. The Heracleia of Peisander. The Heracleia of Panyasis. 
The Capture of Oechalia. § 5. Lyric poets on Heracles. Archi- 
lochus. Stesichorus. Pindar. Deianeira associated with Heracles. 
§ 6. Heracles in drama. Comedy. Satyr-drama. § 7. Tragedy. 
The Mad Heracles of Euripides. 

§ 8. The Trachiniae of Sophocles. The two mythic elements. 
Later digests of the Heracles legends. Freedom of the fifth 
century poets. Sequence of events in the Trachiniae, § 9. The 
antecedents of the plot. 

§ 10. Analysis of the play. §11. The characters. — Deianeira. 
§ 12. Heracles. § 13. Hyllus. § 14. The minor persons. 
The Chorus. § 15. The incident of the robe. Comparison with 
the Medea, Supposed solar imagery. § 16. The oracles. § 17. 
Dramatic structure. Unity of time neglected. 

§ 18. Seneca's Hercules Oetaeus, The Latin Deianeira. 
§ 19. The fable in art. 

§ 20. Diction. Successive phases in the style of Sophocles. 
§ 21. Distinctive traits of the Trachiniae, § 22. Supposed in- 
fluence of Euripides. 

Manuscripts, Editions, etc li 

§§ 1, 2. The Laurentian and other MSS. § 3. Scholia. § 4. 
Interpolation. § 5. The theory of two recensions. § 6. Emend- 
ations. § 7. Editions, etc. 

Metrical Analysis lv 

Dramatis Personae; Structure 4 

JL JS^m X* • % • • • * • • • • • \J 

Appendix 185 

Indices 209 



d2 



INTRODUCTION. 



§ i. It has been the fortune of the Trachiniae to provoke Divergent 
a singular diversity of judgments. Dissen and Bergk refer the l^Tra- 
play to a period when the powers of Sophocles were not yet ^!™ ae : 
fully matured 1 . Bernhardy regards it as a mediocre produc- of judging 
tion of declining age 2 . Schlegel, in his Lectures on Dramatic lt: n 2 htlv - 
Literature, goes further still ; he pronounces the piece unworthy 
of its reputed author, and wishes that the responsibility for it 
could be transferred from Sophocles to some feebler contempo- 
rary, — his son, for instance, the ' frigid ' Iophon 8 . Yet there has 
never been a lack of more favourable estimates. In the very 
year when Schlegel was lecturing at Vienna (1808), Boeckh 
pointed out the strong family likeness between this and the 
other six plays 4 ; A. Jacob made a direct reply to Schlegel's 
censures 8 ; and Godfrey Hermann said that, whatever faults the 
work might have, at any rate both the spirit and the diction 

1 Dissen, Kleine Schriften, p. 343 ; Bergk, De Sophoclis Arte^ p. 26. 

2 Bernhardy, Gk Lit. 11. pt ii. p. 375 : * ein mit massiger Kunst angelegtes und 
matt durchgefiihrtes Werk aus spatem Lebensalter.' 

8 A. W. Schlegel, Lect. vii. All that he says of the Trachiniae is contained in one 
short paragraph, and the grounds of the condemnation are indicated only in vague 
terms. * There is much both in the structure and plan, and in the style of the piece, 
calculated to excite suspicion.' 'Many critics have remarked that the introductory 
soliloquy of Deianeira, which is wholly uncalled-for, is very unlike the general 
character of Sophocles' prologues.' 'Although this poet's usual rules of art are ob- 
served on the whole, yet it is very superficially; nowhere can we discern in it the 
profound mind of Sophocles.' 

With regard to the prologue — the only passage which Schlegel specifies — some 
remarks will be found below, § 22. 

4 A. Boeckh, Graecae trag. princip., c. xi. p. 137 (referring to the Electra and the 
Trachiniae): 'tantum cum ceteris similitudinem habent ut nefas esset de auctore 
dubitare.' 

6 A. L. W. Jacob, Sophocleae quaestiones, vol. 1. p. 260 (1821). 



x INTRODUCTION. 

were unmistakably those of Sophocles 1 . During the last half 
century, with the growth of a better aesthetic criticism in relation 
to all things Hellenic, a sense of the great beauties in the 
Trachiniae has decidedly prevailed over the tendency to ex- 
aggerate its defects; indeed, the praise bestowed upon it, in 
these latter days, has sometimes perhaps been a little too 
indiscriminate. The play is in fact an exceptionally difficult 
one to appreciate justly; and the root of the difficulty is in the 
character of the fable. A necessary prelude to the study of the 
Trachiniae is to consider the form in which the Heracles-myth 
had been developed, and the nature of the materials available 
for the dramatist. 



The 

Heracles 
myth. — 
Argive 
legends. 



§ 2. The Argive legends are those which best preserve the 
primitive Dorian conception of Heracles. They are alloyed, 
indeed, with later elements, of a political origin. Thus, in order 
that the Dorian conquerors might have some hereditary title to 
the land, Heracles was made the son of Alcmena, and, through 
her, a scion of the Perseidae ; Tiryns was his heritage, of which 
he had been despoiled. Again, the struggles between Argos and 
Sparta for the headship of Peloponnesus have a reflex in those 
wars which the Argive Heracles wages in Elis or Messenia. 
But, when such elements have been set aside, there remains the 
old-Dorian hero, slayer of monsters, purger of the earth, who 
triumphs over the terrors of Hades, and brings the apples of 
immortality from the garden of the Hesperides. 

We do not know exactly when the 'twelve labours' of 
Heracles became a definite legend. The earliest evidence for 
it is afforded by the temple of Zeus at Olympia, about 450 B.C. 
The twelve labours were there portrayed on the metopes, — six 
on those of the western front, and six on those of the eastern. 
All the twelve subjects are known from the existing remains 2 . 
The list agrees, in much the larger part, with twelve labours 

1 G. Hermann, Preface to the Trachiniae, p. vi: 'Ego quidem, quomodo qui 
Sophoclem cognitum habeat, an genuina sit haec fabula dubitare possit, non video. 
Nam quae duae res in poesi maxime produnt a quo quid scriptum sit, ingenium poesis 
et dictio, eae ita sunt in hac fabula eaedem atque in ceteris, ut miraturus sim, si quis 
proferat aliquid, quod alienum ab Sophocle iudicari debeat' 

2 The subjects of the western metopes, in order from left to right, were : (1) Nemean 



INTRODUCTION. xi 

enumerated by the Chorus in the Hercules Furens of Euripides 1 , 
a play of which the date may be placed about 421 — 416 B.C. 
Neither list knows any places, outside of Peloponnesus, except 
Crete and Thrace; nor does either list recognise any of those 
later myths in which Heracles symbolises the struggles of Argos 
with Sparta. In both lists the journey to the Hesperides has ' 
lost its original meaning, — the attainment of immortality, — since 
it precedes the capture of Cerberus. These are some reasons 
for thinking that a cycle of twelve labours had become fixed in 
Dorian legend long before the fifth century B.C. 51 The Dorians 
of Argolis were those among whom it first took shape, as the 
scenes of the labours show. But nothing is known as to the 
form in which it first became current. 

One thing, however, is plain. Although the twelve tasks are 
more or less independent of each other, the series has the unity 
of a single idea. Heracles is the destroyer of pests on land and 
sea, the saviour of Argolis first and then the champion of 
humanity, the strong man who secures peace to the husbandman 
and an open path to the sailor : with his club and his bow, he 
goes forth against armed warriors, or monsters of superhuman 

lion: (2) Lernaean hydra: (3) Stymphalian birds: (4) Cretan bull: (5) Ceryneian 
hind : (6) Hippolyte's girdle. 

Those of the eastern metopes were : (1) Erymanthian boar : (2) Mares of Diomedes : 
(3) Geryon : (4) Atlas and the Hesperides : (5) Augean stables : (6) Cerberus. — Treu, 
Ausgrabungen zu Olympia, iv. c. 4 : W. Copland Perry, Greek and Roman Sculpture, 
ch. xxi. pp. 225 if. 

1 Eur. H, F. 359 — 429. The exploits there enumerated are: — (1) Nemean lion: 
(2) Centaurs: (3) Ceryneian hind: (4) Mares of Diomedes: (5) Cycnus: (6) Hesperides: 
(7) Sea-monsters: (8) Relieving Atlas as supporter of the heavens: (9) Hippolyte's 
girdle: (10) Lernaean hydra: (11) Geryon: (12) Cerberus. 

No. 2 in this list, — the fight with the Centaurs at Pholoe, — was merely an episode 
in the ad\os of the Erymanthian boar, the first subject of the eastern metopes at 
Olympia. Hence the list of Euripides has really nine a6\oi in common with the tem- 
ple. The three dOXot peculiar to the temple are, Stymphalian birds, Cretan bull, and 
Augean stables; instead of which Euripides has, Cycnus, Sea-monsters, Relief of Atlas. 

An express mention of the number twelve, as the fixed limit to the series of cT0\ot, 
occurs first in Theocr. 24. 81, dudeicd ol reXieavTi ireirpwutvov iv Aids oUijv | yubx^ovi. 

3 Preller (Gr. Myth, 11. 186) adopts the view that the number of twelve labours had 
probably been first fixed by Peisander, in his epic'Hpd/cXeict, circ. 650 B.C. (cp. below, 
§ 4). Wilamowitz, Eur. Heracles, vol. I. p. 308, regards the cycle of twelve labours 
rather as the invention of some Dorian poet of Argolis, — perhaps of Mycenae, — who 
lived not later than the 8th century B.C., and of whose work no trace remains. 



xii INTRODUCTION. 

malignity, reliant on his inborn might, and conscious of a divine 
strain in his blood. This is no Achilles, no image of that 
chivalry which Aeolian legend had delineated and Ionian poetry 
adorned; no steeds, swift as the wind, bear his chariot into 
battle; no panoply of bronze, wrought by Hephaestus, flashes 
on him, 'like the gleam of blazing fire, or of the sun as it arises': 
in the gentle graces of human existence, in the softer human 
sympathies, he has no portion; no music of the lyre soothes 
his rest in the camp ; he has never known such tears as came 
into the eyes of the young Achaean warrior, when the aged 
king of Troy, kneeling at his feet, kissed the hand that had 
slain Hector ; nor has he anything of that peculiar pathos which 
is given alike to Hector and to Achilles by the dim presage of 
an early doom, the uncertain shadow which now and again flits 
across the meridian of their glory ; the golden scales, lifted in 
the hand of Zeus, have never trembled with the fate of Heracles, 
for his destiny was fixed before his birth, and is inseparable 
from his origin, — that he must toil while he lives, and must live 
until his task has been accomplished. He embodies a sterner 
ideal; one in which there is less of spiritual charm and of 
flexible intelligence, but which has a moral grandeur of its own ; 
we might say that relatively to the Ionian view of life it is as 
the Hebraic ideal to the Hellenic. And this ideal may rightly 
be called ' Dorian/ in the sense that it presumably represents a 
conception of the primitive Dorian folk, bearing a general stamp 
which can be traced in historical expressions of the Dorian 
nature. 

That conception appears in only two other sets of legends 
besides the Argive. And these belong to near kinsmen of the 
Dorian stock, the Boeotians and the Thessalians. 
Boeotian The Boeotian legends concern the birth, childhood, and 

youth of Heracles. Argive tradition claimed his manhood ; 
and this claim could not be ignored. Nor was it disputed 
that he sprang from the Argive Perseidae. The Boeotians 
sought only to reconcile his Argive lineage with a belief that 
he was born at Thebes. Alcmena, his mother, is the daughter 
of Electryon, king of Mycenae : she is betrothed to her first- 
cousin Amphitryon, son of Alcaeus, king of Tiryns. Amphi- 



legends. 



INTRODUCTION, xiii 

tryon accidentally kills his uncle, Electryon, and flies, with 
Alcmena, to Thebes. She requires him, as the condition of 
their union, to avenge her on the Taphii in western Greece, 
who have slain her brothers. He sets forth from Thebes to do 
so. Just before his triumphant return, Zeus visits Alcmena in 
his likeness, and becomes the father of Heracles. Amphitryon was 
originally a Theban hero; but the Thebans made him an Argive 
in order that they might make Heracles a Theban. The name 
' Heracles' is itself a proof that Argive legend was predominant 
enough to extort such a compromise. Hera was the goddess of 
the pre-Dorian Argos. The story of her hatred towards the 
Dorian Heracles expressed the hostility of her worshippers to 
the Dorian invaders. But, when the Dorians had conquered, 
their legendary champion came to be called 'HpatcXfjs, 'the 
glorified of Hera' ; not in the sense that he had won fame by 
surmounting her persecutions, or through her final reconciliation 
to him in Olympus ; but in the sense that he was the pride 
of the city which, though it had changed its earthly masters, was 
still Hera's — the now Dorian Argos. The old story of her spite 
against him lived on in poetry, but it had lost its first meaning. 
It is recorded that an earlier name of 'Heracles' had been 
' Alcaeus,' ' the man of might ' ; and traces of this lingered in 
Boeotia 1 . 

1 Dion Chrysost. or. 31 (p. 615 Reiske) iv yovv 9i)/3cus 'AKkcuos dv&Keiral ns, 8v 
'HpaxXla <f>a<rlp ehau, irpbrepov o0rw KaXov/xevov. Preller (n. p. 180) quotes the inscrip- 
tion shown in a Farnesian relief on the tripod which Amphitryon dedicated, in his 
youthful son's name, to the Ismenian Apollo at Thebes: 'Aju^irpiW virtp 'AXicaLov 
rplicotf 'Air6XK<avi. Sextus Empir. Adv. dogm. 3. 36 gives a like inscription, also 
connecting it with a Theban dvddrjfw.. Diodorus (4. 10) ascribes the change of the 
hero's name to the Argives: , Ap7etot...'Hpa*c\&i irpoffrrydpevecw, 8rt 5i"Hpav fox* kX^os, 
irpbrepov 'AXkcuov KaXovfxevov. According to the popular tradition, this change of name 
was prescribed by the Delphic oracle, when the hero went thither for purification, 
after the slaughter of his children at Thebes. (Apollod. 2. 4. 12 : Aelian V. H. 2. 31.) 

'AKkcIStjs was probably a gentilician name, rather than a patronymic in the narrower 
sense, as Wilamowitz remarks (Eur. Her. I. p. 293), adding that 'AXjwuos, the father of 
Amphitryon, 'was not invented to explain 'AXicefS^s,' since in that case the form would 
have been 'AXiceiJy. 

But Pindar, at any rate, seems to have been thinking of 'AXicatos, father of 
Amphitryon, when he wrote "HpcucXiris, aefivbv 0&\os 'AX/ccu'Sav (0. 6. 68). And on 
the other hand Suidas, s. v.'AXiceldrji, has *A\k4<ds y&p tolls' A fjjpiTpvwv. — A similar 
name to 'AXkcuos was 'AXicddoos, a Megarian hero analogous to Heracles. Cp. also 
'AXKfn/jvrj. 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

There, too, as in Argolis, the myth is blended with facts of 
local warfare ; Heracles fights for Thebes against the Minyae of 
Orchomenus. But the true Dorian Heracles is seen in other 
parts of the Theban story, — as when he strangles the snakes in 
his cradle, and slays the lion of Cithaeron. His last act at 
Thebes is that which he does in the madness sent on him by 
Hera, — the slaughter of the children borne to him by Megara, 
daughter of Creon. This Theban tradition was another com- 
promise with Argive legend, which claimed his best years for 
the twelve labours. How, then, was he to be severed from 
Thebes, the home of his youth ? He must be forced to fly from 
it, as blood-guilty — the guilt being excused by Hera's visitation. 
Further, Thebes had to account for the non-existence of Theban 
nobles claiming a direct descent from him. Therefore he slew 
his Theban children. 
Thessalian Lastly, there are the Thessalian legends. These belong 
legends, especially to Trachis, the chief town of Malis, and to the neigh- 
bouring region of Mount Oeta. Here, too, there is an element 
of disguised history; Heracles is the friend of Dorians; he 
works for the honour of Apollo, the god of the Thessalo-Delphic 
amphictyony; he conquers aliens, like Cycnus, or establishes 
good relations with them, as with the Trachinian king Ceyx. 
But the spirit of an older conception animates one part of the 
Thessalian legend, — the hero's fiery death on the summit of 
Oeta, when Zeus receives him into heaven. The journey to the 
Hesperides was probably an older symbol of immortality attained 
after toil; but if that fable has the charm of the sunset, the legend 
of Oeta has the grandeur of the hills. 

These three cycles of myth, — the Argive, the Boeotian, and 
the Thessalian, — alone reveal the true old-Dorian Heracles. 
The traditions found elsewhere are either merely local, ex- 
pressing the desire of particular Dorian communities to link 
their own deeds with his name, as at Rhodes and Cos ; or they 
show the influence of non-Dorian poets, who altered the original 
character of the story by interweaving it with other threads 
of folk-lore. Thus in the Trachiniae the legend of Oeta is 
combined with legends of Aetolia. We shall understand this 
process better if we consider the place of Heracles in that 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

portion of Greek literature which precedes the rise of Attic 
drama. 

§ 3. The Homeric poems contain only incidental allusions Heracles 
to Heracles, who is associated with the generation before the Homeric 
Trojan war. We hear that he was born at Thebes, being the poems. 
son of Zeus and Alcmena. His life-long foe, the goddess Hera, 
defrauded him of his inheritance, the lordship of Argos, by 
ensnaring Zeus into a promise that this dominion should be 
held by Eurystheus 1 . Heracles performed labours (dedXoi) for 
Eurystheus, whose commands were brought by the herald 
Copreus: but only one of these tasks is specified, — viz., the 
descent in quest of 'the dog of Hades 2 .' Apart from the 
' labours ' proper, some other exploits of the hero are mentioned. 
He delivered Laomedon, the father of Priam, from the sea- 
monster (tcrJTos) sent by the angry gods ; and, when the false 
king withheld the due reward, he sacked Troy. Returning 
thence, he was driven by storms to Cos 8 . Further, he made war 
on Pylos, killing the Neleidae, Nestor's brethren, and wounding 
the immortals, Hera and Hades, who opposed him 4 . Under his 
own roof he slew his guest Iphitus ; but no motive is assigned 
by the Homeric poet. The victim's father, Eurytus, king of 
Oechalia (in Thessaly), is not attacked or killed by Heracles ; 
he is more quietly despatched by Apollo, who is jealous of his 
skill in archery 8 . The Homeric weapon of Heracles is the bow ; 
there is no mention of the club. His Homeric wife is Megara, 
daughter of Creon. Finally he dies, ' subdued by fate and by 
the wrath of Hera 6 .' There is no hint of his apotheosis, except 
in one passage, which clearly bewrays interpolation 7 . 

1 Iliad 19. 95—136. 

2 Labours for Eurystheus, II. 8. 363, Od. 11. 622: Copreus, //. 15. 639: 'the dog 
of Hades' (first called Cerberus in Hes. Th. 311), //. 8. 368. 

8 The Kip-OS, II. 20. 144 — 148: sack of Troy, 5. 638 — 642: Cos, 15. 28. 

4 War against Pylos, //. II. 690 — 693: wounding of Hera and Hades, 5. 392 — 397. 

8 Iphitus, Od. 21. 22 — 30 : Eurytus, 8. 223 — 228. 

6 The bow, //. 5. 393, Od. 8. 225, n. 607: Megara, Od. 11. 269: Death of 
Heracles, //. 18. 117 — 119. 

7 Od. 11. 601 — 605: 

601 top Sk fjL€T* €l<rcv6ri<ra filriv 'HpcucXije/i;*', 

602 [efttaXop, afrrbs 5£ /lcct' ddavdroiffi Oeotffi 



xvi INTRODUCTION. 

The parts of the Homeric epics in which these allusions 
occur are of various ages ; and the allusions themselves are 
derived from various regions, — Argos, the western Peloponnesus, 
Boeotia, Thessaly, the Dorian colonies in Asia Minor. Several 
of the passages have a more or less intrusive air ; one 1 , at least, 
has manifestly been adapted to the Iliad from some epic in 
which Heracles was a principal figure. Speaking generally, 
we may say that in the Iliad and the Odyssey the Dorian hero 
is a foreign person. 

But this negative result is not the only one which the 
Homeric notices suggest. They make us feel how difficult it 
would have been for epic poetry, working in the Homeric spirit, 
to treat the story of Heracles as a whole. His acts are too 
incoherent to derive a properly epic unity from his person, — 
such an unity as the Odyssey, for example, derives from the 
person of Odysseus. The original Dorian legend of Heracles 
had, indeed, the unity of a moral idea ; but that is not enough 
for an epic. 

The § 4. Little is known of the efforts made to solve this poeti- 

of*Peisan- ca ^ problem. The Dorian Peisander, of Cameirus in Rhodes, is 

<ler. named as the author of an epic poem on Heracles, a Heracleia*. 

He seems to have confined himself to the 'labours' which 

Heracles performed for Eurystheus ; and he was the first poet, 

603 rtpirerai b> daXiys koX £x €t Ka\\l<T<pvpov "H/fyi', 

604 [ircuda Aids fieydXoto icai "H/mjs xP^o^^Xou.] 

605 djupl 84 fuv KXayyij veiajwv rjv oluv&v ws, k.t.X. 

The second and third of these verses (602, 603) were rejected by Aristarchus (schol. 
on Od. 11. 385, with Dindorfs note, ed. 1855). The fourth verse (604) seems not to 
have been read by Aristarchus, nor by the schol. on v. 385. It is identical with 
Hes. Theog. 952. Onomacritus, the diaskeuast in the time of Peisistratus, was 
credited with the interpolation of vv. 602, 603, ace. to schol. Vindob. 56 (quoted by 
Merry ad loc). Such a tradition at least suggests that the interpolation was pre- 
Alexandrian and presumably Attic. It is probably by a mere confusion that schol. 
H on 604 (ap, Dindorf) speaks as if verse 604, and it alone, had been inserted by 
Onomacritus. 

1 I refer to //. 19. 95 — 136, where see Leaf's note. The episode occurs in a 
speech of Agamemnon, who, contrary to Homeric usage, quotes the very words 
spoken by the gods. Elsewhere it is only the inspired poet himself who reports 
Olympian speech. 

2 Bernhardy, Gr. Lit. vol. 11. pt 1, p. 338, collects the principal notices of Pei- 
sander. 



INTRODUCTION. xvii 

we are told, who gave Heracles the lions skin and the club 1 . 
Peisander is usually placed about 650 B.C.; but, according to 
one view, that date is too early 8 . In the Alexandrian age he 
enjoyed a high repute. 

The Ionian Panyasis 8 of Halicarnassus, circ. 480 B.C., also Th e . 
composed a Heracleia, in no less than fourteen books. He f 
took a wider range than Peisander's, and aimed at a compre- ^y^ 15 - 
hensive digest of all the principal legends concerning Heracles. 
Merits of style and arrangement made him popular ; but he did 
not reach the Homeric level, or work in the Homeric spirit 4 . 
Possibly his large composition, with its survey of heroic deeds in 
many lands, may have borne some analogy to the great prose- 
epic of his younger kinsman, Herodotus. That kinship interests 
us here, since it increases the probability that the epic of 
Panyasis may have been known to the author of the Trachiniae. 

But to minds in sympathy with Homeric epos it would be 
evident that there was another way of dealing with the theme of 
Heracles ; a way different from that of Peisander, and still more 
different from that of Panyasis. Some one episode might be 
singled out from the mass of legends, and developed by itself, as 
an epic on a small scale. Hesiod and the Hesiodic school 
worked thus ; they produced, for instance, the Marriage-feast of 
Ceyx, relating how Heracles was entertained by that king of 
Trachis; the Aegimius, turning on the league of Heracles with 
that Dorian prince ; and the extant Shield of Heracles, concern- 
ing his fight with Cycnus. 

1 See n. on Philoctetes 727. The club was no doubt an original trait of the old 
Dorian legend. 

2 The 20th epigram of Theocritus is an inscription in hendecasyllables for a 
Rhodian statue of Peisander, who, with respect to the deeds of Heracles, is called 
rparos 7w iir&v<ti$€ fiovaoiroiQp. Wilamowitz (Eur. Her. I. p. 309), acknowledging 
the genuineness of the epigram, nevertheless suggests that the name of Peisander 
may have been a mere invention of the Asiatic Dorians in the 3rd cent. B.C., and 
holds that the 'Hpd/cXeia ascribed to him was not older than the 6th cent. B.C. 

According to Theocritus, Peisander described Heracles rbv XeovrofidxaVj rbv 
6£tfX6tpa,...xc*rovs i^evdvaaev etir' &£0\ovs. 

s The penultimate syllable of this Carian name is probably long; another, 
perhaps more correct, form of it was Uav6aa<rts. Little weight can be attached to 
the fact that Avienus, writing about 370 a.d., has Pany&si at the beginning of a 
hexameter (Arat. Phaen. 175). 

4 See the testimonies in Bernhardy, Gr. Lit. 11. pt 1, p. 340. 



XV111 



INTRO D UCTION. 



The Cap- 
ture of 
Oechalia. 



Lyric 
poets on 
Heracles. 
Archi- 
lochus. 



Stesi- 
chorus. 



A notable epic of this class was the Capture of Oeckalia> 
OlyakLas a\&>ai9, ascribed to the Ionian Creophylus of Samos, 
whom tradition called the friend, or even the son-in-law, of 
Homer 1 . An epigram of Callimachus 2 attests the fame of this 
poem, which was probably as old at least as the eighth century 
B.C., and must have had the genuine ring of Homeric epos. The 
subject was the passion of Heracles for Iol&, and the war which, 
in order to win her, he made on Oechalia, the city of her father 
Eurytus, which was placed, as by Sophocles, in Euboea. It is 
not known whether this epic introduced Deianeira, the enven- 
omed robe, and the hero's death on Mount Oeta 8 . But in any 
case it must have been one of the principal sources from which 
Sophocles derived his material. 

§ 5. Lyric poetry also, from an early time, had been busied 
with these legends. The Ionian Archilochus (circ. 670 B.C.) com- 
posed a famous hymn to the victorious Heracles. It was known 
as the KaXKivLKo^y and was a counterpart, at the Olympian games, 
of 'See, the conquering hero comes/ — being sung at the evening 
procession in honour of a victor, if no special ode had been 
written for the occasion. But it was in the choral form, a dis- 
tinctively Dorian creation, that lyric poetry rendered its loftiest 
tributes to the son of Alcmena. Stesichorus of Himera, a city 
in which Dorian and Chalcidic elements were blended, gave the 

1 Welcker, Der epische Cyclus> pp. 212 ff.: Bernhardy, Gk Lit. 1 1, pt 1, p. 252. 

2 Epigr. 6: 

Kp€0)(f>v\ov irbvos elfd, dd/iy trorh Belov "Ofiripov 

defafifroV kXclLu 5' E0/wr<w, Baa 1 £ira0€t> t 
Kal ^av$rjv f I6\eiav 'Ofi^petov d& KaXev/xai 

yfXLfifJLCL' Kp€U)<f>u\({), ZeO <pl\e, tovto fj.£ya. 

3 That the Capture of Oechalia ended with the pyre on Oeta, and the 
apotheosis, is Welcker's view (Cyclus, p. 233). He remarks that the hero of a 
Cyclic poem was often raised to immortal bliss at the end, — as Amphiaraus in 
the Thebais, Achilles in the Aethiopis, Menelaus in the JVbstoi, Odysseus in the 
Te/egonia. The apotheosis of Heracles has already a place in the Theogony of 
Hesiod, w. 950 — 955. 

The war against Oechalia may possibly have been, as Welcker suggests, the 
subject of the 'HpdicXeta ascribed to Cinaethon of Lacedaemon (8th cent. B.C.?) by 
schol. Apoll. Rhod. I. 1357, where it is cited with reference to Trachis; but this 
is pure conjecture. 

4 In Pindar 01, 9. 2 kclWLpikos 6 rpiirXdoj, since the burden was thrice repeated. 
Bergk, Poet. Lyr. 11. p. 418 (4th ed.). 



INTRODUCTION. xix 

spirit of Homeric epos to his choral hymns (circ. 620 B.C.). Into 
this new mould he cast three exploits of Heracles, — the triumphs 
over Geryon, Cycnus, and Cerberus 1 . Pindar's range of allusion Pindar, 
covers almost the whole field of the hero's deeds ; but it is in the 
first Nemean ode that the original significance of the legend is 
best interpreted. When the infant has strangled the snakes sent 
by Hera, the Theban seer Teiresias predicts his destiny; how he 
shall destroy ' many a monstrous shape of violence ' on land and 
sea; subdue the men 'who walk in guile and insolence'; beat 
down the Earth-born foes of the gods ; and then, for recompense 
of his great toils, win everlasting peace in the blest abodes, and, 
united to Heb&, 'dwell gladly in the divine home of Zeus 2 / 

For readers of the Trachiniae this lyric literature has one Deianeira 
point of peculiar interest. It is there that we can first trace the with 
association of Heracles with Deianeira. The Dorian Heracles Heracles - 
had no original connection with the old heroic legends of 
Aetolia. The stamp of those legends, and their relation to 
others, indicate that they come from a pre-Dorian time, when 
Calydon and Pleuron, surrounded by fertile lands and blooming 
vineyards, were the strongholds of a chivalry devoted to war and 
to the chase ; a chivalry from which popular tradition derived 
the images of Deianeira, of her parents Oeneus and Althaea, and 
of her brother Meleager. The story that Heracles had married 
Deianeira expressed the desire of immigrants, who had displaced 
the old Aetolian order, to claim kinship with the Dorian invaders 
of Peloponnesus. 

Pindar, in a lost poem, — of what class, is unknown, — told 
the story somewhat as follows 8 . Heracles, having gone down 
to Hades for Cerberus, there met the departed Meleager, who 
recommended his sister Deianeira as a wife for the hero. On 
returning to the upper world, Heracles went at once to Aetolia, 
where he found that Deianeira was being wooed by the river-god 
Acheloiis. He fought with this formidable rival, — who wore the 
shape of a bull, — and broke off one of his horns. In order to 

1 Bergk, Poet. Lyr. in. p. 207. 

8 Pind. Nem. 1. 60 — 72. 

3 Schol. on Iliad at. 194. The schol. on //. 8. 368 probably has the same 
passage in view when he quotes Pindar as saying that Cerberus had a hundred 
heads. 



XX 



INTRODUCTION. 



Heracles 
in drama. 



Comedy. 



recover it, Acheloiis gave his conqueror the wondrous 'cornu- 
copia ' which he himself had received from Amaltheia, daughter 
of Oceanus. Heracles presented this, by way of ehva or 'bride- 
price/ to Oeneus 1 , and duly received the hand of the king's 
daughter. 

Long before Pindar, Archilochus had related how Heracles 
overcame the tauriform suitor 2 , and won the fair maiden ; how, 
after their marriage, Heracles and Deianeira dwelt with Oeneus 
at Calydon, until they were obliged to leave the country, because 
Heracles had accidentally slain the king's cupbearer ; and how, 
at the river Evenus, the Centaur Nessus offered insult to the 
young wife, and was slain by her husband 8 . It may be added 
that the prose mythographer Pherecydes (arc. 480 B.C.) had told 
the story of Deianeira 4 . His birthplace was the island of Leros, 
near Miletus ; but his home was at Athens, and his work, it can 
hardly be doubted, was known to Sophocles. 

§ 6. Such, then, was the position of the Heracles-myth at 
the time when Attic Tragedy was advancing to maturity. This 
legend had become the common property of Hellas ; and its 
primitive meaning had been, to a great extent, overlaid by alien 
additions or embellishments. Particular episodes had been suc- 
cessfully treated in epic poetry of the Homeric or Hesiodic 
school, and also in lyrics, both Ionian and Dorian. But the 
whole legend had not been embodied in any poem which took 
rank with the foremost creations of the Greek genius. 

As a person of drama, Heracles made his first appearance in 
Comedy. It was the Dorian Epicharmus who, in the first half 
of the fifth century B.C., thus presented the Dorian hero to 
Syracusan audiences. One of the pieces concerned Heracles in 
quest of the Amazon's girdle ; another dealt with his visit to the 
jovial Centaur Pholos 5 . The Dorians of Sicily, though Dorian 

1 Strabo 10, p. 458. 

2 Schol. //. 21. 237. 

8 Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1. 12 12 : Dion Chrys. or. 60. 

4 This appears from schol. Apoll. I. 1213 (frag. 38 of Pherecydes in Miiller, 
Frag. Hist. 1. p. 82) : and might have been inferred from the reference of Pherecydes 
to Hyllus (schol. Track. 354, fr. 34 ap. Miiller). 

5 'HpaicX^s 6 M rbv £<o<rri}pa: 'HpoicX^s 6 irapd. $6Xy; Cp. Bernhardy, Gk Lit. 
II. pt 2, p. 529. 



INTRODUCTION. xxi 

to the backbone in most things, had a strain of humour and 
vivacity which tempered the seriousness of their race ; in this 
instance, it was much as if an Irish dramatist of English descent 
had applied a similar treatment to St George and tl\e dragon. 

That Ionians should feel the grotesque side of Heracles, was 
natural enough. Aristophanes tells us that this hero had 
become a stock-character of Attic comedy, and claims credit for 
having discarded him : — 

'It was he that indignantly swept from the stage the paltry ignoble 

device 
' Of a Heracles needy and seedy and greedy, a vagabond sturdy and 

stout, 
'Now baking his bread, now swindling instead, now beaten and 

battered about 1 .' 

* Several comedies on Heracles are known by their titles, or Satyr- 

by fragments. His powers of eating and drinking seem to have drama - 
furnished a favourite point. He also figured much in satyr- 
drama, — a kind of entertainment which welcomed types of 
inebriety. Sophocles himself wrote a Heracles at Taenarum, — a 
satyr-play on the descent to Hades for Cerberus, — in which the 
Chorus consisted of Helots 2 . His contemporaries, Ion of Chios, 
and Achaeus, wrote each a satyr-play called Otnphati, depicting 
Heracles in servitude to the Lydian task-mistress. In Ion's 
piece, he performed prodigies with a 'triple row of teeth,' 
devouring not merely the flesh prepared for a burnt-offering, but 
the very wood and coals on which it was being roasted 8 . Even 
in the Alcestis, we remember, the inevitable moment arrives 
when this guest, too hospitably entertained, fills the house with 
'discordant howls*.' 

§ 7. Recollecting such traditions of the theatre, we cannot Tragedy. 
wonder if Tragedy was somewhat shy of Heracles. At the best, 
the legend was difficult to manage, — even more difficult for tragic 
drama than for epic narrative. And the difficulty was greatly 

1 Pax 741 ff., translated by Mr B. B. Rogers. 

2 Nauck, Trag. Frag. p. 178 (2nd ed., 1889). 

8 For the 'O/i^aXij of Achaeus, see Nauck op. cit. p. 754 : for that of Ion, p. 735, 
esp. fragments 28, 29, 30. 

4 Eur. Ale. 760 &fM>va' iXaicruv. 

J. S. V. C 

• -^ 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

increased, now that the essential difference between this hero 
and the ordinary persons of tragedy had been brought into relief 
by frequent burlesques. 

Aeschylus, indeed, in the Prometheus Unbound, introduced 
Heracles, who loosed the bonds of Prometheus; and then 
Prometheus described the route by which his deliverer must 
journey from the Caucasus to the Hesperides 1 . It was a harder 
matter to take the legend of Heracles as the basis of a tragedy. 
There are only two such experiments of which we have any clear 
or definite knowledge. One is the Mad Heracles of Euripides. 
The other is the Trachiniae of Sophocles. 
The Mad Euripides has taken his subject from the Boeotian legend, 
of Euripi- Heracles, visited with madness by Hera, slays his children, — in 
des. whose fate the Attic poet involves Megara, probably because, 

with his plot, it was not easy to dispose of her in any other way. 
Now, as we saw, this Theban story was framed to explain why 
Heracles, in early manhood, forsook Thebes for Argolis. The 
murder is discordant with the general tenour of the Heracles 
myth, and the discord is but thinly concealed by the resort to 
Hera's agency. For Euripides, however, this very discord was 
an attraction. It allowed him, by a bold change of detail, to 
put a new complexion on the whole story. That change con- 
sisted in placing the terrible deed of Heracles not before, but 
after, his labours for Eurystheus. 

The plot is briefly as follows. Heracles has long been 
absent from Thebes, toiling for Eurystheus; and it is known 
that he is now engaged in the supreme ordeal, — the quest of 
Cerberus. Meanwhile a certain Lycus from Euboea becomes 
master of Thebes, and slays Creon. Megara, her three sons, 
and the aged Amphitryon, are also doomed by him. They are 
about to die, when Heracles suddenly returns from the nether 
world, and kills Lycus. He then holds a sacrifice, to purify the 
house. While engaged in it, he is stricken with madness. He 
slays Megara and his children. On recovering his senses, he 
resolves to commit suicide. But Theseus appears, — the king of 
Athens whom Heracles has just delivered from Hades. Theseus 
combats his resolve, offering him an honourable refuge in 

1 Strabo 4, p. 183. 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

Attica. Heracles at last accepts the offer, and departs with his 
friend. 

This, then, is the goal of the great career; this is the result 
of the strength given by a divine sire, and spent in benefiting 
men. The evil goddess of Heracles triumphs utterly; at the 
very moment when his labours are finished, and when, as the 
old faith taught, his reward was near, he is plunged into an 
abyss of misery. He passes from our sight, to hide the re- 
mainder of his days in the seclusion of a land not his own. 
Yet, even in this extremity, he has given a proof of strength ; 
he has had the courage to live. He has taught us that, though 
the mightiest human efforts may end in outward failure, yet no 
man, if he be true to himself, need suffer moral defeat. Zeus 
has been faithless to his human son, and Hera's infra-human 
malevolence has prevailed; but one consolation for humanity 
remains. 

Such is the new reading of the Heracles myth which 
Euripides has propounded ; with admirable power and subtlety, 
though scarcely with complete artistic success. His interpre- 
tation, though full of a deep suggestiveness, is, in fact, too 
modern for the fable on which it is embroidered. 

8 8. There is no external evidence for the date of the Mad^te Tra~ 
Heracles; but internal evidence tends to show that the play Sophocles, 
probably belongs to the years 421 — 416 B.C. 1 The date of the 
Trachiniae is also unattested. But some traits of the work 
itself appear to warrant us in placing it among the later pro- 
ductions of the poet 2 ; if rough limits are to be assigned, we 
might name the years 420 and 410 B.C. It has been held that 
the bold example of Euripides, in making Heracles the subject 
of a tragedy, induced Sophocles to do likewise 8 . As to this view, 
we can only say that it is quite possible, but that there is 
absolutely no proof of it. On the other hand, one thing is 
certain: the Trachiniae exhibits a conception and a treatment 
fundamentally different from those adopted in the Mad Heracles. 

Two principal elements enter into the mythic material used 

1 Wilamowitz, Eur. Her. vol. I. pp. 340 ff. 

2 See below, §§ 21, 12. 

8 Wilamowitz, op. cit. p. 383. 

C2 



XXIV 



INTROD UCTION. 



The two 

mythic 

elements. 



Later 
digests 
of the 
Heracles 
legends. 



Freedom 
of the fifth 
century 
poets. 



by Sophocles. The first is the Aetolian legend of Deianeira, 
whom Heracles rescues from Acheloiis, and in whose defence he 
slays the Centaur Nessus. This part of the subject had been 
treated by Archilochus and Pindar. The second element is 
the Thessalian legend which set forth the love of Heracles for 
Iol£, — his murder of Iphitus, leading to his servitude under 
Omphalfe, — his capture of Oechalia, — and his death upon Mount 
Oeta. Here the epic Capture of Oechalia was presumably the 
chief source. Pherecydes and Panyasis were also available. 
Hesiodic poems, such as the Marriage- feast of Ceyx y may have 
supplied some touches. Ion of Chios, too, had written a drama 
called Eurytidae 1 , but its scope is unknown. Nor can we say 
whether Sophocles was the first poet who brought the Aetolian 
and the Thessalian legend into this connection. 

The Argive and Boeotian legends are left in the background 
of the Trachiniat ; they appear only in a few slight allusions. 
But, if we are to read the play intelligently, the drift of these 
allusions must be understood. We must endeavour to see how 
Sophocles imagined those events of his hero's life which precede 
the moment at which the play begins. 

Later mythographers, such as Apollodorus and Diodorus, 
sought to bring a fixed chronology into the chaos of legends 
concerning Heracles. They framed a history, which falls into 
six main chapters, thus: — (i) The Theban legends of the hero's 
birth and growth. (2) The Argive legends of the twelve labours. 

(3) The legends concerning Eurytus, Iol&, Iphitus, and Omphate. 

(4) Campaigns against Troy, Cos, Peloponnesian foes of Argos, 
and the Giants. (5) The Aetolian legends: Deianeira, Acheloiis, 
Nessus. (6) The legends of South Thessaly: Ceyx of Trachis, 
Aegimius, etc.; the capture of Oechalia; and the pyre on Oeta. 

But, in the fifth century B.C., poets were as yet untrammelled 
by any such artificial canon. They could use the largest free- 
dom in combining local legends of Heracles, so long as they 
were careful to preserve the leading features of the myth. We 
have seen that Euripides, when in his Mad Heracles he placed 
the madness after the labours, was making an innovation which 
deranged the whole perspective of Theban and Argive legend ; 



1 Nauck, Trag. Frag. p. 734. 



INTRODUCTION. xxv 

so much so, that the Alexandrian mythographers, deferential to 
the Attic dramatists in much, never followed Euripides in that. 

Sophocles has made no change of similar importance. Yet Sequence 
his way of arranging the fable differs in one material respect ^^Tra- 
from that of the later compilers. They, as we have seen, place chiniae. 
the marriage of Heracles with Deianeira very late in his career — 
after his labours for Eurystheus, and after most of his other 
deeds also. Sophocles puts the marriage much earlier, — so early, 
that Deianeira speaks as if it had preceded most, or all, of the 
hero's labours. Sophocles could do this, because he felt himself 
free to ignore the Theban legend of the hero's marriage to Megara. 
And he certainly was not alone in thus differing from the later 
mythographers. Pausanias mentions a tradition at Phlius, ac- 
cording to which Heracles had already won his Aetolian bride 
when he went for the golden apples 1 . And Pherecydes repre- 
sented Heracles as having at first asked Iol&'s hand, not for 
himself, but for Hyllus — his son by Deianeira 2 . 

§ 9. The outline of the whole story, as Sophocles conceived The ante- 
it, can now be traced with clearness sufficient, at least, to explain {^^5^ 
the hints scattered through the play. 

1. Heracles is born at Thebes (v. 116), and comes thence (v. 509), 
in early manhood, to Pleuron, where he wins Deianeira. We are not 
told whither he was taking his bride, when they met Nessus (v. 562). 
Since Megara is ignored, there is nothing to exclude the supposition 
that he was returning to his home at Thebes. 

2. Constrained by Hera's wrath, he performs the labours for 
Eurystheus (v. 1048). The home of his family is now at Tiryns. 

3. He visits Eurytus at Oechalia in Euboea (v. 262); who dis- 
countenances his passion for Iolfe (v. 359) 8 . 

4. He goes on various campaigns, including that against the 
Giants (1058 ff.). 

5. He slays Iphitus (the son of Eurytus), who was then his guest 

1 Paus. 2. 13. 8. 

2 Schol. Track, 354. 

3 The oblique fiaLoiro in v. 268 leaves an ambiguity. If the word used by 
Eurytus to Heracles was ippalov, the labours for Eurystheus were over. But if it 
was /taleij they were still in progress. The second supposition gives more force to the 
passage. 



xxvi INTRODUCTION. 

at Tiryns. The lapse of some considerable time since his visit to 
Eurytus is implied by the word avOis (v. 270). 

Heracles, with Deianeira, his children, and his mother Alcmena, is 
now forced to leave Tiryns. They are given a new home at Trachis by 
its king, Ceyx (v. 38). 

6. As a punishment for the treacherous murder of Iphitus, Zeus 
dooms Heracles to serve Omphalfe, in Lydia, for a year (v. 274). 
Heracles goes forth from Trachis, leaving his family there (v. 155). 
They do not know his destination. During his absence, some of his 
children return with Alcmena to Tiryns; others are sent to his old 
home at Thebes (1151 fF.). 

7. The year with Omphalfe being over, he sacks Oechalia (v. 259). 
We are now prepared to follow the plot of the drama itself. 

Analysis § io. The scene is laid before the house at Trachis. 

of the play. Deianeira is alone with a female slave, an old and attached 

logueT domestic, who has been the nurse of her children. Communing 

J — 93- with her own thoughts, rather than directly addressing her 

attendant, the wife of Heracles recals the sorrows which have 

been her portion from youth upwards, — culminating now in a 

terrible anxiety concerning her absent lord. It is fifteen months 

since he left home ; but no tidings have come from him. And 

she feels almost sure that something is amiss, when she thinks 

of a certain tablet which he left with her . . . 

Here the aged Nurse ventures to interpose. Deianeira has 
several sons ; why should not one of them, — Hyllus, for example, 
the eldest, — go in search of his father ? 

Just then Hyllus himself is seen approaching, and in haste ; 
for he has news to tell. Heracles is, or soon will be, in Euboea, 
warring against Oechalia, the city of Eurytus. During the past 
year he has been in servitude to Omphate, a Lydian woman. 

Deianeira then tells her son the purport of the tablet to 
which she had previously alluded. It contains an oracle, which 
shows that this war in Euboea must decide the fate of Heracles ; 
he will die ; or he will thenceforth live in peace. 

Hyllus at once resolves to join his father in Euboea, and 
d eparts for that purpose. 

The Chorus now enters : it consists of fifteen Trachinian 



INTRODUCTION. xxvii 

maidens, full of kindly sympathy for the Aetolian princess Parodos: 
whom a strange destiny has brought to dwell among them. 94— H * 
Invoking the Sun-god, they implore him to reveal where 
Heracles now is. Deianeira, they hear, is pining inconsolably. 
Fate vexes, while it also glorifies, her husband ; but he is not 
suffered to perish. Let her keep a good courage : sorrow comes 
to all mortals, but joy also, in its turn ; and Zeus is not unmind- 
ful of his children. 

Deianeira sadly replies that the young maidens cannot II. First 
measure such trouble as hers ; may they ever be strangers to it ! i^i-Jo^ 
But they shall know her latest and worst anxiety. When 
Heracles left home, he told her that, if he did not return at the 
end of fifteen months, she must account him dead. He even 
explained how his property was to be divided in that event. 
But, if he survived the fifteenth month, then he would have a 
peaceful life. Such was the teaching of an oracle which he had 
written down at Dodona. And the fulfilment of that oracle is 
now due . . . 

A Messenger is seen coming; the wreath on his head be- 
tokens glad tidings. Heracles lives, is victorious, and will soon 
come home. Lichas, the herald, has already arrived; but the 
excited Trachinians, thronging around him, have retarded his 
progress towards the house. 

With an utterance of thanksgiving to Zeus, Deianeira calls 
upon the maidens of the Chorus and the maidens of her own 
household to raise a song of joy. 

The Chorus respond with a short ode, in the nature of a 205—224 
paean. 

Before it ceases, Lichas is in sight ; a train of captive Euboean 
women follows him. 

In reply to the eager questions of his mistress, Lichas says 
that Heracles is now at Cape Cenaeum in Euboea, engaged in 
dedicating a sanctuary to Zeus. These maidens are captives, 
taken when Oechalia was destroyed : Heracles chose them out 
' for himself and for the gods/ 

And then Lichas tells how Heracles has been employed 
during the past fifteen months ; how, for a year, he was the 
slave of Omphale; and how, when freed, he avenged that 



xxviii INTRODUCTION. 

disgrace upon its ultimate author, Eurytus. Heracles himself, 
the herald adds, will soon arrive. 

Deianeira rejoices, though a shadow flits across her joy as 
she looks at the ill-fated captives : may Zeus never so visit her 
children ! 

Among these captives, there is one who strangely interests 
her ; the girl's mien is at once so sorrowful and so noble. She 
questions her; but the stranger remains silent. 'Who is she, 
Lichas ? ' But the herald does not know, — indeed, has not cared 
to ask. Deianeira then directs him to conduct the captives 
into the house. 

She herself is about to follow him, when the Messenger, who 
had first announced the herald's approach, begs to speak with 
her alone. 

He tells her that Lichas has deceived her. The mysterious 
maiden is no other than Iol&, the daughter of Eurytus. A 
passion for Iol& was the true motive of Heracles in destroying 
Oechalia. Eurytus had refused to give him the maiden. Lichas 
himself had avowed this to the Trachinians. 

Lichas now re-enters, to ask for Deianeira's commands, as he 
is about to rejoin his master in Euboea. Confronted with the 
Messenger, and pathetically adjured by Deianeira, he confesses 
the truth. Heracles has an absorbing passion for Iol&; and, 
indeed, he gave no command of secrecy. But Lichas had feared 
to pain his mistress : let her pardon him ; and let her bear with 
Iote. 

Deianeira requests Lichas to accompany her into the house. 
He is to take a message from her to Heracles, and a gift. 
First In the ode which follows, the Chorus celebrates the resistless 

st Q^?^o P ower °f L° ve > — the power which now threatens Deianeira's 
peace, and which, in long-past days, brought Heracles to con- 
tend for her with Achelous. The short but vivid picture of that 
combat has a singular pathos at this moment of the drama. 
III. Deianeira reappears. She has had time now to feel what it 

eTsode- w *^ ^ e to ^ ve unc * er ^ e same ro °f with the young and beautiful 

531— 6 3*- girl to whom her husband has transferred his love ; but she 

harbours no angry or cruel thoughts. Her sole wish is to regain 

the heart of Heracles. And a resource has occurred to her. 



INTRODUCTION. xxix 

Long ago, when Heracles was taking her from Aetolia, they 
came to the river Evenus, where the ferryman, the Centaur 
Nessus, carried her across. He insulted her, and Heracles shot 
him with an arrow. As he lay dying, he told her that, if she 
wished to possess a love-charm by which she could always 
control the love of Heracles, she had only to collect some of the 
blood from his wound. She had done so, and had preserved her 
treasure, according to the Centaur's direction, in a place secluded 
from the warmth of sun or fire. She had now applied this love- 
charm to the inner surface of a festal robe, which she will send 
as her gift to Heracles. She brings with her a casket, in which 
she has placed the robe. 

Lichas appears, ready to depart, and receives the casket, 
sealed with Deianeira's signet. She had vowed, she tells him, 
to send her lord this robe, whenever she should hear of his 
safety, in order that he might wear it on the day when he made 
a thank-offering to the gods. Therefore Heracles must not put 
it on, or produce it, before that day. 

The herald promises fidelity, and departs. 

In a joyous strain, the Chorus express their bright hope. Second 
The dwellers on the coasts and hills of Malis will soon welcome 633—662. 
the long-absent hero ; and he will come home full of rekindled 
love for his true wife. 

But Deianeira now returns to them in an altered mood. A IV ; Thin 

eDisode « 

strange thing has happened. In applying the love-charm to the 663—820. 
robe, she had used a tuft of wool, which she had then thrown 
down in the courtyard of the house. After a short exposure to 
the sun's heat, this tuft of wool had shrivelled away, leaving only 
a powder. And she remembers that the arrow which slew Nessus 
was tinged with a venom deadly to all living things. She fears 
the worst. But she is resolved that, if any harm befalls Heracles, 
she will not survive him. 

The Trachinian maidens are speaking faint words of comfort, 
when Hyllus arrives from Euboea. 

He denounces his mother as a murderess. He describes how 
Heracles, wearing her gift, stood forth before the altar ; how, as 
the flames rose from the sacrifice, the robe clung to him, as if 
glued, and spasms began to rend his frame ; how, in the frenzy 



xxx INTRODUCTION, 

of those awful agonies, he slew Lichas ; and how, at last, he was 
laid in a boat, and conveyed to the shore of Malis. He will 
soon be at the house, — alive, or dead. 

The son ends with terrible imprecations on his mother. She 
goes into the house without a word. 
Third 'Behold/ cry the Chorus, 'how the word of Zeus has been 

821—862. fulfilled; for the dead do indeed rest from labour.' The ma- 
lignant guile of Nessus has found an unconscious instrument in 
Deianeira. And the goddess Aphrodite has been the silent 
handmaid of fate. 

V. Fourth A sound of wailing is heard within : the aged Nurse enters. 
863—946. Deianeira has slain herself with a sword ; bitterly mourned, now, 

by her son Hyllus, who has learned, too late, that she was 

innocent. 
Fourth The Trachinian maidens, afflicted by this new calamity, are 

0^^97*0. also terrified by the thought that they must soon behold the 

tortured son of Zeus. Footsteps are heard ; men, not of Trachis, 

are seen approaching, the mute bearers of a litter : is Heracles 

dead, or sleeping ? 

VI. Ex- As the mournful procession enters, Hyllus, walking beside 

odos * 

9 7I _1 the litter, is giving vent to his grief, while an old man, one of 
I2 78- the Euboeans, is vainly endeavouring to restrain him, lest his 
voice should break the sick man's slumber. 

Heracles awakes. At first he knows not where he is ; then 
his torments revive, and he beseeches the bystanders to kill him; 
he craves that mercy from his son ; he appeals for it to Zeus and 
to Hades. And then, in a moment of respite, his thoughts go 
back on his past life, — so full of suffering, yet a stranger to 
such anguish as this ; so full of victories, and yet doomed to 
end in this defeat at the unarmed hand of a false woman. 

A pause permits Hyllus to announce his mother's death, and 
to assert her innocence. In using the supposed love-charm, she 
was obeying the dead Nessus. 

Those words send a flash of terrible light into the mind of 
Heracles. The oracle at Dodona had foretold the time of his 
' release.' A still earlier oracle had foretold the manner of his 
death ; namely, that he was to be slain by the dead. The time 
and the agency coincide. This, then, was the promised * release.' 



INTRODUCTION. xxxi 

The oracles are fulfilled. He sets himself to prepare for death, 
— now seen to be inevitable and imminent. 

He commands that he shall be carried to the summit of 
Mount Oeta, sacred to Zeus, and there burned alive. Hyllus is 
constrained to promise obedience, — making, however, the con- 
dition that he himself shall not put hand to the pyre 1 . A second 
behest is then laid upon him. He shall marry Iol&. In this also 
he is forced to yield, — calling on the gods to witness that he 
submits to a dying father's inexorable will. 

All has now been made ready. Heracles summons the forces 
of that ' stubborn soul ' which must upbear him through the last 
of his ordeals. In the words which close the play, Hyllus gives 
utterance to the deepest and bitterest of the feelings inspired 
by his father's cruel fate. Heracles dies forsaken by Zeus. For 
here, as in the Iliad, there is no presage of his reception among 
the gods. 

The bearers lift their burden, and set forth for Oeta ; while 
the maidens of the Chorus pass from the house of mourning to 
their own homes in Trachis. 

§ 1 1. In the first and larger part of the play, Deianeira is the The cha- 
central figure, as Heracles is in the second part. The heroine of ^^ s *•"" 
the Trachiniae has been recognised by general consent as one of 
the most delicately beautiful creations in literature; and many 
who feel this charm will feel also that it can no more be 
described than the perfume of a flower. Perhaps in the poetry 
of the ancient world there is only one other woman who affects 
a modern mind in the same kind of way, — the maiden Nausicaa. 
We do not know how Deianeira may have been drawn by 
Archilochus or Pindar; but at least there are indications that 
the Deianeira of the old Aetolian legend was a being of a wholly 
different type from the Sophoclean. After her story had become 
interwoven with that of Heracles, her name, Arj'Cdveipa, was ex- 
plained to mean, ' the destroyer of a husband' But, in the pre- 
Dorian days when Aetolian legend first knew her, and when 
she had as yet nothing to do with Heracles, deianeira* meant 
'the slayer of men' ; it denoted an Amazonian character, — just 

1 The office of kindling the pyre was performed by Philoctetes ; see on Ph. 802 f. 



xxxii INTRODUCTION. 

as the Amazons themselves are called avriaveipai. A true- 
bred princess of Aetolia, the land of warriors and hunters, this 
daughter of Oeneus ' drove chariots, and gave heed to the things 
of war 1 '; her pursuits were like those which employed 'the armed 
and iron maidenhood* of Atalanta. 

How great a contrast to the Deianeira whom Sophocles 
has made immortal ! She, indeed, is a perfect type of gentle 
womanhood; her whole life has been in her home; a winning 
influence is felt by all who approach her ; even Lichas, whose 
undivided zeal is for his master, shrinks from giving her 
pain. But there is no want of spirit or stamina in her nature. 
Indeed, a high and noble courage is the very spring of her 
gentleness ; her generosity, her tender sympathy with in- 
experience and misfortune, are closely allied to that proud 
and delicate reserve which forbids her — after she has learned 
the truth about Iol& — to send any messages for her husband 
save those which assure him that her duties have been faithfully 
fulfilled, and that all is well with his household. From youth 
upwards she has Endured constant anxieties, relieved only by 
gleams of happiness, — the rare and brief visits of Heracles to his 
home. She is devoted to him : but this appears less in any 
direct expression than in the habitual bent of her thoughts, and 
in a few words, devoid of conscious emphasis, which fall from 
her as if by accident. Thus the precepts of Nessus had dwelt 
in her memory, she says, 'as if graven on bronze.' And why? 
Because they concerned a possible safeguard of her chief treasure. 
Staying at home, amidst her lonely cares, she has heard of many 
a rival in those distant places to which Heracles has wandered. 
But she has not allowed such knowledge to become a root of 
bitterness. She has fixed her thoughts on what is great and 
noble in her husband ; on his loyalty to a hard task, his fortitude 
under a cruel destiny : of his inconstancies she has striven to 
think as of 'distempers/ which love, and the discipline of 
sorrow, have taught her to condone. 

But at last the trial comes in a sharper form. After pro- 
tracted suspense, she is enraptured by tidings of her husband's 

1 As Apollodorus says of her, 1 . 8 § 1 : aM) 81 fyidxei kclI rh Kard. irdXefiov 



INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

safety ; and almost at the same moment she learns that his new 
mistress is henceforth to share her home. Even then her sweet 
magnanimity does not fail. Strong in the lessons of the past, 
she believes that she can apply them even here. She feels no 
anger against Iol&, no wish to hurt her; nay, Iol& is rather 
worthy of compassion, since she has been the innocent cause of 
ruin to her father's house. 

In these first moments of discovery, the very acuteness of 
the pain produces a certain exaltation in Deianeira's mind. 
But, when she has had more time to think, she feels the difference 
between this ordeal and everything which she has hitherto 
suffered. She is as far as ever from feeling anger or rancour. 
But will it be possible to live under the same roof, while, with 
the slow months and years, her rival's youth grows to the perfect 
flower, and her own life passes into autumn ? Thinking of all 
this, she asks — not, ' Could / bear it ? ' — but, ' What woman 
could bear it ? ' 

She, whose patient self-control has sustained her so long, 
has come to a pass where it is a necessity of woman's nature to 
find some remedy. Neither Iol& nor Heracles shall be harmed ; 
but she must try to reconquer her husband's love. Having 
decided to use the 'love-charm,' she executes the resolve with 
feverish haste. The philtre is a last hope — nothing more. With 
visible trepidation, she imparts her plan to the Chorus. The 
robe has just been sent off, when an accident reveals the nature 
of the 'love-charm.' 'Might she not have surmised this sooner,' 
— it may be asked, — ' seeing from whom the gift came ? ' But 
her simple faith in the Centaur's precepts was thoroughly natural 
and characteristic. Her thoughts had never dwelt on him or his 
motive ; they were absorbed in Heracles. Now that her hope 
has been changed into terror, she tells the maidens, that, if 
Heracles dies, she will die with him. In the scene which follows, 
she speaks only once after Hyllus has announced the calamity, 
and then it is to ask where he had found his father. 

Her silence at the end of her son's narrative, — when, with his 
curse sounding in her ears, she turns away to enter the house, — 
is remarkable in one particular among the master-strokes of 
tragic effect. A reader feels it so powerfully that the best acting 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION. 

could scarcely make it more impressive to a spectator. The 
reason of this is worth noticing, as a point of the dramatist's art. 
When Hyllus ends his speech, we feel an eager wish that he 
could at once be made aware of his mother's innocence. The 
Chorus gives expression to our wish: — 'Why dost thou depart in 
silence?' they say to Deianeira: 'Knowest thou not that thy 
silence pleads for thine accuser?' And yet that silence is not 
broken. 

There is one famous passage in Deianeira's part which has 
provoked some difference of opinion ; and as it has a bearing on 
the interpretation of her character, a few words must be said 
about it here. It is the passage in which she adjures Lichas to 
disclose the whole truth regarding Iol&. He need not be afraid, 
she says, of any vindictiveness on her part, towards Iol& or 
towards Heracles. She knows the inconstancy of the heart, 
and the irresistible power of Erds ; has she not borne with 
much like this before 1 ? According to some critics, she is here 
practising dissimulation, in order to draw a confession from 
Lichas ; her real feeling is shown for the first time when, a little 
later, she tells the Chorus that the prospect before her is in- 
tolerable (v. 545). This theory used to derive some apparent 
support from an error in the ordinary texts. The lines, or some 
of them, in which the Messenger upbraids Lichas with his deceit, 
were wrongly given to Deianeira, — as they are in the Aldine 
edition. Hence La Harpe could describe the whole scene 
thus : — 

'Deianeira, irritated, reproaches Lichas with his perfidy; she knows 
all, and will have him confess it; we hear the cry of jealousy; she 
becomes enraged; she threatens. Then she pretends to calm herself by 
degrees; 'she had resented only the attempt to deceive her; for, in 
fact, she is accustomed to pardon her husband's infidelities. , In the 
end, she manages so well that Lichas no longer feels bound to conceal 
a fact which after all, — as he says, — his master himself does not 
conceal 2 .' 

It is now generally recognised that Deianeira says nothing 

1 Vv. 436—469. 

2 Quoted, with approval, by M. Patin, Etudes sur Us tragiques grecs, vol. 11. 
p. 72. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

between verse 400 and verse 436: the angry altercation is 
between Lichas and the Messenger. It would still be possible, 
however, to hold that, in her speech to Lichas, she is artfully 
disguising her jealousy. But surely there is a deeper truth 
to nature in those noble lines if we suppose that she means 
what she says to Lichas just as thoroughly as she means what 
she afterwards says to the Chorus. Only, when she is speaking 
to Lichas, she has not yet had time to realise all that the new 
trial means; she overrates, in all sincerity, her own power of 
suffering. If, on the other hand, her appeal to him was a 
stratagem, then true dramatic art would have given some hint, 
though ever so slight, of a moral falsetto : whereas, in fact, she 
says nothing that is not true; for she does pity Iol&; she has 
borne much from Heracles ; she does not mean to harm either of 
them. This is not the only instance in which Sophocles has 
shown us a courageous soul, first at high pressure, and then 
suffering a reaction ; it is so with Antigone also, little as she 
otherwise resembles Deianeira 1 . 

§ 12. The Heracles of the Trachiniae may be considered in Heracles, 
two distinct aspects, — relatively to that conception of the hero 
which he represents, and relatively to the place which he holds 
in the action of the play. 

In the first of these two aspects, the most significant point is 
the absence of any allusion to the hero's apotheosis. He is the 
son of Zeus ; but the ' rest from labour ' which Zeus promised 
him is, in this play, death, and death alone. Here, then, we have 
the Homeric conception of Heracles. And this is in perfect 
harmony with the general tone of the Trachiniae. The spirit 
in which the legend of Heracles is treated in this play is 
essentially the epic spirit. 

But if the very soul of the old Dorian tradition — the idea 
of immortality crowning mortal toil — is wanting, at least some 
archaic and distinctive traits of the Dorian hero have been 
preserved. One of these has perhaps not been noticed ; it 
illustrates the poet's tact. In the legends of south Thessaly, 
Heracles had come to be much associated with Apollo. Yet in 

1 See Introduction to the Antigone^ p. xxx. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION. 

the Trachiniae there is but one mention of Apollo, — where the 
Chorus briefly invokes him (v. 209). Throughout the play, 
Zeus is the god of Heracles, the ruler of his destiny, the sole 
recipient of his offerings. Nor is Delphi ever named ; Heracles 
receives oracles either directly from Zeus, or from the inter- 
preters of Zeus at Dodona. This is thoroughly true to the spirit 
of the myth ; and it is probable that the Dorian conception of 
Heracles was, in fact, older than the Dorian cult of Apollo 1 . 
The archaic conception of the hero's mission is also preserved 
in its leading features ; he is the purger of land and sea, the 
common benefactor of Hellenes, who goes uncomplainingly 
whithersoever his fate leads him. Conscious of his origin, he 
fears no foe, and is stronger than everything except his own 
passions. He has a Dorian scorn for lengthy or subtle speech 
(1121). It is bitter to him that sheer pain should force him 
to cry aloud: and he charges Hyllus that no lament shall be 
made by those who stand around his pyre. All this is in the 
strain of the old legend. One small touch recalls, for a moment, 
the Heracles of the satyr-plays (v. 268, rjviic ffv rivcofievos). On 
the other hand, the Omphal& incident, one of their favourite 
topics, is touched with delicate skill : Sophocles alludes only to 
the tasks done for her by the hero, as a punishment imposed 
by Zeus ; there is no hint of sensuous debasement ; and it is 
seen that the thrall was stung by his disgrace, even though that 
feeling was not the mainspring of his war upon Oechalia. 

The Heracles of the Trachiniae is thus not merely a hero of 
tragedy, who might equally well have been called, let us say, 
Ajax. He has a stamp of his own ; he can be recognised as the 
hero of the Dorians. 

When, however, he is considered under the second of the 
two aspects indicated above, — that is, relatively to his place 
in the action of the play, — there is more room for criticism. 
During the first two-thirds of the piece, our interest is centred 

1 Apollo is the chief god of the Dorians in the historical age ; and O. Miiller 
(Dor., bk n.) regards him as having been so before they left their earliest seats 
in northern Greece. On the other hand Wilamowitz (Eur. Her. 1. p. 265) holds, with 
greater probability, that the adoption of the old Hellenic Apollo by the Dorians 
dated only from the time when, moving southward, they became masters of Delphi. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii 

in Deianeira. The sympathy which she wins is complete ; she 
passes from the scene, broken-hearted, innocent, silent; and 
presently we hear the news of her death. Meanwhile, we have 
been rather prepossessed against Heracles ; he is a great 
hero; but his conduct to this brave, devoted, gentle wife has 
been what, in another than the son of Zeus, might be called 
brutal ; and let no one too hastily assume that such a feeling 
is peculiar to the modern mind ; it would probably have been 
shared, at least in a very large measure, by the poet's Athenian 
audience. 

So, when, in the last third of the play, this hero at length 
appears, unstrung and shattered by physical torment, — helpless 
in the meshes of fate, — when we listen to his pathetic laments, 
and to that magnificent recital of his past achievements which 
ends with the prayer that he may live to rend his false wife in 
pieces; — then we feel, indeed, all that is pitiable and terrible 
in this spectacle : but are there not many readers who, if they 
carried the analysis of their own feelings any further, would 
have to avow that the contemplation of his suffering and the 
thought of his past greatness leave them comparatively cold ? 
Presently he learns that Deianeira was innocent, and that she is 
dead ; but he utters no word in revocation of his judgment upon 
her, — no word of affection for her memory: he merely averts 
all his thoughts from her, and concentrates them on the pre- 
paration for death. It is not enough to plead that any soften- 
ing would be out of keeping with the situation or with the man ; 
we do not require him to be teno6$ but to be human. From a 
dramatic point of view, the fault is that he misses his chance of 
removing a great impediment to sympathy. 

The Deianeira of the Trachiniae is dramatically effective 
in the very highest degree, — in a manner almost unique; the 
Heracles of the Trachiniae, though grandly conceived, falls short 
of being perfectly effective ; and he does so, because he has to 
follow Deianeira. In a piece of which the catastrophe was to 
turn on the poisoned robe, and which was to end with the death 
of Heracles, that hero himself ought to have been the principal 
object of interest throughout. The artistic unity of the tragedy 
demanded this. But the Heracles of Dorian legend, even when 

J. S. V. d 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION. 

treated as mortal, is still no typical human being ; he is at once 
above and below the noblest type of man. If, therefore, Heracles 
was truly to dominate the scene, it was requisite that the pathos 
of this unique being should not have to compete with the deepest 
pathos of humanity. For, in such a competition, the purely 
human interest, if fully developed by a great master, could not 
but prove the stronger, as being, in its essence, more tragic. 
And therefore there was only one way to secure a paramount 
effectiveness for the Heracles of the Trachiniae. It was to place 
Deianeira more in the background ; to make her also a less 
noble figure ; to qualify her graces of character with some less 
attractive features ; and, on the other hand, to bring out, in the 
amplest and most powerful manner, everything that is sublime 
and pathetic in the great hero's destiny. 

In pointing out what seems to me the one serious defect 
of the Trachiniae, a remark should be added. It is easy to 
believe that, on the stage, the Heracles part would be far 
more effective than it is for readers. 'As a representation 
of the extremity of a hero's suffering, this scene stands pre- 
eminent among all tragedies. Let Salvini act the hero, and 
its power would instantly be recognised.' That was the opinion 
of an accomplished judge in such matters, the late Mr Fleeming 
Jenkin 1 ; and I, for one, certainly should not dispute it. The 
intrinsic merits of the Heracles part are great ; and a Salvini, 
or even an actor who was not quite a Salvini, could, no doubt, 
make the spectacle most impressive. But, even if he could 
make it absorbing — so that we should think only of what 
was passing before our eyes, and not at all of what had gone 
before in the play, the episode of Deianeira — that might be 
merely an instance of theatrical effect prevailing over the 
dramatic conscience. It would not necessarily prove that the 
tragedy*, viewed as a work of art, — and therefore viewed as a 
whole, — was not really liable to the criticism suggested above. 
However effective the Heracles scene might be on the stage, I 
cannot help suspecting that an attentive spectator, in full sym- 
pathy with the spirit of the best Greek work, would be apt to 

1 Papers Literary, Scientific, etc., by the late Fleeming Jenkin, F.R.S., LL.D., 
p. 23. (Longmans, 1887.) 



INTRODUCTION, xxxix 

feel, at the end, that he had seen two tragedies ; one, which 
closed with the death of Deianeira, and was of consummate 
excellence ; then a second and shorter one, most pathetic, most 
powerful in its own way, but produced at a moral disadvantage. 
Yet, if this be indeed so, there is one consolation. A gain to 
the effect of the Heracles would have been dearly bought by 
any detriment to the unsurpassable beauty of the Deianeira. 

§ 13. Among the secondary parts, that of Hyllus has an im- Hyilus. 
portance which might easily be undervalued. It is he who most 
vividly expresses the twofold aspect of Deianeira's action in 
sending the robe; the aspect which it wears for one who has 
seen only its dreadful result, without knowing its motive ; and 
that which it assumes in the light of fuller knowledge. The 
first aspect is brought out when Hyllus describes the agonies 
of Heracles, and invokes a curse upon his mother; the second 
when, having learned her innocence and having stood beside 
her corpse, he has to listen to his father's denunciations of 
her — so like those which he himself was lately uttering — until 
a pause permits him to vindicate her memory. This frank, 
impulsive youth is warmly loyal to both parents ; to the gentle 
and dearly loved mother, whom he mourns too late ; and to the 
father, * the noblest man upon the earth/ whose hard commands 
he obeys to the end, although those commands challenge a 
revolt of filial, even of natural, instincts, — seeming to him, 
indeed, almost like the promptings of Atb. Thus, under that 
dark shadow, pierced by no ray from above, which rests upon 
the close of the drama, this thrice-tried son calls the gods to 
witness that his own will has been overruled. With bitter 
anguish in his heart, he sees his father abandoned, as men must 
deem, by heaven ; he is no longer the buoyant youth of the 
opening scene, but a man who must now take up the burden of 
a great inheritance, that Hyllus whom a grave and warlike race 
were to honour. as the father of their kings, the ancestor of the 
Dorian Heracleidae. 

§ 14. The minor persons are portrayed with care and ani-Theminoi 
mation. Lichas is, before all things, the faithful henchman of P ersons - 
Heracles; but, like every one else, he feels the charm of 

d2 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

Deianeira, and is feebly anxious to spare her feelings. His 
well-meant attempt is somewhat maladroit, since he has already 
been so communicative to her neighbours; but we remark the 
ingenuity of the poet, who has here utilised the varying tradi- 
tions as to the motive of the war against Oechalia. Lichas 
exists only for his master; and there is a tragic fitness in his 
becoming the first victim of his master's fate. It would be a 
mistake to conceive his death as a poetical retribution for his 
duplicity ; since, even if he had told the truth at first, Deianeira 
would still have sent the robe. At worst he is only a rather 
poor creature, who becomes involved in the doom of his betters. 
The Messenger, with his interested zeal, afterwards dignified 
by his sturdy veracity, combines the traits of two similar persons 
in the Oedipus Tyrannus, — the Corinthian messenger, and the 
Theban shepherd who confutes him. The old Nurse, who 
counsels Deianeira in the first scene, and subsequently relates 
her death, interprets the affection which her mistress inspired in 
rhe the household. As for the Trachinian maidens of the Chorus, 

rus ' their part is essentially relative to Deianeira ; to them she con- 
fides her fears, or hopes; their odes reflect her anxieties, her 
transient joy, and her despair. With her death, their function is 
virtually at an end ; after verse 970, they have only two utter- 
ances, both very brief (1044 f. ; 1 1 12 f.). 

Tieinci- § jjr Among the difficulties of detail which the subject 

entofthe 3 J , , b . , , , _ , J , 

obe. presented to a dramatist, not the least was that of the supposed 
' love-charm/ The operation of the hydra's venom, like that of 
the poison in the wound of Philoctetes, is supernatural. Since, 
however, an innocent yet deliberate human agent intervenes 
between Nessus and Heracles, the poet was compelled to treat 
the incident with circumstance, and to invest it with just 
enough probability for the purpose of scenic effect. Sophocles 
has managed this by a simple but skilful device. He merely 
makes an assumption which no spectator would pause to 
examine. 'The hydra's venom was such that exposure to heat 
must call it into activity.' All is then easy. Nessus tells 
Deianeira that his gift, this infallible lovp-charm, must be kept 
in a cool and dark place. She tells us how scrupulously she 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

had observed this rule. She impresses it upon Lichas. The 
spectator knows that the robe is to be worn for the first time on 
an occasion of burnt sacrifice ; and his anxiety is awakened. 

It is interesting to compare this episode with the parallel Compari- 

son with 

one in the Medea, where Glauc&, Jason's new bride, is burnt to t he Medea. 
death by the magic agency of the robe and diadem which 
Medea, the injured wife, had given her. We see at once that 
Euripides had a far easier task than Sophocles. No third 
person, no innocent yet deliberate agent, intervenes between 
Medea and Glaucfc. The gifts come to Glauc& directly from 
the hands of the mighty enchantress; and they had come to 
the enchantress from her grandsire, the Sun-god himself. 

The garment of Heracles, like that of Glauc&, has naturally Supposed 
been claimed for the wardrobe of the solar myth. It is the f^ery. 
glow which enwraps the dawn or the sunset. Then \o\h is ' the 
violet cloud ' who is to marry the rising sun (Hyllus), when his 
precursor (Heracles) has sunk to rest upon a flaming couch. 
The servitude to Omphal& is the apparent descent of the sun 
(Heracles) from the zenith to the horizon. Deianeira is the 
darkness which awaits him in the west. Thus to explain a 
story of varied human pathos, is at least to begin at the wrong 
end : it is to suppose myth-makers so intent on the sunrise and 
the sunset that men and women interested them primarily as 
symbols of those phenomena. Even the more limited theory, 
that Heracles was evolved from some older solar divinity, ill 
agrees with the central point of the fable, — promotion, painfully 
won, from earth to heaven. Later Greeks identified their Heracles, 
in certain aspects, with Melkarth, the sun-god of Tyre : some 
moderns have derived him from Izdubar, the solar hero of ancient 
Babylon \ In both cases the analogy is confined to details : the 
essence of the Greek myth remains distinct. 

§ 1 6. The allusions in the Trachiniae to oracles concerning The 
Heracles have sometimes been censured as obscure. But they oracles * 
are not really so. Only two oracles are mentioned, (i) One was 
given to Heracles at Dodona, twelve years before the date at 
which the play begins, and said that, at the end of twelve years, 

1 This view is sensibly rejected by E. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterthums (Stuttgart, 
1884), p. 185. 



xlii 



INTRODUCTION. 



Dramatic 
structure. 



Unity of 
time neg- 
lected. 



he should have ' rest/ The term of twelve years is mentioned in 
verses 824 f. (where see the note). (2) The other oracle, noticed 
only in vv. 11598"., was given to Heracles by Zeus himself, at 
some still earlier moment; but when, and where, we are not 
told. It concerned the manner of his death ; saying that he 
was to be slain by a dead foe. These oracles have sometimes 
been regarded as if they formed the only bond which holds the 
plot together ; and it has accordingly been objected to the plot 
that its unity is of a merely mechanical nature 1 . The objection 
is ill-founded. The oracles have, indeed, a dramatic value, but 
it is of a different and a subordinate kind. At the outset of the 
play, the oracle concerning the twelve-years' term serves as a 
motive for anxiety ; it announces that some crisis is imminent. 
Towards the close, the two oracles combined show Heracles that 
his hour has come. 

§ 17. But the unity of the plot is independent of the ora- 
cles. It is effected by the love of Heracles for Iol&, which causes 
him to destroy Oechalia, and also causes Deianeira to send the 
robe; thus bringing the two episodes into a strict connection. 
Professor Campbell is, in my opinion, quite right when he says 
that 'in point of dramatic structure the Trachiniae will bear 
comparison with the greatest of Sophoclean tragedies/ For, 
even if, as I hold, the inferiority in dramatic interest of Heracles 
to Deianeira is such as to constitute a serious defect, this is not 
a defect of structure. It does not concern the manner in which 
the plot has been put together. It concerns something ante- 
cedent to the plot ; namely, the conception of Heracles adopted 
by the poet, as compared with his conception of Deianeira. 
Given those two conceptions, the most perfect dramatic struc- 
ture could not save the interest in Heracles from being over- 
powered by the interest in Deianeira. 

There is, however, one point in which the texture of the plot 
is fairly open to criticism, though it is not a point of importance. 
The * unity of time ' has been disregarded with exceptional bold- 
ness. Hyllus goes to Euboea, witnesses the sacrifice there, and 
returns to Trachis, in a space of time measured by less than 

1 Wilamowitz, Eur. Her. I. p. 384 : * das drama nur kiimmerlich durch orakel- 
spriiche zu einer ausserlichen einheit zusammengehalten wird.' 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

700 lines (vv. 93 — 734). Nay, Lichas, who leaves Trachis at 
verse 632, had reached Euboea before the sacrifice began. Many 
other examples show the habitual laxity of Greek dramatists, 
and the tolerance of Greek audiences, in this particular. But 
in the Trachiniae the license has a special excuse. Amid 
the excitement, the alternations of hope and fear, which per- 
vade this play, the action hastens forward in a manner which 
leaves us no leisure to remark the feats of travelling per- 
formed by Hyllus and by Lichas. This is the case even with 
readers ; much more would it be so with spectators. And here 
we may observe the subtlety of the poet, who has introduced 
two direct allusions to the passage of time. Lichas, about to 
start for Euboea, remarks that he has already stayed too long 
(v. 599) ; and the Chorus prays that the ship which is bringing 
Heracles 'may not tarry' (v. 655). This is like the art of a 
diplomatist who diverts suspicion by apparent frankness. 

§ 18. After the two dramas of the Attic masters, Heracles Seneca's 
appears only once in the extant literature of ancient Tragedy. Oetaeus. 
Seneca founded his Hercules Furens on the play of Euripides, and 
his Hercules Oetaeus on the play of Sophocles. It would be pro- 
fitless to institute a detailed comparison between the Trachiniae 
and a work which Seneca, in the fashion of his day, composed 
rather as a rhetorical exercise than as a piece for the stage. 
Those who read it, with the Greek model present to their minds, 
can only wonder how the Roman's brilliant gifts of expression, 
— which shine in epigram and, at moments, reach a true eleva- 
tion of sentiment, — could co-exist with such abject tastelessness, 
such extravagance of bombast, such insensibility to proportion. 
Yet, in one respect, a comparison is very interesting. If the 
Phaedra of the Hippolyttts has fared ill at Seneca's hands, 
far worse is the transformation which he has effected in the 
Deianeira of the Trachiniae. The following lines describe The 
Deianeira's behaviour when Iol& first arrives at Trachis : — if 1 ." 1 . 

Deianeira. 
Ut fulsit Iole, qualis innubis dies 

Purumve claris noctibus sidus micat, 

Stetit furenti similis ac torvum intuens 

Herculea coniux 1 , — 

1 Here. Oet. 238 ff. 



xliv INTRODUCTION. 

like ' an Armenian tigress/ the poet adds, or ' a Maenad shaking 
the thyrsus.' Then Deianeira prays Juno to torment Heracles 
with all imaginable plagues 1 ; and finally avows her own readi- 
ness to kill him 9 . Certainly Seneca has protected our sympathy 
with the hero from competition ; but the hero himself, bragging 
and whining by turns, fails to profit by that advantage. The 
Hercules Oetaeus became the model of Rotrou, in his tragedy 
entitled Hercule Mourant* ; and also influenced, in a greater or 
less degree, several other French dramas on the same theme 4 . 
It was inevitable that the Latin writer, rather than Sophocles, 
should be imitated by a French dramatist of the seventeenth 
century. Apart from this, however, the Deianeira of Seneca, 
considered as a general type, would be more truly congenial 
to the French stage. It was difficult for the Latin races to 
imagine a woman, supplanted in her husband's love, who did 
not wish to kill somebody, — her rival, or her husband, or both. 
Ovid's Deianeira is by no means so bad as Seneca's ; but she, 
too, has the impulse to destroy Iolfe 5 . The Deianeira of the 
Trachiniae, with anguish in her soul, — intent on regaining her 
lord's heart, but not angry, not malevolent towards him or 
towards Iol&, — this Deianeira is a creation of the Hellenic spirit, 
refined by the sweetness, the purity, the restrained strength 
of Athens at her best ; if any one would see the spiritual 
kinswomen of this Deianeira, he must look for them on the 
grave-reliefs of the Cerameicus. 

he fable § 1 9. The wide range of subjects or motives which the 

t Art. Heracles legends gave to Greek art of every period includes, of 
course, several episodes mentioned in the Trachiniae ; — the com- 
bat of Heracles with Acheloiis ; the death of Nessus ; Heracles 
with the Eurytidae ; the death of Iphitus ; the servitude to Om- 



1 Here . Oet. 255 ff. 2 lb. 436. 

3 Published in 1632. Rotrou gave Heracles a successful rival in the affections of 
Iole, a certain Areas. The dying hero forbade Iole to marry Areas; but, after his 
apotheosis, he showed his magnanimity by descending from Olympus on purpose to 
revoke the veto. 

4 M. Patin, £tudes stir les trag. grecs, vol. 1 1, p. 89. 

5 Ovid Met. 9. 151. 



INTRODUCTION: xlv 

phal&\ But, in relation to the legends of Heracles, Attic Tragedy, 
represented by the Mad Heracles and the Trachiniae, had no 
direct influence upon art, such as can be traced, for instance, in 
regard to Philoctetes. For the story of Heracles, artists drew 
upon other, generally older, sources of poetry or tradition. 
When, indeed, in Hellenistic and Roman times a degenerate 
Heracles became the type of a strong man easily enthralled by 
pleasure, a companion of the Bacchic thiasos or of the Er6tes*, 
then the art which desired to portray him often went for 
material to the theatre ; but such material was furnished by the 
Heracles of Comedy or of satyr-drama. It is not surprising, 
then, that the illustrations of the Trachiniae which Greek art 
affords are only of a general kind. For example, each of the 
three successive forms assumed by the Acheloiis of the Tra- 
chiniae, when he was a suitor for Deianeira, can be separately 
identified in works of art 8 . But, though the fight of Heracles 
with Acheloiis was a subject often treated by artists, no extant 
representation of that combat corresponds precisely with the 
scene as described by Sophocles \ 

§ 20. We have now considered the nature of the legendary Diction, 
material used in the Trachiniae ; the character of the treatment 

1 See Roscher's Lexicon der gr. und rom. Mythologies where, under *Herakles,' 
the illustrations of the fable in art are fully treated by A. Furtwangler. He recog- 
nises Iphitus on a vase in the Louvre (no. 972), where Heracles is hurling a man 
from a k\Lvt), apparently during a meal (p. 2233). Cp. Od. 31. 28: Heracles, in 
slaying Iphitus, otidi OeQv 6iriv id^aar\ o&6i rpdire^av \ t4)v 5$ ol TraptOi)K€v, 
Sophocles follows the version according to which Iphitus was hurled from a high 
wall or tower (7r. 273). — There is no certain example of Omphale in art before 
the Hellenistic period (id. p. 2234 : cp. p. 2247). 

 See Furtwangler, ap. Roscher, p. 2248. 

8 See commentary on v. 11. 

4 The nearest approach to an illustration of the poet's text is given by an archaic 
gem, now in the British Museum, first published (roughly) in King's Ancient Gems, 
II. pi. 34, fig. 3. Mr A. S. Murray has kindly given me an impression of it. Yet 
even this diverges from Sophocles in three particulars. (1) On the gem, Acheloiis 
is the man-headed bull, — a frequent type, but not one of those specified by the poet. 
(2) Deianeira stands lamenting, close to the combatants; whereas the poet describes 
her as sitting by a hill at some distance from the fray. (3) There is no trace of 
Aphrodite, whom Sophocles mentions as present with the combatants in the quality 
of umpire. 



xl vi INTR OD UCTION. 

applied to it by the poet; and the principal features of the tragedy 
viewed as a work of dramatic art An introduction to this play 
must also, however, take account of its style in a more limited 
sense, — the style of its poetical diction, the complexion of the 
language. For the details of this subject, reference must neces- 
sarily be made to the commentary on the text. But a few 
general observations may properly be offered here. 
Successive it is a well-attested tradition, and one which can still be 

Dn£Lses in 

the style of partially verified, that the style of Sophocles, like that of many 
Sophocles. ther great poets, was developed through successive phases, 
belonging to successive periods of his life. He himself, accord- 
ing to Plutarch 1 , distinguished three such phases. In the earliest, 
he had imitated the majesty, the pomp, — 07*09, — of Aeschylus. 
Next came the style which, in Plutarch's notice, is described by 
the words, to iriKpov teal Kwrcureyyov rfj? avrov Karaa/cevfj?. This 
was a style marked by subtle elaboration, and, as a result of it, 
by to TTi/cpov, ' pungency/ 'incisiveness'; a style in which terse 
and polished force of expression drove home the ' sting ' of word 
or phrase ; — as Eupolis, — to borrow an illustration from a differ- 
ent, yet cognate, province, — said that the incisive and highly 
wrought oratory of Pericles left its ' sting ' in the minds of those 
who heard him : to icevrpov iy/careXLTre tois d/cpooofievot,*;. Such 
a style, with its affinities to an elevated and refined rhetoric, 
can be a source of great brilliancy and power in poetry; but its 
essential quality is not that which constitutes the highest ex- 
cellence of drama : its defect, for the purposes of drama, is that 
it is too suggestive of conscious effort in the artist ; its tendency 
is to image his mind somewhat too strongly in the persons whom 
he wishes to make live upon the scene. Hence we readily com- 
prehend the words in which Sophocles (according to Plutarch) 
defined the third, the final, phase of his style ; — to tt/s Xe^eco? 
el&o? oirep iarlv rfducdrarov teal fieXrio-Tov: 'the kind of diction 

1 Mor. p. 79 B. (IIws fa tis atadoiTO iavrov vponbirTOVTos iir' &pery t c. 7.) wrirep 
7&/> 6 2o<pOK\i)s §keye top Alax^ov &<nreir<uxcijs 6yK0v, etra to viKpov /ecu icard- 
T€%vov rifi avrov jcararaev???, rplrop ijdri to ttjs Xl£ea>s pLerapaKKetv eftos Sirep tori* 

TJOlKWTCLTOV Kdi {HXtMTTOV, OVTCJS OL <pl\o(T(XpOVfT€S, 6TCLV 4k tG)V TTaVTjyVplK^V Kdi 

KaTaTtyyw *& tw airrS/iepov rj&ovs icai trddovs \6yov KCLTapQatv, apxovrai ity tiKridrj 
irpoKVirty kcU Arvipov irpoKOirreiv. 



INTRODUCTION. xlvii 

which is most expressive of character, and best'; that is, fittest 
to make each person of the drama seem a real human being ; 
and best, therefore, for the purposes of a dramatist. 

The first of these three phases, the Aeschylean, is not trace- 
able in the extant work of Sophocles. Nor can it be said that 
any one of the seven tragedies represents the second style in 
a form which sharply distinguishes it from the third ; that is, 
in a form from which the characteristic quality of the third 
style is absent. But, if the Philoctetes, one of the very latest 
plays (409 B.C.), be taken as a standard of comparison, there, at 
least, is seen the perfection of the third style, the style which is 
'expressive of character'; while there is less of visible and 
masterful art in language, less of to irticpov teal tcaTare-xyov, than 
appears, for example, in the Antigone. 

§21. Nowhere is the poet's ethical portraiture more delicately Distinctive 
vivid than in the heroine of the Trachiniae ; and a sympathetic^^ 
reader will feel that the language given to her might well be Tracki- 
called rjOucwrarr) \egis. It is exquisitely moulded to the ex- 
pression of her nature. Take, again, the scene where the 
Messenger, in Deianeira's presence, taxes Lichas with deceit 
(vv. 393 — 435). The shades of language most skilfully charac- 
terise the three persons, — the gentle but resolute lady; the 
herald, nervously deferential to her, but angrily assertive of his 
dignity against his humble cross-examiner, the Messenger ; and 
lastly the Messenger himself, with his traits of blunt or familiar 
speech 1 . In this aspect, then, the Trachiniae shows, like the 
Philoctetes, the full excellence of the third style, — that which 
is TJOiKooTarov, ' most expressive of character.' 

But the Trachiniae combines this ethical charm of style 
with a highly elaborate manner in a certain class of passages. 
Every Greek tragedy contains at least one set speech, prjo-ts, of 
the type usually spoken by a messenger who relates a cata- 
strophe. In such speeches, which were really short excursions 
of drama into the region of epos, the dramatist was convention- 

1 One of these traits is notable, — the xolav 56k7)<tw; (427). This use of irotbs, 
a common colloquialism, occurs in only one other passage of Tragedy, and that is 
in a late play of Euripides (Helen. 566; 412 B.C.). 



xlviii INTRODUCTION. 

ally free to use any measure of rhetorical elaboration, however 
unsuitable it might be to the person of the speaker ; some of 
the most elaborate pijo-ets are delivered by servants. Now, it is 
a peculiarity of the Trackiniae that, beside two speeches which 
are normal examples of this class, — the speech of Hyllus (w. 
749 — 812), and that of the Nurse (vv. 899 — 946), — it contains 
a remarkable number of other passages which are closely akin 
to that class. Such are the following short narratives ; — Lichas 
recounts the recent deeds of his master (248 — 290) ; Deianeira 
relates her meeting with Nessus (531 — 587); and describes the 
occurrence which rouses her fears concerning the Move- charm ' 
(672 — 722) : such, also, is the great speech of Heracles (1046 — 
mi). Altogether, about one fourth of the play consists of 
passages which invited or demanded this high elaboration of 
style, usually reserved for very exceptional moments. It is no 
accident that the element of narrative in the Trackiniae is so 
abnormally large ; the cause lies in the nature of the fable 
itself, and is independent of the circumstance that an epic poem, 
the Capture of Oechalia, was probably one of the chief sources. 
In narrative or description Sophocles exhibits, as a rule, two 
characteristics ; he is remarkably terse ; and he has a bold but 
artistic originality of phrase, often in a manner which resembles 
that of Vergil. If the passages just cited from the Trackiniae 
are compared with their only proper analogues, the set prjaeis 
of the poet's other plays, it will be felt that, with allowance for 
differences of degree, the essential quality of style is the same ; 
the greater frequency of it is the distinction of the Trackiniae. 
This play, like the Pkiloctetes, is mainly an example of that 
Sophoclean manner which tradition calls the third or ripest, — the 
manner ' best fitted to express character.' But, owing to special 
causes, it also gives striking prominence to the dominant trait of 
the poet's l second' manner, elaborate and incisive force of 
phrase, — to iri/cpdv teal Karare'xyov. This is a peculiar com- 
bination of elements ; and it tends to make a reader feel that 
the style of the Trackiniae is somehow, as a whole, unlike the 
style found in any one of the other six plays. From that 
feeling, it has been an easy, but hasty, step to the inference 
that the manner of this play is unworthy of the master ; that it 



INTRODUCTION. xlix 

shows the immaturity of youth, or the feebleness of age; or 
even that it is altogether foreign to him, and must have pro- 
ceeded from some inferior hand 1 . 

§ 22. The extent to which the Trachiniae shows the influ- Supposed 
ence of Euripides has sometimes been exaggerated. Stress has Euripides, 
been laid especially on the form of the prologue; Deianeira 
opens the play with a speech of some length, in which she 
incidentally relates certain previous events. But here we must 
distinguish. The prologue of the Trachiniae is Euripidean only 
in so far as it is partly historical ; it is utterly unlike the typical 
prologues of Euripides in being dramatic. For, in the first 
place, Deianeira's speech is no soliloquy, — though it is true that 
she is rather communing with her own thoughts than directly 
addressing the Nurse ; it gives the cue for the Nurse's suggestion 
that Hyllus should be sent to seek his father, and thus serves to 
set the drama in motion. Secondly, it is dramatic as illustrating 
the mind of Deianeira herself, — that mind which is to govern 
the subsequent action 2 . Even with regard to this prologue, the 
inner contrast between the two poets is more significant than 
the resemblance. Nor can it be said that the general style of 
the play shows any pervading influence of the supposed kind. 
There are a few coincidences of phrase between verses of the 
Trachiniae and verses of Euripides 8 ; but they are trivial ; and, 

1 See above, § i, notes i, 2, 3. 

2 Schlegel's criticism (§ 1, n. 3) was the inspiration of a short 'programm' 
published at Cleve (Prussia) in 1830 by C. A. M. Axt, Commentatio critica qua 
Trackiniarum Sophocleae prologum subdititium esse deftianstratur. Axt uses the term 
'prologue,' not in the Greek sense (i.e. to denote vv. 1 — 93), but only with reference 
to Deianeira's speech, w. i — 48. He holds that the play ought to begin at v. 49, 
with the speech of the rpo<p6s. 

8 (1) Tr. 542 (Deianeira speaks,) roi&d* "RpaKXrjs \ oUotipt? ivriirefiyf/e rod pxucpov 
Xpbvov: cp. Eur. H. F. 1373 (Megara speaks,) ^o.xpb.% diavrXova 9 iv 66ftots ohcovplas. 
(2) Tr. 1096 diipva t' Ajwctov IvTro^dfiova arparbv \ drjpwv, it(3pi<rHiv, avofxov: cp. 
Eur. If. F. 181 T€TpaaK€\4s 0' (J/Spta/xo, Kcvratipuv yivos. (3) Tr. 1101 6Xhuv re 
nbxOtov /Jivpldjv iyevad/JLTiP : cp. Eur. H. F. 1353 ical y&p irbvwv 8)1 fivpLwv iyevad/JLTjv. 
[Wilamowitz, vol. 11. p. 278, assumes that Soph, has borrowed this use of yevo/xai 
from Eur.: but Soph, had already said in Ant. 1005, ifiirtptav iyevbfnjv.] (4) Tr. 
1 112 u) rXiffiov 'EXXds k.t.X.: cp. Eur. H. F. 877 fiiXcos 'BXXds, a rbv cvepytrav | 
airo(3a\€is. 

In Tr. 764 icdofup re x a ^9 (av Ka ^ <rro\jj may, I think, be a reminiscence of Eur. 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

even if it were certain that in all of them Sophocles was the 
debtor, they would merely illustrate a fact which is unquestioned. 
He was well acquainted with the works of Euripides, and ad- 
mired them ; in his later years, they influenced him in details of 
language and of versification. But the style of Sophocles, so far 
as extant work shows, always preserved a thoroughly distinctive 
character. Certainly the Trachiniae is no exception to that 
rule; and not merely the style, but the whole mind which 
appears there, attests the authorship. 

Med. 1 1 65 (in a similar episode), SApois inrepxalpovaa. And Tr. 416, \£y\ et n 
XPVfris' Kal yap oif 0-1717X65 el, is an echo of Eur. Suppl. 567 (421 B.C.), XeV, e? ti 
/SotfXet' Kal yap oi> ffiyrjKbs el. 



Manuscripts, Editions, etc. 



§ i. Twelve of the mss., other than L, to which reference is made MSS. 
in the critical notes, have been described in former volumes {Oed, Tyr. t 
Introd., pp. liii ff., 2nd ed. : Oed. Col.> p. xlix, 2nd ed. : Phil., p. xlv) : 
viz., the Parisian A, B, K, T : the Florentine Lc, L 8 , R : the Venetian 
V, V 8 , V 3 : the Roman Vat. : and the London HarL The last-named 
was collated by Porson with the text of the Trachiniae in the ed. of 
Sophocles by Thomas Johnson (an. 1708) ; the collation is given in 
Porson's Adversaria, p. 177. There remains only a Venetian ms., cod. 
617 in the Library of St Mark, cited at verse 23, from the collation of 
Vladimir Subkoff in his edition of the Trachiniae (Moscow, 1879), for 
OaKiZv. It is described by him as ' chartaceus, saec. xiv et xv ' ; and he 
designates it by the letter E. Besides E, Subkoff used eleven other 
mss., viz. L, and ten of the twelve named above, the two exceptions 
being V and V 3 . Our L 8 is designated by him as M : Lc, as N : V 2 , as 
V : Vat., as v. : HarL, as h. As a contribution to an intricate and 
obscure subject, it is interesting to notice the view as to the relationships 
of his twelve mss. to which he was led as the result of work on this play. 
He would distinguish three families : (1) L 2 and K are transcripts of L. 

(2) R and HarL are closely akin to A, the basis of the Aldine text. 

(3) Lc, B, V 8 , E, Vat., and T (representing the Triclinian recension) 
form a third family, of which the common characteristic is a larger 
element of Byzantine correction : while, within this family, a closer 
kinship unites (a) Lc and B, (b) V 8 , E, and Vat. He recognises the 
marked superiority of L to all the other mss., but finds no proof that it 
is their common parent. (See Oed. Tyr. y p. liv, 2nd ed.) 

§ 2. With regard to the readings of L, and its peculiarities as a ms., 
some points of interest will be found in the critical notes on w. 329, 



Ill 



MANUSCRIPTS, 



368, 403, 463, 468, 767, 1091, 1 176, 1265. The first corrector (S) has 
in four instances supplied a verse which the scribe had accidentally 
omitted (177, added in the text, being the last line of p. 66 b, — a case 
like Ph. 1263: 445, 536, 705, added in the margin). In 1040, how- 
ever, the words <S 816V avflafyuov, omitted from the text, have been added 
in the margin by the scribe himself. There is one passage, w. 383 — 
433> where scribe and corrector alike have left part of the dialogue in 
disorder, through omitting or confusing the indications of persons. Thus 
at 383 L omits XO. : XO. (instead of AI\) is prefixed to 390 : AI\ 
(instead of AI.) to 397 and 399 : while in 402 — 433 the persons are 
either not marked, or marked wrongly. The result can be traced in 
modern literary criticism : see above, p. xxxiv. 

Scholia. § 3. The scholia in L on vv. 119, 120 preserve the true reading 

dvafjLirXdKrjTov, corrupted in the mss. to afj/n-XdKrjrov. There are two 
other places where the scholiast gives at least the hint by which a lost 
reading can be restored. In v. 399 his 8apyi/<nyuu indicates that in v. 
398 the vc/Acis of the mss. ought to be vc^cis. And in 602 the schol.'s 
notice, yp. av<f>fj avrl tov Xctttov^, helped Wunder's correction of €vv<j>ij 
into ravavijyfj. 



Interpola- 
tion. 



§ 4. In w. 83 — 85 there is a clear case of interpolation : — 

[^ TTiirroixtv orov irarpos €$o\(aX6ros] 
K€ivov piov cwcavTos, rj ol\6fi€(r$* d/xa. 

Another probable instance (as I think with Hartung) occurs in w. 
362 ff. : — 

€7Tt(7TpaTCV€t TTaTptSa \rijv TaVTT/S, €V $ 
TOV EvpVTOI/ TOvS* €hr€ ScOTTO&lI' $p6vii)V 9 

kt€lv€l t avaKTa waT€pa] rfjafc #cai irokiv 

€7T€p<r€. 

(See commentary.) Besides these verses, many others — not fewer than 
about 120 in all — have been suspected or rejected by various commen- 
tators ; often, apparently, on the general ground that anything is 
suspicious which is not indispensable. Thus Nauck, in condemning 
four verses (932 — 935) — verses full of pathos and beauty, and free from 
any real offence against Greek poetical idiom — writes : — * Diese entbehr- 
lichen und in sprachlicher Hinsicht vielfach Anstoss erregenden Verse 
werden von V. Jernstedt wohl mit Recht als interpolirt bezel^ne^ Let 
the reader examine the passage for himself, and judge. It is to be 



EDITIONS, ETC. liii 

regretted when a habit of mind such as might be fostered by the 
habitual composition of telegrams is applied to the textual criticism of 
poetry— or, indeed, of prose. Yet it is right that students should have 
notice as to what verses of the play have been suspected or condemned 
by scholars of mark. I cannot vouch for the completeness of the 
following ' black list,' but I believe that it is nearly complete : — 

17 Bergk. 24 f. Schenkl (after Dobree). 25 Hartung and Nauck. 43 Dindorf. 
44 — 48 Wunder. 80 f. Nauck would reduce these two vv. to one. 88 f. Dindorf. 
150 — 15a Dindorf. (Wecklein suspects only v. 150.) 166 — 168 Dindorf. 169 f. 
Bergk. 170 Wunder and Dindorf. 252 f. Wunder. 264 f. (iroMA, d...xcpoiv fih) 
Bergk and Jernstedt. 280 Deventer and Zippmann. 295 Dindorf and Nauck (after 
Wunder). 301 f. Hense and Nauck. 305 G. H. Miiller. 321 Nauck (with rl* 
ft for ivel in 320). 322 f. Nauck would reduce these two vv. to one. 336 Hense 
and Nauck (omitting t after wp in 337). 356 f. Wunder and Blaydes. 362 f. 
Wunder and Blaydes. 394 Herwerden and Hense. 444 Wunder and Nauck. 488 f. 
Dindorf. 526 — 530 Wunder and Bergk. 584 — 587 Dindorf. 585 Wunder and 
Nauck. 596 f. Dindorf. 601 Nauck and Wecklein. 602 f. Paley. 628 Nauck 
and Wecklein. 680 f. (K£vTavpos...y\ujxM) Nauck. 684 Wunder and Wecklein. 
690 Wunder. 696 Wunder. (Dobree and Wecklein suspect the v.) 712 f. Nauck. 
732 Hense. 735 Nauck and Wecklein. 743 Hense (proposing yfoax for t6 yh.p 
in 742). 746 f. (/9apetai'...Tarpfa) Deventer and Hense. 781 f. Meineke. 791 f. 
Nauck would reduce these two vv. to one. 798 Schenkl. 801 f. Bergk. 875 ff. 
Bergk (without defining the limit: p. lix of his ed.). 893 — 895 Wunder. 907 — 911 
Wecklein. (L. Dindorf had suspected v. 911.) 924 f. (y x/ >wn ^ aT0S --« TC /> 0, 'k) 
Herwerden. 932 — 935 Jernstedt and Nauck. 943 — 946 Meineke. 998 f. (t68\.. 
KaTadepxOijpcu) Wunder. 1060 Nauck and Wecklein. 1 107 f. Nauck would reduce 
these two vv. to one. 1114 f. Bergk would omit one of these two vv. 11 44 Hense. 
1 156 Nauck (with te <rw. for 8' foot in 11 55). 1165 Nauck (after Dobree). 11 73 
Axt and Nauck. 1195 — 1198 Wunder. 1267 L. Dindorf. 1270 — 1274 Hense. 
1275 — 1278 Hartung and F. Ritter. 



§ 5. Hermann (1st ed. p. xiv) propounded a theory that the Thetheor> 

of two re 
censions. 



rtf f urn r* 

Trachiniae once existed in two different recensions. He thus sought to 



explain the fact that in one or two places the text found in our mss. of 
Sophocles differs from that of ancient citations: see i2f., and 787 f., 
with the notes there. In some other passages he saw traces of the two 
recensions having become mixed : thus verse 84, y irwrro/xcv <rov warpos 
e£oA,a>AoTo?, belonged to one recension, and verse 85, kcivov fiLov <ra>- 
<roKros, i) olxofieaO* a/xa, to the other. Similarly verses 293, 294 were a 
substitute for v. 295 ; w. 523 — 525, for vv. 526 — 528 ; etc A similar 
view is expressed by Bergk, in the 'Adnotatio Critica , to his ed. of 
Sophocles, pp. lvii ff. Thus he thinks that vv. 801, 802 and 1144, 1145 
belong to the second recension; while in vv. 11 14, 11 15, and especially 
in part of the dialogue between the Chorus and the Nurse (875 ff.), he 

J. S. V. e 



liv 



MANUSCRIPTS, EDITIONS, ETC. 



discovers a blending of the two editions. (' Aperte duplicis recensionis 
reliquiae temere confusae sunt in nostris libris,' p. iix, on 875.) 

Schneidewin has argued against this theory {Abhandlung uber die 
Track, d. Soph., in the Transactions of the Gottingen Gesellsch. d. Wiss., 
vol. vi., 1854). It rests, in fact, on no solid foundation. With regard 
to the discrepancies between the mss. and the ancient citations, the only 
noteworthy cases are the two above-mentioned, in w. 12 f., and 787 f. ; 
in the former, Strabo's reading, kvtci | /?owrp<ppos, is doubtless right; but 
the Tump I ftovKpavos of the mss., whether due to actors or to tran- 
scribers, does not help to prove a distinct recension ; while in 787 f., 
where our mss. must be right (except, probably, in omitting r ), Diogenes 
Laertius has presumably misquoted by a mere slip of memory. As to 
the supposed duplications of sense in the passages where a mixing of 
two texts has been assumed, a study of the context in each case will 
best show the baselessness of the assumption. 



Emenda- 
ions. 



§ 6. The text of the Trachiniae contains its full share of problems ; 
though, as a whole, it is, in my opinion, less corrupt than has often been 
supposed. In two instances I have admitted emendations of my. own 
to the text, viz. at v. 554 and v. 1019, because the probabilities seemed 
sufficiently strong to justify that course. It would have been justifiable, 
perhaps, to do likewise at v. 869; but there, as at v. 526 and v. 911, I 
have preferred to submit my conjectures in the commentary only. The 
suggestion made at v. 678 is of a more tentative kind. 



Editions, 
etc. 



§ 7. As to the complete editions of Sophocles which have been con- 
sulted, see Oed. Tyr. p. lxi, 2nd ed. It may be mentioned that the new 
issue of Wunder's edition, revised by Wecklein, has. lately been com- 
pleted by the appearance of the Trachiniae (vol. 11., sect, iii, Leipsic, 
1890). Besides the volume by F. A. Paley, containing Ph., E/„ Tr. y 
Ai. (London, 1880), I have consulted also the following separate 
editions of this play. Sophoclis Trachiniae. Recognovit et adversariis 
enarravit Ioannes Apitzius. (Halle, 1833.) — Sophoclis Trachiniae, with 
Notes and Introduction by Alfred Pretor, M.A. (Cambridge, 1877.) 
— Sophoclis Trachiniae. Codicibus denuo collatis recensuit varietate 
lectionis instruxit indicibus adornavit Vladimir Subkoff. (Moscow, 
1879.) 



METRICAL ANALYSIS. 



In addition to anapaests, the lyric metres used in the Traehiniac 
are the following, (i) Logaoedic, based on the choree (or ' trochee '), 

— w, and the cyclic dactyl, which is metrically equivalent to the choree, 
-^ w. (2) Choreic, based on the choree. (3) Dactylic. (4) Doch- 
miac, v^ j — v I — A. (5) Verses based on the bacchius, — ^. 
For a more detailed account of these metres, readers may be referred 
to the previous volumes of this edition (O. C. p. lviii: Ant p. lvi: Ph. 
p. xlviii). 

In the subjoined metrical schemes, the sign ' — denotes that the 
ordinary time- value of a long syllable, commonly marked — , is in- 
creased by one half, so that it becomes equal to — ^ or w ^ : the sign 
LJ denotes that such time-value is doubled, and becomes equal to 

— or -w^. The sign d means that an 'irrational* long syllable 
(crvAAaj&J aXoyos) is substituted for a short. The letter a>, written over 
two short syllables, indicates that they have the time-value of one short 
only. 

At the end of a verse, A marks a pause equal to w, a" a pause 
equal to — . The anacrusis of a verse (the part preliminary to the 
regular metre) is marked off by three dots placed vertically, \ 

The end of a rhythmical unit, or 'sentence/ is marked by ||. The 
end of a rhythmical ' period ' (a combination of two or more such sen- 
tences, corresponding with each other) is marked by J. 

If a rhythmical sentence introduces a rhythmical period without 
belonging to it, it is called a irpow&fe, or prelude (marked as irp.) : or, 
if it closes it, an «ra>8os, epode, or postlude. Similarly a period may be 
grouped round an isolated rhythmical sentence, which is then called the 
/ie<ra>$ds, mesode, or interlude. 

e 2 



lvi 



METRICAL ANALYSIS. 



I. Parodos, vv. 94 — 140. 

First Strophe. — Dactylic, in the 'Doric' form, which varies 
purely dactylic sentences, — ^w — w — , with the livelier measure, 
•— w I — . (Schmidt, Rhythmic and Metric, p. 41 \) 



v/ \J 



\J <s 



I. I. ov • atoA I a I w( tvap | t£o/xev | a A || 
vod • ovfxeu \ a \ yap <ppevi "| irwdavo/x \ at X 



v/ — 



— V 



v — \s \s — 



2. TtKT 

rav 



ct #caT I ewa{ | ei re <f>\oy | i£o/jl€v | ov A II 
ayu^t I veucrj \ Srjtav \ etpav a | et X 



— \s\s — \s\s 



3. aXtov I aXtov | atra> 
ota tiv J aOXtov \ opvw 



\s — — 



\J \J 



- v/ w — 



4. tovto I Kapv£ I at tov | akKfirjv || as ?ro0i | /xot iro0t | irats A || 
oviror I ewaf | etv a | daxpirr \\ <av p\e<pap \ iov icodov | aXX X 



vat 

61/ 



v — 



\s V 



v^ v — 



€t 1TOT 

/JLVaOTOV 



a) XafXTrp I a OTtpoir I a <f>\eycO | wv A ] 
avbpos I fet/Mi rpe0 | owa? o5 | ou X" 



II. I- 17 : irovrt | as avA. | a>vas | 17 Store || ato-tv | air tip | ots #cA,t0 | cts A 
ev • 0vfu J 01 j evv | ats a? | avipwr \\ oiai \ rpvxcaO | at ica* | a* X~ 



2. ctTr : a) icpar | torcv | <ov #car | o/x/ta ]| 
dva \ tovov J e\xt$* | ovaav \ ataav 



I. 




II. 



[These diagrams show the structure of 
each period. The numerals denote the 
number of feet in each rhythmical unit, or 
sentence. The dots mark the beginning 
and end of each verse. Curves on the 
right show how single sentences corre- 
spond with each other. Curves on the left 
show the correspondence between groups 
of sentences.] 



1 These verses are also called 'dactylo-epitritic' That name denotes a dactylic 
measure with - ~ | — (the itrlrpiTos tevrepos) prefixed to it. The first foot is then 
regarded as a true choree, ~~, and not as 1 — ~, the equivalent of a dactyl. — Cp. 
W. Christ, Metrik § 662 ('Der daktylo-epitritische Strophenbau'). 



METRICAL ANALYSIS. lvii 



Second Strophe. — 1. Dactylic tripodies. II. Logaoedic. 



I. I. iroXXa yap | anrr axa/i | avro? || rj votov | 77 Pope | a tis || 
ojv eri J fiefupofiev | a <r* atd || out /icv | ovna $ | ourta 

— x,/ yy — ww — — — ww - w w — 

2. KVfiaT av I cvpet I ttovto) II fiavr «ri | ovra t 18 | 01 A" J 
</KLfu yap I our awo | rpveiv || eXirtda | rav a7a0 | av ~A~ 



II* I. OUT ; 0) 0€ 

X/w?v • at <r ew 



— v/ *" — — W w — w —• w 1 — — — WW — W 

tov I KaSfioytv | 17 arp€<j> || ct ro 8 | av£ | ci /Jior | ov iroX 
0X7 I ijra 70/5 | ov6 o || xaira | /cpao* | wp /9a<rtX | ew er || 



w W W ~"~ ~ WW 



wovcy I axr | ircp ircAay | os A 
6/SaXe |^ar| ots Kpovii | as A 



— WW — w — w 



2. Kprj<TLOv J aAAa | tis 0€ | a>v || cucv av | a/tirXaic | 77TOV | ai8 || a <r(f>€ 80/1 1 
aXX eTt I m^ua | /cat x a P I a II *"<w* KVK ^ I oihw | oiov | a/wcr || ou ffrpwpaS 



— w 



0)V €p I VK | €1 A 3 

es kc\ I eutf I ot A 



I. II. 





Epode. — Choreic, in verses of four feet (Per. I.), or of six (Per. II.). 

w — w *""— ™w — 

I* 1. fi€V l €t yap I our I atoX | a A || 

— w — w — w — w 

2. w£ ftpor I OUTtV I OVTC J KTJptS || 

— w — w — w — 

3. ov re I irAovro? | aXX a<£ | ap A || 

w — w — w — w — 

4. /fc • /?OJC€ J TO) 8 €TT I ep^CT | Ot A || 

> — w — w *~~ — 

5. \aip : civ T€ I icat orcp | co~0 | at A J 



lviii METRICAL ANALYSIS. 



\J — s^ — \J 



II. i. a • koi <r€ | rav av | acrcrav | ekvur \ iv key \ to A || 

2. Ta8 • aicv | ur\ | civ ct | a tis | a>8 | c A || 

3. tckv • 010* I 1 I fava \ fiovXov | cc8 | cv A ] 

L ; IL k 

4/ 6 

4 
i 



II. Hyporcheme, w. 205 — 224. 
Choreic, in verses of six, four, or three feet. 



I. 1. avoXok I v(ar | a> Sofi | 01s c<^> | cart | 019 A || 

v s/ v — > — %• — vy *— ™ — 

2. aAaXay | at? a | /icAAo | wfi<f>os | cv | 8c A || 



— w — 



3. KOLVOS J apow | a>v tr | a> A 



%• — V 



4. icXayy • a tov | cv<f>ap | crp | av A || 



— v-f — vy 



5. a • ttoAA | a> | irpwrrar \ av op. | ov | 8c A 

6. irat • ava | ircuav | avaycr | a> | vrapOtv | 01 A ] 

II. 1. fto \ arc J rav op. | oairop | ov A || 

— •! — • — • — 61 — •! — 

2. aprc/Luv I oprvyt | av cAa<£ | a/faXov \ aptfrnrvp | ov A |[ 

3. ycirov J as tc I wfi<f> | as A || 



METRICAL ANALYSIS. 



lix 



\J — \J — 



4. a • ctpo/A I ov8 air | cixto/a | at A || 

5. ra¥ • avAov | a> n^> | awe | Tas c/x | as <£pcv | 09 A || 

w ^" www ^— — 

6. 18 : ov J /a avarap | a<r<r | ci A J 



cvot /A 



w — ^ — w — 



III. 1. o • ictcrcros | apn \ /tax^i \ av A 



w — w — W 



2. vtt • oarp€if> J o>v a/A J tAA | av A 



w — w — w — 

3. 1 • a> 1 I a> irai J av A || 



w — w — w — 

4. i3 • o> </>i\ I a yvv J at A 



w — w — w 



5. to8 • am | irpqpa \ $rq \ <roi A || 



w — w — w 



6. /JAcir • civ wap | cor cv | apy | 17 A J 



I. 




II. 




III. 




III. First Stasimon, w. 497 — 530. 
Strophe. — Logaoedic. 



0» -W ^ -W \j -W ^ — > — w — 

I. 1. /Acya ; rt <r0cvos | a Kvirpts | c/c^cper | at vac | as a | cc A 
/tev : ip vora/i J ov a$tvos | vxf/ucep | <a rtrp \ aop | ov A 



be METRICAL ANALYSIS. 

2. kcu ra | /acv 0€<ov || 
<paafUL | Tatfpou 



v/ — w — w — 



3. wapc I fiav koll air | cos KpovtS \ av airar | aaev | ov Xcy | » A ] 
a X 6 ^ : V 0J aT I otvtad J a? 6e | /9a*xt | as av \ A 



II. I. ov8c tov I cwi^ov I €UO \ av A 
rj\0c iraX | wrova \ cfy/3 \ as A 

2. 77 7TO(r I ctSa I cova rtv | atcropa \ yai | as A 

ro£a I /cat X07X | af povaK \ ov re rtv \ a<r<r \ wv A 

3. aXX €7rt I rav8 ap a | koit | tv A U 
rats 8to$ | ot tot a | oXX | etf A 

W — ^ w — v/ w — v/ vy — 

III. I. Tivcs • ap.<j>iyv I ot #caT€ I /3av trpo ya/i, | eov A || 
t<rav • cs fieeov \ le/Aev | ot \e\€ \ w A 



— \j — \j — w 



2. Ttv • cs I Trap. I 7rX^Kra | 7ray#cov | tra r \ c( \\ rj\0ov a | €0X ay | eov | eov A ] 
/xov : a 5 1 cu | XeKTpos \ ev fxe<r \ cp KWp \ it \\ papdovop \ ei £vv | ov<r | a A 

I. 6v II. 4> III. 4 

«)' • 

6' 4' 4 

• • • 

Epode. — Logaoedic. 



vy — w 



I. 1. tot • rjv X € P°5 I iyv 8c I to£ | eov iraray | os A 



— > 



2. ravp€L J cop t ava | /uyoa /cep | aTcov || 



— > 



3. rjv 8 j a/A^i I irXcicroi | kKljjjik | cs A || 

4. 17V 8c /act | eoir | eov 0X0 I cvra J 

— v/ w — w v/ I— • • — 

II. 1. wkrjyfiara \ icat orovos | a/x^ | otv A || 



METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxi 



2. a 8 • €v | awris | ofip | a A || 

> L— — w I — — 

3. T17X i avX I yet trap \ o\6 | a> A || 



4. 'jytrro tov I ov | irpoafuv | over a | koit | av A J 



w — vy ^-" — w — w *— — 

III. I. cy • o> Se J par | r;p /acv | ota | </>pa£ | a> A 



— w 



2. to 8 ; a/Lu£i J vet* I rprov | oyutyuta | WfX(f> | a? A ] 



s^ — w 



IV. 1. cX • ctvov \ afifiev | ci A || 



ss — w — w 



2. #ca7ro I fiarpos a<£ | ap /?€ | fiantv 

— yy — w w I— — 

3. OKTT6 I 7TOpTtS €p | 7//1 | a A J 

I. ; II. • III. ; IV. ' 

5 = irp. 4 . 6 . 3 = wp. 

*\ *{ 6J 4x 

4) 4/ • ;) 



4 7 6 = * 



€7T. 



IV. Second Stasimon, vv. 633 — 662. 

First Strophe, forming a single rhythmical period. — Logaoedic. 



> 

I. O) 





vav\o\a | icai irerp | at | a A || 
/ra\Xt/9o I a* rax | v/a | a* A 



2. Ocp/ia I Xovrpa I #cat iray | aus A 

avXot I owe av | a/xrt | av A 

3. otr j as irapa | vaiera | ovtcs | 01 re || ftccrcrav | firj\tSa | irap Xi/av | av A || 
ax : CW /cavax | av era* | euriv | a\Xa || 0eiaf | avrCkvp \ ov fxova | at A 



lxii METRICAL ANALYSIS. 

\j — \J w — > — \J — 

4. xpwr • aAaicar | ov r a/cr | av Kop | as A 

• yap fltot \ aKKfirjv \ at Kop | ot A 

^^ "■* Um ^a^ ^ ok 

5. cv0 ; cAA J av J wvayop | at A || 



ffOVT 



at I TO<r J at aper | as A 



w — W — 



6. ttvA • ari8 I C9 kXc I ovr I at A J 

ta0 : W P «X I «? eir I otic I ow A 



Second Strophe. — Period I. Logaoedic. II. Choreic. 



— > 



I. 1. ov aw 

atfnic 



OUToAtV I €l)(Ofl I €V TTO.VT \ a A || 

otr a<f>uc J otro | fxrj arat | 17 A 



w — w — w 



2. bvo • icatScfca | fjirjvov | apfxcv | ovcrat ]] 
roXv • icanrov ox | VP* I coos | awry 

> 

\J — SJ wvv w ww — w 

II. i. XP° V : ov w€ ^- I a y tov I *8pw I ou$cv II 
it/hv • ravSe | irpoi iro\ \ iv avwr | ete 

2. a 8c I ot <f>i\ I a 8a/A | op A || 
pao* I tarty I cart I av A 

3. toA : atv | av | oWraA | atva | icap$t | av A || 

a i fieixf/ I as | cvda | *c\fl$*er | ou $vt \ rjp A 

v/ 

> — \j — w — w — 



4. iray 
00 



fcAavro? | atcv | a>AAvr | o A 
€» f/LoX | ot Tray | t/tep | of A 



5. vuv 8 ap | 17s otorp | rjO | cts A || 
raj irei$ I ow ircy | XP"™* I V A 

— 3 — ^ www — w — 

6. c£c I Aw cir J wrovov | a/icp | av A 3 
wyicpaO I etf eir |t irpo^a* | et ^ap | out A 



METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxiii 



I. 



*■) 

4' 




5 = cV. 



V. Third Stasimon, w. 821 — 862. 

First Strophe. — In Period L, verses 1 and 2 are logaoedic; v. 3 
is choreic In II., 1 and 2 are choreic, and 3 logaoedic. Period III. 
is wholly choreic 



— w 



I. 1. i3 • ouov I a> iraiS | cs irpocrt | ficifcv cuf> | op A 
et • yap <r<f>€ \ Kcrravp | ov <povi \ a re<p€\ \ a A 



w — W W 



2. TOV7T j 09 TO 0C | OTTpOTTOV \ TJfX \ LV A || 

X/w * et oo\o | iroiot av | 07* | a A 
— w — w — w — w 

3. ras ira\ \ at,<f>ar | ov irpo \ voias ]| 
irXevpa | irpotrraK \ evros | tov 

^ www www v/w — • w — w — 

II. 1. or : cAaiccv | oirorc | rcXco | /irjvos \ cfc^cp | ot A || 

w • t€K€to I tfavaroy | erpeipe 8 | cuoX | os opaic | aw A 

> www www wv v — w — w — 

2. 8(0 



TWt 



Scfcaros | aporos | avaSo^ | av tcX | civ irov | a>v A || 
o$ ay a | eXto? | erepov \ r) ra \ vw to* | ot A 



-WW — w — ^ — w  — — 

3. ro> $109 J avro I iraiSi | /cat raS \ opO | us A ] 
octvorar | u> /ucy | t/dpaj | nyxxrre | tcwc | cat A 

> www ^"~ *— " — > W W w ^"" ^"" — 

HI. I. c/a - ircoa /car | ovp | i£ | ct ira>9 || yap av o \ firj \ Xcwro* | »v A 
<t>a<Tfx \ art /acX | a*yx | cut | a 8 ap. || /ut7a yty | oik \ t£ | et A 



w www www a» w — w — w — w ~— — 

2. ct • t iror €T I «r«rov | ov irov | a>v ex || oi 0av I aw Xarp | ct av A 1 
yecrcr • ov wro \ <f>ovta | SoXto | ftvda || ireyrp «r | tffeer | arr a A 



Ixiv METRICAL ANALYSIS. 

I. 5 = irp. II. ^ x III. 

4 



4 



) 




Second Strophe. — Logaoedic. 



— > — > 



I. I. cova8 
eppwy 



a rAa/i, | a>v clokv | os fieyak \\ av Trpoaop \ coca Soft \ oixri /3\af3 1 av vcwv 
«* ray | a dajc/w | wv kcxvt || at p<xtoj | ay iroirot | gup av | apffuav 

> — vy — w w — > 



w — ^ —  s/ "^ w —r# V/V/W \S ±J \j — w 



2. a ; unramr | av ya/A 
1 vt ] ovr<a I tou de 



cov ra ficv I avra || 7rpocrc/?aX | c ra8a7r| aXXo#pjov A ]| 

(xcjfj. aya \k\€itov\\ etrepLoX | eiraOos | oucrtcr | at A 



II. I. yvcoyut • as ftoX | ovr | oktOpi \ auri crvv \ aXXay | ats A || 
t co kc\ I clip I a Xotx | a vpopuix | ov Sop | of A 



vy w vy — J 



2. 17 • 7rov 0X0 I a orcv I €t a A II 
a : vore do J av vi//i0 | av A 



V w 



3. t\ : irov aSiv I a>v | x^P I av A 
ay : <*7« <mt I atir | etv | at A 

> -w vy — J — 

4. Tcyy • ct SaKpv I <ov a^v | av A 
tov8 • otxaXi | as ai%/x | a A 

5. a8 ; €p\ofJL€v I a I fioipa irpo \ <f>aiv | ct 80X1 | av A II 
ad • ap.<f>nroX \ 0$ \ KWpis av \ avd \ 0$ <pavcp \ a A 

6. #cai fieyaX \ av | ar | av A J 
rarvd c<t>av | 17 | irpaicr | a>/> A 

1 I give my conjectural restoration here, to show the metre. In the text (p. 128) 
I leave the traditional ofiww 'Hpa/rXeovs dyaKXeirbv, which is corrupt, and unmetrical: 
see commentary on 853 ff. 

2 o-reVet seems corrupt (see comment on 846). If a long syllable could be sub- 
stituted for the short (as by reading 6\6* aldfa), the measure would be > • - ~ ~ I 
L_ J i_ I - A II, as in v. 3. 



METRICAL ANALYSIS. lxv 

I. ,4\ II. 





VI. Kommos, vv. 878—895. 

I. Choreic, with a dochmius as epode. II. Choreic and Loga- 
oedic. III. v. 1, logaoedic: 2 and 3, choreic. Two iambic trimeters 
follow, separated by a verse of two bacchii. IV. 1 and 4, bacchii : 
2 and 3, logaoedic and choreic. 



W SJ \J '— \J\J \J — w 



I. 1. raX • aiv \ o\c0pt \ a \\ tivi rpoir | to Oav | civ <r<j>€ | <^9 A || 



V/ \s \J fc — — v/ — w — • \s — 



2. o-^crXt • o) I rara yc | irpos || irpa$iv | cwrc | tcj> /xop | u> A || 

\s — — w — 

3. yw • at (vvrp€\ | ei A ]| 

II. 1. avr • rjv 81 | rjurr | awrc | T19 || Ovfxos \ t\ nv | cs vocr | 01 A || 

2. ravS ai^/i, | a /?c\c | 09 kcuc | ov £w |j ciXc | 7ro>9 e | firfaur | o A ] 



III. I. irpo? Oclvclt J a> davar \ ov awtr | acra ftov | a A || 



2. OTOVO J CVT09 | €V TOft | a <ri8 | ap | ov A 



— w 



3. cir • ct8e9 I Q> ftar | aia | rav8 v/?p | iv A ]] 

[Here follow two iambic trimeters, 889 brcftov a>9 817 k.t.A., and 891 
own) irpcW avT^9 k.t.X., separated by a verse of two bacchii, t« • ijv ?rtu9 

<£cp I €lwi A II .] 



lxviii METRICAL ANALYSIS. 



\j 



2. c | aO | vararov \ evvacrO | at A 3 

/aoX • &» | rov CTvyep | ou 0eu | <f>ev ~7T 



4 

4 



t) 



Second Strophe, forming a single period. — Logaoedic. 



— — > — > — > — 

1 . ira • 7ra ftov | i/ravcts | 7rot kAiv | cis A 

tfpyovc • et 8 av | dpyaicet | fetXat | a A 

a» — «» — 

2. airoX : €t? /a a7ro\ | as A || 

&oX owr i}/* | as A 



3. av • a.T€Tpo<f> J as o ri I #cat tu/o" | # A J] 
air | ort/3ar | os 07/01 | a po<t | os 



Third Strophe, forming a single period. — Dochmiac. 

1. (0 • irat 7rov 7tot I €i, to. II 8c /Ac to8c \ fie A II 
a dtos avdoufx \ «v, ew || curov ewau | ov ft A 

2. ?rpos : Aa/?c KOv<f>icr | as, c || c tea Sat/i. | ov A || 

oik virera fJLOp | <p, rov || fxeXeov <f>$ur \ as A 

(dochm.\ 
/ <dochm.<d 

\ (dochm.'J 
Jdochm. ' 



The five dactylic hexameters in ioioff. might be regarded as formisg another 
strophe (=1031 ff.), which would then be the third; and the third, as given above, 
would become the fourth. The five hexameters in 1018 — 1022 would then form a 
H€<r<?66t. (J. H. H. Schmidt, CompositionsUhre pp. clvi ff.) 



50<P0KAE0Y5 
TPAXIN I Al 



CORRIGENDA. 

Page 22, critical note on verse 120. Read the first sentence thus :— &vapv\dKrrrov] 
ifivX&Krrrov MSS. : Hesych. &v\dieriTOP ' ayafjulfyrrrrow So^okX^j TpaxiWoti. 

„ 98, text, v. 639. For K\e6vTai read k\4ovto.i. 



J. S. V. 



50<t>0KA E0Y2 



TPAXI N I Al 



The Trachiniae, alone among the seven plays, has no ancient wro- 
0€<rt9. In order to supply this defect, a scholiast transcribed a passage 
from the Bibliotheca of Apollodorus (2. 7. 5 — 7). This extract is prefixed 
to the play in the Laurentian ms. (p. 64 b), with the heading, ck thc 
1 AnoAAoArf>pOY BiBAioB^khc yndeecic In the Aldine edition of Sophocles 
(the editio princeps) the extract was printed, without the name of Apollo- 
dorus, as TPAXINION YIIO0E2I2. Subsequent editors continued the 
tradition, though they restored the heading given in L. 

The passage is, however, wholly out of place here. In fact, a 

student to whom the Trachiniae was new could not confuse his mind 

more effectually than by reading this extract from the Bibliotheca under 

the impression that it contained an outline of the plot Apollodorus, 

in compiling the legends of Heracles, followed an order fundamentally 

different from that supposed in the play. He placed the marriage with 

Deianeira after, not before, the labours for Eurystheus, the slaying of 

Iphitus, and the servitude to Omphale. (Introduction, § 8.) The 

scholiast, who made the extract and called it an Argument, was 

content that it began with the marriage and ended with the pyre. 

His text varies considerably from the mss. of Apollodorus. (See 

I — 2 



6 ZO0OKAEOYZ 

AHIANEIPA. 

AOrOS fih> ear d^aio? dvOpwrrtop <f>aveCs 9 
cos ovk av altov €/c/uu£0oi? ftporcov, trpiv av 

ddvjj TIS, OVT €1 XpTjOTOS OVT €L TO) /CaKOS* 

eya> 8c tov ifiov, /ca! irplv els *Ai8ov /utoXciv, 

efoiS* expvara hvdTvyyj re /cal fiapvv 5 

TJfTt? TTCLTpoS fjJkv €V hoflOLClV OiVetoS, 

vaiovcr <£t > h> H\€vpwvt t vvfufreuDV otcvov 
akyurrov eaxoi/, el ns AircoXls yvwj. 
furqoTTjp yap rjv fioi nora/LOS, 'A^cXalov Xeya>, 

L=cod. Laur. 32. 9 (first half of eleventh century). r=one or more of the 
later mss. This symbol is used where a more particular statement is unnecessary. 
'mss.,' after a reading, means that it is in all the mss. known to the editor. 

1 fi^v (<rr* L : not i*kv i<rr\ — to$p<bir<av mss. : dvdpdnrots a grammarian in Cramer 
Anted. Oxon. 4. 328, 21. 3 ddvy L: ddvoi r. 6 86fxounv] The first hand 

in L wrote 86/mokt: the first corrector (S) added w. 7 voUova* <£r > & IlXei/- 



Scene: — ^4^ Trachis, before the house of 
Heracles, 

1 — 08 Prologue. Deianeira declares 
her anxiety concerning Heracles, who 
has been fifteen months absent. Her 
son Hyllus sets forth to seek his father 
in Euboea. 

1 X&yos...dv0p<£ir«v, as Archil, fr. 86 
alvbt ns todpiinrw SSe: Pind. O. 7. 54 
dvOpwiruv iraXaiai jyfyries, id. N. p. 6 £<m 
84 TLi X670S avdpwiruv : ^f /'. 664 r\ pporQv 
irapoifda. ap\atos goes adverbially with 
^avefc, 'put forth of old'; cp. Ant. 593 f. 
dpxaxa... I ...trVrnmn 9 '. and t£. 621 ao<f>tq, 
yh,p 4k tov ickeivbv ftrof ir4<f>arrai (n.). 
L's accentuation, for', is right: &rrl 
<f>avds as=Trt<pavTai would be weak here. 
For the order of the words (dvdpdnnav 
separating dpxeuos from (pavels), cp. Ant. 
944 f. As to the yvu>fxy itself, see 0. T. 
1529 n. 

Boissonade (Notuf. in Troth., 1), reply- 
ing to the criticism that this yvcbfiTj passed 
as Solon's, quotes a remark of Balzac's 
to this effect : ' though Deianeira was older 
than Solon, she was younger than pro- 
verbial philosophy.' So Ajax quotes a 
maxim ascribed to Bias (At. 679). 

8 Odvfl. The v. I. Odvot would be 
possible only if & were absent Cp. 164 
cr. n. — oiJt' A ty: for r<p in the second 
clause, cp. Ant. 2*7 n. 

4 4yA 84 r8v Ijwv /c.t.X.: for the tri- 
brach, cp. /%. 1232 n. — She can dispute 
the old saying, because she forebodes 



that her life will be bitter to the end. 
The pathos here depends less on retro- 
spect than on presentiment : cp. 37, 46. — 
This passage illustrates Aristotle s remark 
that a person who speaks with strong 
feeling {traOrjTtKcot) may effectively im- 
pugn the truth of popular maxims (r& 
dedrj/xoaiev/j^va) : Rhet. 2. 2T § 13. 

6 iraTpds |Uv k.tA. No 84 answers 
to this piv. The antithesis is between 
her woes before and after marriage; of 
the latter she begins to speak at v. 27. 

7 vcUow* < It' > to IlXfupttw. This 
insertion of It* is the best remedy. The 
word is forcible, as marking that her 
sorrows began while she was still a young 
maiden. Cp. Ph. 23, where, as here, 
the text of L has lost (h- 1 before a word 
beginning with e. 

To A's reading, vaiovtr' to\ IlXet/p&irt, 
there are two objections, (a) While tvi 
(=&e<m) is frequent, there is no instance 
t of ivi for 4v in tragic iambics ; though 
Eur. admits it in lyrics, (b) There is no 
example in tragic iambics of a short 
vowel thus lengthened before irX at the 
beginning of the next word ; though such 
lengthening would have been legitimate 
in the epic hexameter. Cp. W. Christ, 
Metrik § 18 (2nd ed.). — Paley reads 
vaCovo-a 8* (with B): but the 84 would 
be weak here. 

nXcvpwvt. The ancient Pleuron stood 
in a fertile plain of Aetolia, near the 
mountain called Kotf/HW, a few miles 



TPAXINIAI 7 

Deianeira. 

There is a saying among men, put forth of old, that thou 
canst not rightly judge whether a mortal's lot is good or evil, 
ere he die. But I, even before I have passed to the world of 
death, know well that my life is sorrowful and bitter ; I, who 
in the house of my father Oeneus, while yet I dwelt at Pleuron, 
had such fear of bridals as never vexed any maiden of Aetolia. 

For my wooer was a river-god, Achelous, 

pwvi. Erfurdt : valour 1 ir Hkevpwvi L. For valov^ iv, some of the later mss. have 
(i) vaiovc* ivly as A, (2) valovtra 8', as B, or (3) vaXovad 7', as V s . Other con- 
jectures are valowr* iri (omitting iv), Wunder : valowrw, M. Seyffert: valovros, 
Jernstedt. — vvp.<pel(jjv r: vvfuplw l»--6kvov mss. (except Vat., tyicov): Sr\ow schol. 
in L (as a v. /.), and marg. of K. 8 lo-gop made from ix<av in L. 



w.N.w. of Calydon. About 230 B.C. - 
that site was deserted, and a new Pleuron , 
was founded more to the s.w., not far 
from the modern Mesolonghi. (Strabo' 
10. 451: Leake, North, Gr, I. 115 ff.) 
In the Iliad Pleuron figures among the 
chief Aetolian towns (2. 639, with four 
others: 13. 217, with Calydon only). 

Calydon was usually represented as the 
seat of Oeneus (//. 9. 5296*.: Apollod. 2. 
7. 5 : Diod. 4. 34) ; and Ovid calls Deia- 
neira Calydonida {Met, 9. 112). It is not 
known whether Sophocles was following 
some earlier poet m preferring Pleuron. 
But it is noteworthy that a tragedy of 
Phrynichus, dealing with the death of 
Meleager, was called HXcvpavteu (Paus. 
*°- 31 § 4) ; and the Chorus would natur- 
ally belong to the home of Althaea (the 
wife of Oeneus). 

5kvov. The v, /. StXov (* trouble,' rt 
raX) is a less fitting word here : the point 
is the anguish of her dreadful suspense 
(15, 24). Though frrXciv is not rare, the 
noun occurs only in Aesch. Th. 18 irai- 
delat &t\qv. 

8 dVyuTTov. The positive would be 
more usual, since ft ris follows ; but the 
superl. is not redundant, if taken as 
absolute ('very grievous'), and not re- 
lative ('the most grievous'). Cp. 0, C. 
1006 et rit 777 deoifs MtrraTai | rt/icut 
aepiteiv, ijd€ r£d' vvepftpei : and Eur. 
Andr. 6 vvv $', et tw &XX17, SuffrvxcffTdrrj 
ywlj. Soph, has etwep nt £XXos in O, T, 
11 18, but more often d or chrep rts simply 
(as 0. C, 1664, At, 488) ; and so Aesch. 
Ag. 934. — lo^ov, not ctxov, because she 
thinks of the ordeal, no{ as a process, 
but as a past moment of life ; cp. Ant. 



225 iroXXAj ydp toxov tppovrlSw iirurrd- 
<T€ij. This is better than to give (oxov 
its commoner sense, 'came to have' {Ant. 
1229, Ph. 1420). 

pvr\<rrAp: this legend had already 
been treated by Archilochus (c, 670 B.C.), 
and by Pindar: see Introd. — 'Ayjtkyov. 
The Achelous rises at the centre of 
Pindus, in Mount Lacmon, the great 
watershed of northern Greece, and, after 
a course of some 130 miles from N. to 
s., flows into the Ionian Sea. Its lower 
waters formed the boundary between 
Acarnania on the west and Aetolia on the 
east. The modern name, ' White River ' 
(Aspropotamo), is due to the yellowish 
colour which the stream derives from a 
clayey bed. 

To the Greeks, Achelous was the king 
of rivers (//. 21. 194 Kpelwv 'AxeXcttbf). 
He was the 'eldest son of Oceanus and 
Tethys' : Acusilaus fir. 1 1 a (Miiller Frag. 
Hist. I. 1 01) 'QKeavfo 8e yafiei TrfOto 
iavrov dSe\<frf)v' tup Si ylyvovTCU rpt<r- 
XlXtot totcl/aoI' 'AxeX(j)oJ 5e ain&v irpca- 
fifrraros koX Terifitfrau /xdXurra. The oracle 
at Dodona, — which was not far west of 
the river's sources, — 'enjoined sacrifice to 
Achelous in all its responses' (schol. //. 
21. 194). In Acarnania dyuves were 
held in his honour (schol. U, 24. 616). 
The cult of this river-god was, however, 
not merely local, but Panhellenic. Such 
pre-eminence is enough to explain how 
he became a type of mjycuov tidwp gene- 
rally, without assuming the more than 
doubtful kinship of dx with aqua. For 
Greek, it should rather be dir, as in 
Me<r<rdiriot. 



8 



ZO<DOKAEOYZ 



os fi lv rpicriv fiop^aiartv i£ffT€i irarpos, 
(boircov ei/apyrjs Tavpos, dWor* aidXo? 
op&KQiv cXwcros, aXXor' dv8p€ia> tcvrei 
fiovjrpcppos* €K 8c Sacr/aov ya'ciaSos 
Kpovvoi hieppaivovro Kprji/aiov ttotov. 
tol6v8* eyco fivqoTrjpa irpoarSeSeyfiivrj 
hvarrjvos del Kardavetv errq\r)(6fi7)v 
irplv rfjche kolttjs ifiireXacdrfvaC ttot€. 
ypov(fi 8* iv vcrrepa) {Lev, dafia^g he ftoi, 
o kXci^o? rj\0e Zrfvos *A\Kfujvr)s re irals' 
05 cis dywva tgJSc ov[Lm<ra>v fiax 1 ?? 
e/cXvcrai uc. zeal rpoirov fiev av iroi/a)i/ 
ovk av oieiiroifi • ov yap oio • aAA ooris rjv 
daKwv drapfirjs Trjs Qeas, o8* av Xeyoi* 
eyco yap ^/x^v eKireirhrfyfiemi <^ojSa>, 
/xiy /xoi ro /caXXos aXyo? i£evpoi irore. 
rc'Xos 8' edr)K€ Zevs dyvvios /caX<3?, 



IO 



15 



20 



25 



IS £ /aJretl/Soi/wpypos Strabo 10. 458: nJa-yl/Sotf/cpavos MSS. The edition of Brunck 
was the first which gave Strabo's reading. 16 del] aid L. Cp. cr. n. on Ant. 
76. — i7T7ivx6/irjv] brcvxdnrjv L. Cp. Ant. 1164 (comment.). 17 rrjade Kotrqs] 

Schneidewin conj. raieSe koItcus. Bergk would reject the verse. 18 ^ jiot] 8' 
i/xol T, V s . 10 dXtcfjufiirrja made from dicX/Li^yi7<r in L. 28 douciov] O&kwv L, 



10 4v Tpwrlv i&op^atoriv. The power 
of self-transformation, which Greek fancy 
gave especially to deities of water, was a 
lively symbol of the unstable element. 
Proteus exerts that power against Mene- 
laus (Od. 4. 456), Nereus against Hera- 
cles (Apollod. 2. 5. n), Thetis against 
Peleus (schol. Pind. N. 3. 55, Soph. fr. 
155 and 556). Each is desperate, and 
must try every resource. And so, here, 
self-change expresses passionate impor- 
tunity. Mythology found a reflex in 
daily speech when Greeks said, vavroios 
yiyverai dedficros. 

11 IvopY^s, in visible form, before 
the eyes of Oeneus : cp. 224. The word 
suggests that sense of awe which came 
to a Greek at the thought of a SclL/jajp 
actually appearing to a mortal: //. 20. 
I 3 [ X a ^ 6iro ^ St 0*°i <fxdv€(Tdai ivapyets: 
* 'tis perilous when a god is seen face to 
face.' Od. 16. 161 06 ydp vta xdvrefffft 
$€ol (palvovrai ivapyeh : id. 3. 420 (Athena) 
if fioL ivapyty rjXOe. Verg. Am. 4. 358 
ipse deum manifesto in famine vidi. 

Acheloiis occurs in works of art under 



each of the three forms which he takes 
here. 

(1) raGpos. This regular embodiment 
of a river-god symbolised both the roar 
of the torrent, and, as Strabo adds, 
the twistings of the stream (tca/ural), 
as KaXovat Kipara (10. 458). Coins of 
Acarnania (after 300 B.C.) show Ache- 
loiis as a bull with human head; and 
Soph, may have had this type in mind, 
for it appears on coins of Magna Graecia 
as early as 500 B.C. 

(2) aWXos Spaicttv 4XiKTos. The image 
is peculiarly appropriate, since the Ache- 
loiis, in parts of its course, is so tor- 
tuous. For al6\os, 'gleaming,' cp. n. on 
PA. 1 157. A vase-painting shows the 
Acheloiis, in combat with Heracles, as a 
serpent with the head and arms of a man, 
and an ox's horns (Gerhard, Auserl. 
Vasenbilder^ vol. 2, no. 115). 

(3) dvSpcty kvtci f3ovirp<|>f>os K.T.X. A 
human figure, with human face, and a 
shaggy beard, but with the forehead, 
horns, and ears of an ox. The Acheloiis 
appears thus on an archaic coin of Meta- 



TPAXINIAI 9 

who in three shapes was ever asking me from my sire, — coming 
now as a bull in bodily form, now as a serpent with sheeny coils, 
now with trunk of man and front of ox, while from a shaggy beard 
the streams of fountain-water flowed abroad. With the fear of 
such a suitor before mine eyes, I was always praying in my wretch- 
edness that I might die, or ever I should come near to such a bed. 
But at last, to my joy, came the glorious son of Zeus 
and Alcmena; who closed with him in combat, and delivered 
me. How the fight was waged, I cannot clearly tell, I know 
not ; if there be any one who watched that sight without terror, 
such might speak : I, as I sat there, was distraught with dread, 
lest beauty should bring me sorrow at the last. But finally the 

Zeus of battles ordained well, 

with gl. O&kos i] KaBedpa (sic) above. The circumflex is perh. from S; the first w 
seems to have been made from a. OaK&v A, with most mss.: 0aK£bv cod. Ven. 
617 (ace. to Subkoff). — W] 8 8' Hermann: 6 $' Pretor. 24 f. Dobree notes 
these two vv. as tautological after drapes, and Schenkl rejects them. Hartung 
and Nauck reject v. 25. 26 tdrjKe] ($tjk€u L. 



pontum in Lucania (Millingen, Arte, 
Coins of Greek Cities and Kings > pi. 1, 
no. 21). The words 4k 84 ScutkCou vc- 
vodSos, k.t.X., coupled with such evi- 
dence, make it clear that povirp<ppos 
means, ' with front' (not, 'head') of ox. 
In this sense, it is fitter than (JovKpavos : 
and Strabo's reading (cr. n.) is thus con* 
firmed. — kvtci. The word k6tos (rt kv) 
means 'a cavity/ then 'a vessel': hence, 
fig., the human body as encasing the 
vital organs: Plat. Tim. 74 A dird rip 
K€<f>a\7js did, vavrbs rov K&rovs. See Ap- 
pendix. 

14 SicppoCvovTO, 'were sprinkled 
abroad ' : a word applied by Arist. to the 
'diffusion' of fire by rapid movement, 
Meteor. I. 3 (p. 341a 30) Td...ir0p...5.ap- 
paiveffOcu ry Kivfaei. — Kprjvatov ttotov, the 
water as it flowed from the K/rfrri, fount, 
of the river. This phrase recurs in /%. 
2 1, and (plur.) in fr. 559. Hesiod Theog. 
340 calls the Acheloiis dpyvpodhrrjv. 

16 irpo<r8c8cY|Uvt|, 'expecting' such 
a suitor; i.e., looking forward to his 
becoming her husband (525). Cp. the 
usage of the epic aor. partic, //. 10. 123 
i/ity iroTidtyfievos dpfify. The normal 
Attic sense, * having received,' is inad- 
missible. She could not yet be doomed 
to the visits of a wooer who had not even 
gained her father's consent. 

17 rrjorSc Kotnp. Though the com- 
pound ifivcX&fcw elsewhere (as in 748) 
takes a dat., it can also take a gen., like 



the simple verb (Ph. 1327 veXaadels 0tf- 
Xa*o$). So a gen., instead of the more 
usual dat., stands with cvvtvx"^ (Ph. 320), 
ivTvx&v (id. 1333), iirwT'^ffat (id, 719). 

18 |Uv...8l : not, indeed, soon enough 
to prevent the anguish of which she has 
spoken (v. 16), yet to her joy. — doydvQ 
...poi: O. T. 1356 n. 

21 f. iKAverai, here simply = &Xtfet 
(cp. Ant. 1 1 12 n., and O. T. 1003), rather 
than * delivers for himself,' i.e., to be his 
bride. — Sufiroi|fc', tell clearly: 0. 71854^ 
The place of the first &v serves to empha- 
sise Tp6irov (O. T. 339 n.). — irovwv, of 
warfare, Ph. 248 n. 

28 ttjs Was : for the gen., cp. 0. T. 
885 Alicas &<t>6(3riTos. — 58', after &<rris, as 
in Ant. 463 f. The drawback to 6 8' 
here is that it would be unduly emphatic : 
see Ph. 87, Appendix. 

24 f. These two verses are plainly 
genuine. It is idle to condemn them 
merely because they are not indispens- 
able. Nauck, who spares v. 24, rejects 
v. 25 because Deianeira ought to speak 
of her fate as depending 'on the issue of 
the combat, not on her beauty.' As if 
her beauty was not the cause of the com- 
bat. It might as well be objected to v. 
465, rb jcdXXos abrijs rbv fttov SabXea-ev, 
that Iole was the victim of war. — ££cvpoi : 
cp. Ph. 287 yaxTTpi fifr rb, (Ttjfx<popa | to£w 
tm i£r)upi<rK€. 

26 Zcfa dyoSvios, the supreme arbiter 
in all trials of strength, — as at Argos he 



10 



I0<t>0KAE0YI 



el Si) AcaXdJ?. Xej(os yap 'HpcucXci Kpurov 

£vOTa<T a€t TIP €K <f>6/3oV <f>6fioi> Tp€<f)(x), 

Keivov rrpoKrjpaii/ovcra' vv^ yap eUrdyei 
Kal vv£ dvcodel StaScSey/icioy trovov. 
Ka^>v(rayL€v 817 7rcu8a9, ovs Keivos wore, 
yQTrjs 07ra)s apovpav cktottov \a(3(6v, 
aireipav fiovov irpoaelhe tcdijafiaiv dna£. 

TOLOVTOS altoV €19 So/IOV? T€ KCLK Bo/MOV 

del tov dvhp eire/iire \arpeoovrd tco. 

M/V O 7JVLK aukdiV T0)VO V7T€pT€\7)S €<f>V 9 

hnavQa 81) fidKicrra rap/3'qo'a<r cvco. 
€g ov ya/o €#era Keivos I91TOV pcai/, 
tJ/I€C5 /Lt€V & Tpaxivi t^S* avaoraroi 
izivQ) nap dvhpl vaLOfiev, Keivos 8* tirov 
fiefirjKep ovSels oTSc* irkrjv i/iol rriKpas 



30 



35 



40 



28 ZvffTcur r : £wora<r' L. — del] a/el (made from of el) L. 80 diadedeyfjJmj r : 

SiaSeyfiivri L. 81 K&<f>6aafi€v 6ij L, A, etc. : Ka<pv<ra fih 6^ B, with a few others. 

84 e/s 56/xovs re k&k 86fuav] £k 56/xojv re ice/s db/xovs B, and so Brunck. 86 del] 

a/ei L. — ry] In L raw has been made from tw by S. 87 Tap/3^J<^(W , ] Tappij- 



was ffdfrtos (Paus. 2. 32 § 7). So Hermes 
is d7<£iuos (Pind. /. 1. 60 etc.), as patron 
of the palaestra. The dyuviot. OeoL of 
Aesch. Suppl. i8p, besides these two, are 
Apollo and Poseidon, — who presided re- 
spectively over the Pythian and Isthmian 
dyujvesj as Zeus over the Olympian and 
Nemean: see id. 182 — 194, and Prof. 
Tucker's note on v. 163 (= 189 Dind.). 

27 f. The tone of cl 8ij is sceptical, 
as that of eftrep is usu. confident : cp. Eur. 
Or. 17 (quoted by Schneidewin), 6 xXetpds, 
el 5ij k\€ip6s 9 'AyafUfjOHov. The pause 
after the second foot suits the pensive 
stress on el dfy icaXws : cp. Ant. 658 dXXd 
KTevCb. irpbs tclvt tyvfjweLru A/a, etc. — 
Xfaos, nom., in the sense of 'bride' (cp. 
360, and At. 211). The accus. in At. 
491, t6 gov \i%os %wrj\Oov ('came into 
thy bed'), is warranted by the verb of 
motion, as in Eur. Ph. 817, ^ W vfoaifiov 
Xexos fJKBev. But Xexos £u<rrcurd rwi could 
not well mean 'joined to him in marriage' 
(as though Xegos were a kind of cognate 
ace). — tcpwoV, chosen by himself (cp. 
245), is also best suited to Xe%o$ as = 
'bride.' For £wrra<r cp. Isocr. Ep. 4 § 8, 
eVeidi? SweVny/ce* fMt, (' since he has been 
associated with me'). 

29 t. irpoicnpcUvovo*a (icr)p)> feeling 



anxiety about him, ficpi/tvwra /card rb Keap 
(schol.). The compound occurs only here : 
Eur. has the simple Ktipahno as = 'to be 
anxious' (Hipp. 223, H. F. 518). Dis- 
tinguish the other Kypalvta, from ic^p, 'to 
harm' (Aesch. Eum. 128, dpaKalvijs it-erf- 
pavav ftevos). 

vvj *ydp cUrd-yci k.t.\. : 'for one night 
ushers in a trouble, and another, in sue- 
cession (to the former night), expels it,' 
— to make room for some fresh anxiety. 
This is a poetical amplification of del tip* 
£k <f>6pov <f>6pov Tpipta. Each night tor- 
ments her, as she lies awake, with some 
new surmise as to her husband's fate. — 
irovov is governed by both verbs. 

SiaScScypcvi] is used absolutely: its 
object, if expressed, would have been tV 
vporipav r6icra: cp. Her. 8. 142 <«* & 
iwafoaro \eyuv 'AXe^avdpof, 5ta5e£d/ue- 
voi ('in their turn') e^e/op ol &vb ^irdprrft 
dyyeXoi. Thus diadedey/Urq serves at once 
(a) to show that the words n)£ ela&yei koX 
vd£ dviodei refer to different nights; and 
(6) to suggest the new t6vos — not express- 
ly mentioned — which the second night 
brings ; since the task in which it is 3td- 
doxos to the first is that of harassing the 
sufferer's mind. See Appendix. 

81ft otis Kctvfo iron k.t.X. The point 



TPAXINIAI 



ii 



— if well indeed it be : for since I have been joined to Heracles as 
his chosen bride, fear after fear hath haunted me on his account ; 
one night brings a trouble, and the next night, in turn, drives it 
out. And then children were born to us ; whom he has seen only 
as the husbandman sees his distant field, which he visits at seed- 
time, and once again at harvest. Such was the life that kept him 
journeying to and fro, in the service of a certain master. 

But now, when he hath risen above those trials, — now it is 
that my anguish is sorest. Ever since he slew the valiant 
Iphitus, we have been dwelling here in Trachis, exiles from our 
home, and the guests of a stranger; but where he is, no one 
knows ; I only know that he is gone, and hath pierced my heart 



<raa L first hand, corrected by S. 88 'Icplrov piav] In L there is an erasure 

after UfArov and at /3, which may have been v. 89 dpdorarot] dvdorcurroi L, the 

scribe having inadvertently repeated the contraction for or. 40 6Vou] foot Brunck. 



of the comparison, which has been prompt- 
ed by the word erelpuv, is merely the 
rarity of the visits, irorf = * at some time 
or other' (cp. dipt Tore, XP^V vori): it 
could not, by itself, mean 'only now and 
then.' The sentence begins as if icot4 
were to be followed by some such general 
phrase as Sid xp6* ov: — °& kcw6s rrore... 
did xp6vov r/xxretoe, 'whom he saw only 
at uncertain intervals.' The interposed 
simile, however, leads the poet to employ 
a phrase adapted to the special case of 
the yffnfs 9 — viz., <nrc£po»v pavov ko£cuu5v 
&ira£. The ygnis sees his distant field 
only twice a year. But it is not meant 
that Heracles visits his home just twice a 
year. Nor has IfapSv any figurative ap- 
plication to him, such as 'reaping the joy' 
of seeing his children. It is an irrelevant 
detail. This is quite Homeric. See, e.g. , 
//. 13. 62 ff., where Poseidon, soaring in- 
to the air, is likened to a bird which soars 
5iuiceu> Spveov <Z\\o: though the sea-god is 
pursuing no one. — &va£ seems best taken 
with 4£a|M»v only. 

84 f. aU&v, fortune in life ; Ph. 179. — 
cl« S6povs tc kcIk S4|u»v: this order of 
words is the most forcible : no sooner did 
he regain his home, than he had to leave 
it again. The reversed order (which 
Brunck prefers) would give greater promi- 
nence to his moments of rest. — ry : Eurys- 
theus (1049), whose name she shrinks 
from uttering. 

88 f. dvkmv t«v8\ the labours for 
Eurystheus. — vircpTcXijs, rising clear of 
them: Eur. Ion 1549 otK(av...vvepr€\ij% 
(appearing above it): Aesch. Ag. 359 



inrepreXiffai \ fUya dovXeias \ y6.yyo.fxov 
arrjs. — l^v seems to be here no more 
than iyfrero (as in El. 236, and often). 
Some, however, understand, 'now that 
his inborn force has prevailed,' etc. — 
rappijoxur ix»=T€T&ppriKa. The peri- 
phrasis is somewhat rare when the verb 
is intrans. ; but cp. 0. T. 731 ohte ru 
Xfl-avT *x«. 

88 Ikto, the only Sophoclean ex- 
ample of this form (on which see Monro, 
Horn. Gr. § 13). Both Aesch. (Eum, 
460) and Eur. (Bacch, 1290, etc.) use 
KartKTav in dialogue, but not l/crcw. — 
'I<j>Ctov ftfav : for the periphrasis, cp. Ph. 

314- , m 

89 tv Tpaxtvt. Heracles was dwell- 
ing at Tiryns when he slew Iphitus, as 
related in w. 270 ff. Then, with Deia- 
neira and his children, he removed from 
Tiryns to Trachis, and soon afterwards 
Zeus sent him forth into servitude (276). — 
dvdorarot (0. C. 429 n.) alludes to com- 
pulsion used by Eurystheus: the word 
would not suit a voluntary migration. 
This had happened fifteen months ago. 

40 {fry trap dvSpl: Ceyx, king of 
Trachis, who is not named in this play. 
Hes. Scut. 353 (Heracles speaks) Tprj- 
ylva. & rot vapeXavvu | is K^VKadvaicra' 6 
ydp dwd/xei re koX oddol I TprjxiPOS flrpo- 
jttp-nKi. The Hesiodic KtJu/coj yd/tos de- 
scribed a marriage-feast given by that king, 
at which Heracles was a guest. Apollo- 
dorus (2. 7 § 7) and Diodorus (4. 36 § 57) 
mention Ceyx. — throv, not 6V01, since 
p£pr)K€v implies, 'is now': cp. O. C. 52. 

411 irX^v: cp. 0. C. 1643 dXV ^pweB 9 



12 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



(oSlvas avrov trpocfiaktov airoi)(erai. 
a^(eS6v 8* intcrra/iai tl mjix e^ozra vw 
yfiovov yap ovr^l fiaiov, dXX' rjSrj Select 
fiTJvas 777009 aXXois Trer* dldjpVKTOS fl4v€l. 

KOLOTIV TL htiVOV TT7Jfia % TOiaVTT\V i/lOL 

Sikrov Xlttmv €orrev)(€> ttjv eyci da/id 
Oeols apcoyiai Trrjfiovrjs arep Xafielv. 

TP03>02. 

h4<nroLva Ajjdveipa, 7roXXa fiiv <r £ya> 
KareiSov rjorj iravhaKpvr ohvpfiara 
ttjv 'HpcucXcioi/ etjoSov yo<ofievr)v 
vvv 8', el Sbcaiov tovs ikevdepovs (frpevovv 
yvcafiaKTi SovXcus, Kafxk XPV <t>pd(rai to gov 
7ra5s iraicX fiev togolgSc nXrjOveis, drap 
az/ 8po9 Kara tpfjrqa'iv ov rrifive^ rivd, 
/laXicrra 8* ovnep cwcos *TXXoi>, el naTpos 
vifioi riv apav tov KaXa>s irpdaaeu/ 8ok€lp ; 



45 



50 



55 



42 airrov L: ai/rov Hermann. 44 — 48 Wunder brackets these five w. 47 ioret- 
Xe, ttjv mss.: Dindorf conj. forcixev, rjv. 49 Aydveipa] dyidveipa L, as always. 

68 rb <?6i>] The first hand in L wrote rb <rov, meaning rbtrov. (The original acute accent 
on to, though faint, is still visible.) Then an early corrector (perhaps S) made this 
into rb <rbv\ and cbv was further corrected (with ink of a darker shade) to ebvi 
here, again, the grave accent is traceable in an erasure. Lastly, a later hand placed 



«$ rdxurra* Tc\rjv 6 Kijpios J Breeds Tap4~ 
<ttw.— -<J$Cvas : cp. 325. — avrov, objective 
gen.: cp. Ant, 858 vaTpbs...oticTOP {about 
him): Ph. 1039 Ktvrpoir...ifiov. avrov is 
clearly right : the harshness of avrov may 
be measured by supposing that, instead 
of it, we had 'H/xurXlovs or r&vdpbs. 

44 £ &Ka...irpos dWois irlvrc. 
Twelve years before this time, the oracle 
at Dodona had told Heracles that, at 
the end of twelve years (824), he should 
have rest. Fifteen months before this 
time, Heracles had given Deianeira the 
dikros on which he had written down 
that oracle (1167). He had then told her 
that, if he did not return at the end of 
fifteen months, she might assume that he 
was dead (164 ff.). — oktjpvktos. No 
herald has come, either to announce his 
approach, or to give any tidings of him. 

48 The emphasis is on k&cttiv, not 
on tietvbv. When she ponders the oracle, 
her grave misgiving (43) becomes certi- 



tude. — roiavrr|v, giving the ground for a 
statement : 0. C. 747 n. 

47 f. n)v, a rare instance of the art. 
used as relat. pron. in dialogue without 
metrical necessity : see O. C. 747 n. The 
motive here may have been a wish to 
avoid four consecutive endings in v. — 
irr||M>vtjs drip. If the 6i\ros should prove 
to have foretold the death of Heracles, 
then she would have received it <n>f 
irrffiovy : it would have been a harbinger 
of woe. — As to Wunder's rejection of vv. 
44 — 48, see Appendix. 

49 ff. iroXXd |Uv. . . vGv 8 a : the thought 
is, 'though hitherto I have been silent, 
now I must speak/ yoe»\Uvr\v takes 
iroXXd...iravSaicpvr' ^Svpfiara as ' inner' 
(or 'cognate') accus., andrr)y 'Hp. IgoSov 
as object: Schneidewin cp. Eur. Med. 
205 &X €a M-oycpb fioq. I rbv iv X^xei wpo- 
Sbrav. 

62 f. <f>pfvovv, pres., since the act 
may be conceived as continuing or re- 



TPAXINIAI 



13 



with cruel pangs for him. I am almost sure that some evil hath 
befallen him ; it is no short space that hath passed, but ten long 
months, and then five more, — and still no message from him. 
Yes, there has been some dread mischance ;— witness that tablet 
which he left with me ere he went forth : oft do I pray to the 
gods that I may not have received it for my sorrow. 

Nurse. 

Deianeira, my mistress, many a time have I marked thy bitter 
tears and lamentations, as thou bewailedst the going forth of 
Heracles ; but now, — if it be meet to school the free-born with the 
counsels of a slave, and if I must say what behoves thee, — why, 
when thou art so rich in sons, dost thou send no one of them to 
seek thy lord; — Hyllus, before all, who might well go on that 
errand, if he cared that there should be tidings of his father's 

welfare ? 

the acute over rb (wishing to restore rdaov), but without deleting the other accents. 
The marginal schol. recognises both readings, but gives precedence to rb cbvi — 
rb aol ffvfuptpov fj togov tori rod 6\lyov. The later mss. are divided: A has 
Ttxrov, which stands in the Aldine, and in all editions before Schaefer's (18 to). 
Porson on Med. 461 ( = 459 Dind.) first advocated rb <rbv. 66 &t>5pbs] Wecklein 
conj. T&rdpbs. 67 vi^oi, L, A, and most mss. : vifxu r (as Vat. and Harl.). 



peated; but ^pdorat, aor., with ref. to 
the particular utterance: cp. Ph. 95 l£a- 
fxapT€iv...vLKav : id. 66*j 1. Oiyyireur... 
dovpai. 

Kclpc k.t.X. Two constructions are 
possible: I prefer the first. (1) kcU= 
'and,' depending on cl, and the apo- 
dosis begins with the direct question, 
irws k.t.X. (2) KaC = 'even' (cp. Ant. 
719 n., k&v* iftoG), and the apodosis be- 
gins with tc&fit "xjrfl* But the first is more 
deferential; and the very abruptness of 
ir«s k.t.X. is natural here. 

4>pcurai r6 <roV, 'to prescribe thy part* 
(0. C. 625 n.), i.e., to say what it becomes 
thee to do. There is only a verbal re- 
semblance to Eur. I. A. 1 167 (compared 
by Schneid.), tj '/jl€ xp$ ^yew tA <r&; 'am 
I to make thine answer for thee?' — The 
v. I. roVov is weaker, whether taken to 
mean 'so bold a speech,' or (with the 
schol.) 'just thus much.' And the form 
itself is rare in Sophocles (Ai. 277 Sis 
rba'i id. 185 lyr. rbeeov). 

64 f. Too-oto-fc. Besides Hyllus, the 
eldest child of Deianeira, legend gave 
her three other sons, and one daughter 
(Apollod. 2. 7 § 8 : Diod. 4. 37 : Paus. 1. 
32 § 5). Cp. w. 1 1 53 ff. For the para- 
taxis {vXijOijeis fifr, &T&p ob Trtfxireis), cp. 



0. T. 419 n. — icard |>JTT|env: Isocr. or. 
x 7 § 4 XP^f MTa 8°te i&rc/jupev dfia kclt 1 
ifXTTopLav kclI Karb. Bcwplcw. 

66 £ cl iraTpds W|mh nv aSpav toO 
...SokcCv: instead of el vtpwi tip* <apav 
rod rbv iraripa. . . doKetv. The gen. irovrpos, 
placed at the beginning of the clause, 
illustrates the normal Greek tendency to 
announce the subject of the statement at 
the outset (as in toutov otad 1 el $G>v Kvpet, 
Ph. 444 n.). The second gen., toO... 
SokcCv, is 'epexegetic,' as defining the 
uipav. But it is not in apposition with 
iraTpbs ('care for his father, — that is> care 
for his being deemed,' etc.). Rather the 
two genitives are linked to <3pcw with 
slightly different shades of meaning; — 
'care, on his father's account, for his 
being deemed.' Instead of to&... SokcCv, 
we might have had a relative clause, 
tiirios Sm... 5okJ}. But, since dpcw could take 
a gen., that constr. was preferred as more 
compact. Cp. Dem. or. 2 § 4 rotirtav 
o#x* v $ v &P& T ^ v Kupbv row Xtyetv (the 
speaking-time for these things). Id. 
or. 5 § 22 Xapctv ipotiXero rfjp 66£av rod 
iroXe'fiov rod dotceiv oV airrbv KpUrw 
€lXrj<p€vai. 

SokcCv here =' be believed to be': cp. 
Thuc. 6. 17 for... 6 "SikUls eirrvxht doxei 



14 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



eyyus o oo auros aprirrovs up^cKei bo/iovs* 
coot* el tl col w/005 Kaipbv ewerrew 8okco, 
irdpeoTi ypfjo'dai ravhpX reus t ipols Xdyois. 
AH. (5 T€kvov, & rral, Ka£ dyevvrjrav dpa 
fivOoi kolXcos rriuTovo'Lv rjhe yap yvvfj 
SovXrj /levy elprjKev 8* eXevdepov Xoyov. 

TAAOS. 

7rolov ; $i$a£ov, [ifJTep, el StSafcra fioi. 
AH, ae rrarpos ovtco Sapov e^evfofievov 

to firj Trvdeadai irov 9 <ttw, aX<Tyyvr\v (frepeiv. 
TA. aXX* oTSa, fivOois el tl ma'Teveiv xpedv. 
AH. ical ttov icXucts viv, TeKvov> iSpvcrucu ydovos ; 
TA. top fiev trapeXOoin dpoTOV ev firjKei yjpovov 

AvSfj yvvaucl <j>a<ri viv Xwrpiv rrovelv. 
AH. rrdv Toiwv, el kol tovt crX^, kXvol tis av. 
TA. aXX* e£a<f>evTai TovSe y, cos eyco kXvoj. 
AH. 7rov SrJTa vvv tjav rj dav<av dyyeXXeTca,; 



6o 



65 



70 



68 aprhrova dp&uricei L : B. F. Westcott conj. apri vov 'adptfatcei : Frohlich, 
dpri irpocBptpffKei : O. Hense (making w. 57 f. into one), vifiei tip' wpav' dpri d' 
£<rdpip<rK€i. 60 rots t] So L. Some of the later MSS. have rots, without 

t' (which, in A, is written above); and Hartung adopts this. Hermann, rots 7'. 
62 /xvdoi] tubQoi L. — ijde] ijide L (the ' added by S). The mis-spelling seems due 
to a confusion between ijde and 5 W» •• iro ^ 9 <nw\ t6*votu> L (sic). Nauck and 



etvai, * while he has the reputation of being 
successful* (not 'seems : he really was 
so). The meaning is, 'Hyllus ought 
to go in search of news, if he cared to 
dispel our painful anxiety.' The rpwp6s 
chooses words which avoid any suggestion 
of disaster to Heracles, and say only that 
his welfare has yet to be ascertained. 

W|&ot is better attested than Wuct, and 
also fitter, as implying the deferential 
eUbs ay etri, not the blunt cU6s i<mv. 
See Appendix. 

68 aprfarovs, with opportune foot (dp- 
Wow KOl 7)pfJL0<T/JL^V0JS TO) KCUp<} 7T0/>€i/eTCU, 

schol.). Cp. the similar phrases for a 
timely arrival ; 0. T. 78 els kolKSv : Ant. 
386 is dtov irepq. : 387 vola j-vpfierpos 
irpotifirjv rvxv'f di. 1 168 is afrrbv Kcupbv ; 
Aesch. Theb. 373 els dprlKoWov ayyiXov 
\6yov fiadety. Elsewhere dprCirov$==' with 
sound foot' {dprios, well-compacted), 



as //. 9. 505. And so some take it here, 
as if it were meant to suggest his fitness 
for the mission : but this seems frigid. 
The poet was perhaps thinking of dpri 
rather than of dprios : and dpri certainly 
occurs in composition, not only with 
verbs (as d/rn0cu>7fc) f but also with nouns, 
as dpridoLKpvs (Eur. Med. 903), oprfarXou- 
rof (Eur. Suppl. 742). Still, dprfrrovs, as 
used here, could be taken from aprios, 
in the sense of 'fitted' to the occasion, 
Kcdpios. — 0p<p<rK€i S4|mws: O. C. 643 56- 
fiovs crelxeuf i/xovs. He is hastening to 
tell his mother the news which he has 
just heard (67). 

69 f. irpis Kcupov: cp. 0. T. 345 n. 
— rots t* is clearly right : Deianeira can 
at once act on the counsel by sending 
Hyllus. With rot« simply, or rots y', the 
sense would be much weaker: 'Hyllus 
can do as I suggest.' 



TPAXINIAI 



IS 



Lo ! there he comes, speeding towards the house with timely 
step ; if, then, thou deemest that I speak in season, thou canst 
use at once my counsel, and the man. 

Enter Hyllus. 

De. My child, my son, wise words may fall, it seems, from 
humble lips ; this woman is a slave, but hath spoken in the 
spirit of the free. 

Hy. How, mother ? Tell me, if it may be told. 

De. It brings thee shame, she saith, that, when thy father 
hath been so long a stranger, thou hast not sought to learn 
where he is. 

Hy. Nay, I know, — if rumour can be trusted. 

De. And in what region, my child, doth rumour place him ? 

Hy. Last year, they say, through all the months, he toiled 
as bondman to a Lydian woman. 

De. If he bore that, then no tidings can surprise, 

Hy. Well, he has been delivered from that, as I hear. 

De. Where, then, is he reported to be now, — alive, or dead? 

others write irov i<rrw. — (ptpeiv Valckenaer : <f>tpei mss. : <f>4poi Wunder. 67 fju&Oour 

L, with most mss. : /jrfdots y Harl., Aid. Cp. 73. 68 ISpvadai] IdpfoOai L. 
aporov r : dporpov L. Cp. 825. 78 Oavtav L : davwv y r. 



61 IK «S tIkvov, «S nut, an affectionate 
form of address, as in Ph. 260, Eur. Hec. 
172, etc. — dtyivvtJTttv, prop, 'not be- 
gotten* {O. C. 973), then, 'of no birth,' 
' low-born, ' like aycvvrjs and dyev^s. — 
koX»s irCirrowriv, fall happily, — a meta- 
phor from dice: Eur. El. 1100 to. pkv 
yap €&, I rd 3' oi) jcaXws vlxrwra dtpKOficu 
pporuv. — 4Xeu0€pov=Aeu0^pioi>: cp. Eur. 
fr. 828 voXXoiffi tiovXois roHvofi aloxpfo, V 
61 <ppTjv I tup otyl 8ov\w i<rr* iXevdepw- 
rkpa.. 

64 SiSaicrd: for the plur., cp. Ph. 
524 (afcrxpd), and O. C. 554 n. The 
sing, occurs below, 671. 

66 f. <ri...To pi] irvO&Hku: for the 
place of <r4, cp. Ant. 710 aXX 1 dvdpa, Kct 
Tvs j (Togo's, t6 fxa.v66.veiv \ ir6XX' alaxpdv 
ovdev. It is needless to conjecture vol. — 
4{cv«»ji{vov : cp. El. 865 £4vos...Ke , K€v$ev 
('he has been buried in a foreign land'). 
Shaksp. H. VIII. 2. 2. 129 Kept him a 
foreign man ( =kept him out of England). 
— irofl 'otiv : for this mode of writing, cp. 
Ph. 16 n. — ^pctv is a certain correction 
of <Hp*i: m answer to his question, she 
is quoting the slave's speech. 

67 jivGows, L's reading, is as good as 



fivOois *y', though no better. L has lost 76 
in some other places (as Ant. 648, 1241): 
but, on the whole, it seems best not to 
assume such a loss here. 

68 I8frfkr6cu. The length of his 
absence prompts her conjecture that he 
has fixed his abode somewhere: cp. 101 
kXidels. 

69 £ piv here is not answered by 
<{XX* in 72. — dporov, ploughing-season 
(Hes. Op. 448), hence, 'year': cp. 825. 
So 7roa=' summer,' Rhianus ap. Paus. 

4. 17 § 6 X € lf M T& T€ TTOlaS T€ 5uW. kv 

l&rfKct \p6vov, <at ^e full length of that 
period,' i.e., from beginning to end of the 
year. — AvSfj: Omphale: see on 252. 

71 cl Kal tow ItXt): 'if he indeed 
bore this.' kcU here emphasises tout* 
irXri: cp. Ai. 1127 5eiv6v 7* etiras, el Kal 
£gs Bavwv : and O. T. 305 n. If Kal were 
taken with tovto only ('even this'), it 
would imply former disgraces. Cp. 1 2 1 8 n. 

72 ctAXd, like 'well,' here refers to 
D.'s bitter comment : that disgrace, at any 
rate, is past. 

78 t) Oavt&v : a fine touch. She is pre- 
pared to hear anything now; even that he 
is dead. And l£a0e?rai was ambiguous. 



16 



ZOOOKAEOYZ 



80 



TA. Evy8ot8a y&pojv <f>a<rlv } Ev/ovrov rr6\iv, 

hriaTpareveiv avrov, rj fieXXetv eri. 75 

ATT *» t/J ^ A > t / c *\ ' 

AH. a/o OMTua orjT , a> T€kvov 9 a>§ cacmtc /uloi 

fiai/rela mard rfjo-he r^s \(apas ^rc/)i ; 
TA. ra 7TOUI, firjrep; rov \6yov yap dyvooi. 
AH. o)5 ^ rcXcvn)!' roi) /3iov fieXkei rekelv, 

rj rovrov apas ddXov els *ro y varepov 

rov Xolttov rjSrj fHorov evaiojv e^€a>. 

Iv OVV pOTrfl TOI^lSc K€LfM€Va), TeKVOV, 

ovk eX £vvep£<ov ; rjviK rj creo'dbo'neda 
[77 rrlrrropjev crou rrarpos c^oXoXdros] 
Keivov fiiov ariaavros, rj oi)(6ii€a'ff d/ia. 85 

TA. aXX' elfiiy firjrep • €t 8c dea<f>dr(ov eyco 
/Ja£u> KarjjSr) roivSe, k&v irakai rrapfj* 
vvv 8* d £vvr}dr)s rror/ios ovk # 6ia rrarpos 
thiols rrporapfieiv ovhe SeifiaiveLV dyav. 

74 Eu/9o(5a] L has the 5 of evpoida written small, in an erasure : the first hand prob. 
wrote e#/3oia, which S corrected, also changing x&P av to x&P av ' 77 x^P as ] 

(b from & in L. Dronke conj. upas: Dobree, ire L pas, or 6Sov: Wecklein, bpfxrjt. 
79 cus ^ r: c&r ol L. — reXety] Nauck conj. irepcut. 80 f. alXop] a^Xw L. — 

t6v • Xoiwbv L, with most mss. : rd XoMrdv r (as B, Vat.). For conjectures, see below. 
88 <T€a<ixrfJL€0a] eea&neda Wecklein. Cp. Photius s.v. cr^rureu: — erlcrwrcu ical aeaio- 
fitvos ol waXaiol avev rov <r' Kal dtefafifroi (prjcl OovKvdldrfS' ol $i ve&repoi atcoiCfiax. 



74 £ EvPotSa (as in Aesch. fr. 29), 
contr. for JS&potda, ace. of Ei)/3o&. In 
Eur. EL 442 the mss. give Ei)/3o£das, for 
which Seidler wrote Evfioldas. For the 
nom., the longer form Evpotts is used 
below (237, 401). — iroXiv is in appos. 
with EvpofSa \16pav. Oechalia in Eu- 
boea was the seat of Eurytus, but it is in 
accordance with epic precedent to regard 
him as reigning over the whole island, — 
like Chalcodon in the Philoctetes (489 n.), 
and Elephenor in the Iliad (2. 536 ft\). — 
H plXXciv In, sc. iirwrparevceiv : O. C. 
1074 tpdova' ij fUXXovaiv ; 

76 CXfiirc seems to differ from tXt-rre 
here only as being somewhat more vivid, 
— i.e., as serving to suggest the moment 
when he was doing the act (cp. 47 diXrov 
Xiiruiv ioreix*)' See Appendix. 

TJjvife rijs \<»p*9 irepi. There is no 
reason to suspect X">P as ' The oracle said 
that, at this time, he was to go through 
his last labour. The Euboean war, she 
infers, is that labour. 

78 etyvew. As Heracles had long 
spared Deianeira a knowledge of the pro- 



phecy (158), so she had hitherto spared 
her son. 

79 TcXcvTTJv...T€Xitv : cp. Theognis 
1 166 eur* dv 660G rcXiys rty/iar' iir 1 fywro- 
pbr\v. 

80 f . dtpas, having taken up, as a bur- 
den to be borne. The midd. would be 
usual in this sense (Eur. Ion 199 atpd- 
/xevos irdvovs) : but the act. is also admis- 
sible, just as in Ph. 706 ov <popfiav...aXp(av 
(n.). So in //. 23. 736 we have the act. 
tedXia 8' Ta dveXovres (* having won like 
prizes'), but id. 823 the midd., didXta Vr 
dveX^Bat. 

els t6 y' vcrrtpov, Reiske's simple cor- 
rection of its rbv (<rr€pov, is much the 
best, rbv Garepov cannot be defended by 
understanding XP° V0V ' the two passages 
in which rov del has been explained as 
rbv del "xjpbvov are both corrupt (O. C, 
1584, EL 1075). — The redundancy of rbv 
Xonrbv rfi-q after els r6 7 verepov is not 
greater than that in Ph. 1103 ff. 6s r}di) 
per ovSevbs vcrepov \ dvdpwv el<rowl<na 
rdXas...6XodfjMi: where the text is certain. 
For other conjectures, see Appendix. — 



TPAXINIAI 



17 



Hy. He is waging or planning a war, they say, upon 
Euboea, the realm of Eurytus. 

De. Knowest thou, my son, that he hath left with me sure 
oracles touching that land ? 

Hy. What are they, mother? I know not whereof thou 
speakest. 

De. That either he shall meet his death, or, having achieved 
this task, shall have rest thenceforth, for all his days to come. 

So, my child, when his fate is thus trembling in the scale, 
wilt thou not go to succour him ? For we are saved, if he find 
safety, or we perish with him. 

HY. Ay, I will go, my mother ; and, had I known the 
import of these prophecies, I had been there long since ; but, as 
it was, my father's wonted fortune suffered me not to feel fear 

for him, or to be anxious overmuch. 

84 f. rj ttItctoimv (rod icaroba ££o\<a\6ro<r \ Keivov (3lov auxravroa 17 o/xfy*€<r0' &/*a L, 
with three dots (:•) after 04m. So the other mss. : except that one or two (as L a , 
T) omit rj before olx6/ie<r$\ or have rj k olxt>M>c<r$' (as V 2 ). See below. 86 etfu 

made from elfjd in L. 87 KaTgdrj Brunck : Kar/jdrfv (not KaTQhijv) L. — iraprj 

Elmsley and Dindorf: vaprjv MSS. 88 vvv] Wakefield conj. irpip, and so 

Campb. reads. — eta Vauvilliers: iq. mss. — Brunck, changing vvv 6' to dXX', places 
w. 88, 89 after v. 91. Dindorf, following Hermann's earlier view, ejects them. 



pCorov cvafav': cp. 0. T. 518 piov...rov 
fuucpalwos. 

82 h otv (Wfj...K€ijiiv<j> : cp. 0. C. 

1 5 10 iv rf de KeTffat tov fxbpov T€Kfj.7]pl(f ; 
('what sign of thy fate holds thee in sus- 
pense?') — answering the words, jxtrr^ (Mov 
fxoi.. Alcaeus ap. Ar. Vesp. 1235 avrpk- 
yf/eis in rav iroXiv • a 5' (x eTai foiras (' its 
fate hangs in the trembling scale '). For 
/Wifr cp. also O. T. 961 n. 

88 — 86 ^vCk' r\ <rccrw<r(i€6a...olx^- 
jwoHT tipa. Verses 83 and 85 are pro- 
bably right as they stand, while v. 84 is 
spurious. The original form of the inter- 
polation was, however, I think, Kal wlir- 
rofiev <rov trarpos ^oXwXoros, intended to 
follow olx6p*<r$' afia, in order to supply 
the condition opposed to kcLvov (Mov <ru>- 
ffavros. Then it struck a reviser that the 
passage would be more forcible if Kal vlic- 
tojjlcv were changed to rj irLirTOfievy and 
v. 85 were omitted. 

This view of the original text may be 
supported by a consideration which does 
not seem to have been noticed. The very 
circumstance which prompted the interpo- 
lation — viz., the absence of the condition 
for olxopead' dfxa — is an admirable dra- 
matic touch. For, while Deianeira and 
her hearers would understand d/xa as 

J.S. V. 



meaning, &fia olxopevip, her death is really 
to be linked with his victory. 

For a similar piece of textual history, 
cp. Eur. Andr. 6, where the true text is 
vvv 5\ efns (JXX77, dvarvx^rdrrf ywy : but 
there was another reading, which made 
two verses of it : — vvv d* otiris (or vvv drj 
Hi) aXXij Svarvx^aripa yvvrj \ ifiov w4~ 
<f>vK€v r) yevqceral irore. Of the second v., 
the schol. there says, 61 wroKpnal rbv 
tafipov vpocrtSrjKav. See Appendix. 

The synizesis in i? ol\6\i*<rQ' cannot be 
strictly paralleled: but cp. Ant. £35 to 
fxrj eldtvcu. I had thought of i"j kcCJikHT, 
which derives some support from the fact 
that 1^ k (sic) olx6fJL€<j$' occurs as a variant 
(cr. n.): but itx&iv&O* is better, and is 
probably sound. 

88 vw 8' 6 fuvii&ns k.t.X. The vvp 
here, and the vvv in v. 90, are both right : 
only here we must read eta for i$, with 
Vauvilliers. The repetition of vvv is ex- 
cused by the change of sense : in v. 88 it 
means, 'as it was': in v. 90, simply 'now.' 
Cp. El. 1334 ff. ('if I had not taken care, 
ye would have been lost,') vvv 6* ev\a- 
fiaav tu)v8c TcpovOtfirfv eyu>. | Kal vvv aic- 
aWaxfttvTe tf.r.X. : where the senses of 
vvv change just as here. It is well to note 
that repetitions of common words, which 



18 



20*0KAE0YZ 



orp. 



a 



vvv 8* dk £wlr)iA, ovSev ikkeixjja) to /irj ov 90 

irda'av rrvdecrdai twvS* dkrjdeiav wept. 
AH. ya>pei vvv, & not' kclI yap vcrrepco to y ev 
7rpd(rcr€iv, eirel ttvOoito, KepSos ifiirok^. 

XOPOS. 

ov cuoXa vv£ ivapi^o/ieva 

2 TLKT€L K(lT€Vvd£ei, T€ ^kojitfifievoVy 95 

3 "AXiov, "AXiov atra) 

4 tovto Kapv^ai, tov *A\.Kfirjvas rroOi fioi ttoOl 7rcus 

5 vaUi ttot, a> Xafiirpa oTeponq. (frXeyedotv, 

6 rj irovrias av\a>j/as, rj Sicrcraurw direlpois Kkideis* IOO 

90 fit) mss. : fiij ov Branck, and so most edd. 92 vvv] vvv L. 98 ttvOoito made 
from irvdoio in L. 94 — 102 L divides the w. thus: — 6v — | tIktci — | SKtov 

SKiov — | rovTtat, — dXKfi'^va.a — | voUei — | 17 wovrlaff — | hiaaaitnv — | etir 1 — -6fXfMa. 
94 ivapi£ofi£vcL] O. Hense conj. bcavaipoiUva : K. Fecht, lACTafieifiofUva : Wecklein, 
awopifrfjJva (i.e., * on the threshold of day'): Blaydes, d<pavt^ofiiva. 97 tovto r: 



would otherwise be awkward, are often 
justified by such variations of meaning; 
see, e.g., the double d\\d in Ph. 5241?., 
and ib. 645 ff. ; and the fourfold drjra id, 

757 ff- 

For other instances of vvv with a past 

tense, cp, 0. C. 273, Ai, 445, 1060. 

90 tA jii) : it is unnecessary to write 
to fjirj ov: cp. 742: 0. T. 1387 f. ovk av 
£ax6fA7iv I to /at} *iroK\jj o*cu (n.) : Ant. 443 
ovk dirapvovfuu to fi^ : Ph. 348 ff. 

92 £ Kal -ydp vcrr&xp = jccU {'even') 
voripip ydp. This use of koX ydp, — where 
Kal affects a following adj., — is somewhat 
rare; but cp. fr. 86. 9 koI ydp dvveidet 
awfia Kal dvffiovvfMv \ y\tacr<rjj <jo<p6v Tid-q- 
fftv etc. : O. T. 334 koX ydp av irirpov etc. : 
Au 669 Kal ydp rd detvd etc. More often, 
in such cases, ydp follows that which Kal 
affects, as Ph. 1268 koX rd irpiv ydp. 

t6 y* ci5 I irpounrciv: for the place of 
the art., cp. 0. C. 265 n. 'Even to one 
who is late, good fortune, if he should 
ever hear of it, brings gain.' The gene- 
ral sentiment, 'better late than never,' is 
adapted to the particular case. Hyllus 
is going in search of tidings ; and even 
now, if he hears good tidings, he will 
have his reward. The words iirel irv- 
Ooiro make it clear (I think) that to ev 
irpdffffeiv has here its ordinary sense, * far- 
ing well,' — not the much rarer sense, ' act- 
ing aright' (like irpdffvovra koKQs, O. C. 
1 764 ru) . The optat. gives abstract gener- 
ality, which suits a yvio/xrj (Ant. 606 n. ). 



— tpiroXf . Any profitable action may be 
said, by a metaphor from trading, to 
'bring in' gain. The bold phrase here is 
qualified by the fact that to ev irpdrvew 
is followed by eirel tvOolto. It is not, 
strictly, the thing ascertained, but the act 
of ascertaining it, that £/xiro\q, xipBos. — 
Distinguish the phrase in Ph. 303 ifa/iwo- 
\ri<T€i xtpdos (' sell off wares at a profit'). 

94 — 140 Parodos. (1) 1st strophe, 
94 — 102, = 1st antistr., 103 — 11 1. (2) 
2nd str., 112 — 121, = 2nd antistr., 122 — 
131. (3) Epode, 132 — 140. For the 
metres see Metrical Analysis. 

The Chorus now enters. The free-born 
maidens of Trachis who compose it are 
the friends and confidantes of Deianeira, 
who to them is dvavaa (137), but not W<r- 
irotva (49). 

They have not heard the news that 
Heracles is, or will soon be, in Euboea 
(74 f.). O that the Sun-god would tell 
them where he is, on sea or land ! Mean- 
while Deianeira must not lose heart. Joy 
follows grief; and Zeus is mindful of his 
children. 

94 f. allXo, 'gleaming' with stars : 
cp. 11 : Eur. fr. 590 vepl d' 6p<f>vala \ «>£ 
aioXoxpus, ajcpiTos t a<rrpwv | tixXos. — 4va- 
pigopiva might be merely 'slain,' but 
seems here to have its proper sense, 'slain 
and despoiled.' One point which favours 
this view has not been noticed. The in- 
verted order of the words ('chiasmus') has 
its usual effect for the ear, — viz., to indi- 



TPAXINIAI 



19 



Now that I have the knowledge, I will spare no pains to learn 
the whole truth in this matter. 

De. Go, then, my son ; be the seeker ne'er so late, he is 
rewarded if he learn tidings of joy. 

Chorus. 

Thou whom Night brings forth at the moment when 1st 
she is despoiled of her starry crown, and lays to rest in thy strophe, 
splendour, tell me, I pray thee, O Sun-god, tell me where abides 
Alcmena's son ? Thou glorious lord of flashing light, say, is 
he threading the straits of the sea, or hath he found an abode 

on either continent ? 

Totfrwi L. — *capv£cu] K<ipv£cu L. 98 vbdi fioi irbOi /tot vo£<r L, with most MSS.: irodi 
/ML irhBi irats T (with Triclinius). irodi fioi irbdi /xol (omitting ireus), Wunder. Schnei- 
dewin conj. wbdi /tot irbOi 76s. 99 Xa/AirpcU ffrepoiroU made by S from Xa/xirpd, 

arepoTb. in L. IOO f. irovrlaa L (with ov written over a by first hand) : ttovtIovs 
A, with most of the other mss. — dL<T<raicnv direipois Erfurdt. The mss. have Siffaaiaur 



cate that <j>Xovi£<$jicvov balances 4vapi£o- 
\Uva, as Karcwdtcc balances tCktci. And 
this is so, if ivafn^o/ieva implies, not only 
'slain,' but * despoiled,' — thus serving, 
with aloXa, to suggest that bright panoply 
which Night is still wearing when the 
Dawn comes to vanquish her, — ere the 
Sun-god has yet issued from her womb. 
Cp. Aesch. Ag. 279 ttjs vxjv TetcofoTjs <pios 
rod* eu<f>p6vt]S. 

The text has been much suspected (see 
cr. n.), but without reason. The imagery, 
indeed, does not form a consistent whole : 
Night is slain, and then overcomes. But 
this is merely one of many instances in 
which the poet's language wavers between 
the figurative and the literal. 

KaTcw<££ci tc <|>\oyi&4|uvov. The pas- 
sage is marred by placing the comma, as 
some do, after re, and taking the partic. 
with clItio. Cp. Byron, Corsair, canto 
in.: 'Slow sinks, more lovely ere his 
race be run, | Along Morea's hills the 
setting sun ; | Not, as in northern climes, 
obscurely bright, | But one unclouded 
blaze of living light.' 

97 Tovro is in appos. with r6v 'AXxjiij- 
vas ir40i...vaCei. The objection to taking 
tcopvgai as governing a double ace. (like 
Xeyeiv rivd ti) is, here, that the emphasis 
on tovto would then be unsuitable ; since, 
under the circumstances, the knowledge 
which they desire about Heracles can be 
only, irodi vaiei. 

98 iro0i pot ir60i irats. In the MS. 
reading, irodi /aoi irodi fioi ireus, either the 
second /tot, or vats, must be omitted : the 



ant is trophic words are pXeQdpw wbdov, 
a\X' (107). The strong reason for retain- 
ing irats is that, as the constr. would have 
been so clear without it, it is very unlikely 
to have been inserted; while the repeti- 
tion of |u>i would have been a most easy 
er-ror. For txJv * AXtcp. , followed by iratfs 
in the relat. clause, Schneidewin cp. Eur. 
H. F. 840 yvtp jjJkv tov "Hpas oZos cor* 
airnp X^os, and id. fr. 1039. 3 6p$s tov 
evrpairefov us ^5i>s (Mot. 

Porson is cited by Wunder and other 
editors as the authority for omitting ireus. 
But Porson (on Hec. 1030) said only that 
it is possible to omit irots, — adding that it 
is better to retain it (omitting the second 
/mm): — 'potes ejicere ireuf et legere *r60t 
fioi irodi fMoi. Sed alteram melius.' 

99 <3...<|>\ry{fav : for this direct in- 
vocation (continued in 102), following 
"AXtoy cUtu>, cp. O. T. 164 -KpofyoMiyrt /xol 
(after "Aprepuv and $o?fiov). — <mpoir£, 
usu. 'lightning,' here, 'flashing light'; so 
the word is used of flashing armour (//. 
11. 83, etc.). 

IOO f. ij irovTCas...K\iOfts. The gene- 
ral sense is simply, 'where is he on sea or 
land ?' irovKas, rather than irovriovs (see 
cr. n.), is probably right. According to 
Athenaeus (p. 189 d), avX&v is masc. in 
Attic prose, but fern, in poetry : he quotes 
Soph. (fr. 503) itraKrias a&X&vas, and 
Carcmus (fr. 1) padeicw els a&XQva. Al- 
though, then, irdvnos could be used as an 
adj. of two terminations, Soph, may have 
preferred the distinctively fern, form here. 
In Aesch. P. V, 731, however, the word 

2 — 2 



20 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



¥ 9 



dvr. a. 



7 eiTT , CO KpaTL<rT€V(0V KCLT OflfJLOL. 

irodovfievq. yap <f>p€vl irwddvofiai 

2 rav d[JL<f)LV€LKrj kiqidveipav del, 

3 ota tlv ddXiov opviv, 105 

4 ovttot evvdtjeiv dSaKpvrojv fiXecfrdpajv rroOov, aXX* 

5 evfivacrTov dvSpos Setfia Tpe<f>ov<rav 68ov 

6 ivOvfiLois €wai§ dvavSpcoTOLcri Tpv^ecrOai,, ica/cai/ 1 10 

7 8voTai/oi> iXrri^ovaav alcrav. 

<rrp. ft. 7roXXa yap wot dtcdfiavTos rj votov rj ft o pea ris 

direipoiatv (L), dt<r<rai<riv iireipOKTi (A, Aid.), or diaffats airelpois (T). 102 /car fyt/*a] 
Nauck conj. irapforra. 108 voBovfiiva] Nauck conj. irddov irkia: Musgrave, 



is masc. , auXu)^' iicirepap ~M.cuiotik6i> (of the 
Cimmerian Bosporus). 

The constr. is, iro8i (=irov) vaCci if 
irovrCas avXaivas rj 8ur<r. ctircCpois kXi- 
Ocfe; lit., * where he is situated, either on 
the sea-straits, or in a resting-place on 
one of the two continents.' vaCci thus 
governs an ace. in the first clause, while 
in the second it stands intransitively with 
a partic. For a similar difference in form 
between the clauses after rj — r[, cp. Thuc. 
4. 5 h dXiytapia itroiovvro [rods AdT/valavs), 
10S...V ovx virofievovvT as <r<pas, 17 pqdlws 
\r}\f/6fjL€voi. (3la : where the ace. htrofievovv- 
ras (governing <r</>as) is better taken as 
depending on the verb than as absol. 
For valetv as = merely 'to be in a place,' 
cp. 0. C. 117, vov valet, said, as here, of 
a wanderer. 

8ur<r. dircCpois icXiOcfe, lit., 'resting up- 
on' them, as on a support; i.e., having 
found an abode on land, instead of roam- 
ing over sea. The phrase was suggested 
by the epic use of K&Xi/wu, as said {a) of 
land which slopes down to the water's 
edge, — thus, as it were, 'resting on' the 
water; Od. 13. 234 okt^j \ kcW dX2 kckXl- 
lUvq : (6) of a person who dwells on the 
edge of water ; 77. 5. 709 \Iiwq kckKiiUvos 
Ki)<pt<rl8i (where see Leaf): id. 15. 740 
ir6vr(fi KCKXtfUvoi (the Greeks 'leaning on' 
the sea) : id. 16. 67 /njyfuvi da\d<r<rris \ kc- 
icXlarcu. So in Pind. O. 1. 92 the buried 
Pelops is described as 'AX0eoD irofxp k\l- 
dds, 'resting by' (lit. 'upon') 'the stream 
of the Alpheus.' Here, however, Soph, 
has modified the usage, — the dat. denoting 
land, not water; and the sense is not, 
dwelling 'on the shore of either conti- 



nent, but simply, anywhere within their 
limits. 

This use of Surcraunv is possible only 
because ir<J8i precedes. We could not say 
{e.g.), 8t<T<rdls Jiweipois oltcei, meaning 'he 
dwells in one of the two continents. ' But 
it is correct to say, vov 5ur<rais fyrcipots 
olxet; meaning, 'where in (either of) the 
two continents is his home?' 

' The two continents ' (Europe and Asia, 
Africa being included in the latter) mean, 
' the habitable world. ' Isocr. or. 4 § 1 79 
TTjs yap yijs dirdcrrfs ttjs {/tto t<£ KOffpup icei- 
fUvqS 3Lxa T€T/A7lfl£VTlS 9 Kol rrjs fikv * Adas 

ttjs 6' iitipunnis KoKovfuhris. Varro De 
Ling. Lai. 4 Ut omnis naiura in caelum 
et terram divisa est, sic caelum in regiones, 
terra in Asiam et Europam. (Sallust, 
however, remarks that the division into 
three continents had been more usual: 
Jug. 17.) 

•jrovKas avXwvas is merely a general 
expression for the sea. The phrase was 
suggested by the Aegaean, with its inter- 
fusa nitentes \ ...aequora Cycladas (Hor. 
C. 1. 14. 19). Paley understands:— 'Is 
he near home, in the Euripus (crfXcwas), or 
midway between both continents, i.e. t 
in the Hellespont?' Mr Whitelaw, too, 
thinks that the Hellespont is meant, and 
that dure, airelpois = * on a slope looking 
towards both continents,' — the sea being 
regarded as an eminence. 

102 Kparurrcvwv tear' ftpua: cp. LI. 
3. 2 7 7' H i\io s d\ 6s tt&vt £<f>opas koI v&vt 
ivaKotieis. For Kara, cp. 379; O* T. 1087 
Kara yv&fjuav tdpts, n. 

103 iroQov\Uv<t = trodotiffji, a midd. 
found only here, yet not suspicious, since 



TPAXINIAI 



21 



Speak, thou who seest as none else can see ! 

For Deianeira, as I hear, hath ever an aching heart ; she, ist anti- 
the battle-prize of old, is now like some bird lorn of its mate ; strophe, 
she can never lull her yearning, nor stay her tears; haunted 
by a sleepless fear for her absent lord, she pines on her anxious, 
widowed couch, miserable in her foreboding of mischance. 

As one may see billow after billow driven over the wide * nd 

strophe. 

vovoviUvq. : Meineke, wroovfjukvq. : O. Hense, <f>o^ovfi4vq,. 104 rdv] top (not rav) L. 
108 rptyovoav Casaubon: <ptpov<rav MSS. 109] evvais] €$vou$ r 1 Triclinius. 

112 — 121 L divides the vv. thus: — ttoXXA — | rj vbrov — | Kij/xar' — | pdvr 1 — | 
otirut — | Tp4<f>€i — | ToK&wwor — | Kprffcwv — | aUv — | <r0€ — ipdicet. — O. Hense, 
whom Nauck follows, places w. 112 — 121 after w. 122 — 131. 118 popta L: 

fioptov r. 



the context excludes the pass, sense. The 
'longing mind* is clearly Deianeira's; vo- 
OovfjSva could not well denote the 'anxious* 
or 'tender' feeling of the Chorus. As 
irw6avofi<u is devoid of emphasis, — like 
a parenthetic 'so I hear,' — the order of 
the words is not too bold. 

104 rav d|Jwf>ivciKT] : cp. 527: Aesch. 
Ag. 686 rav doplyafippov d/Mpiveucr} 0' '13X4- 
vav. Not, 'with two suitors' (Paley). — 
act belonged, in the poet's thought, to 
rpvyjurQai, but is cut off from it by the 
adversative form in which the sentence is 
worked out (ovtcot e&vdfciv..., d\\\ in- 
stead of oihroT e&vdfavffcw). It could not 
well be taken with irodovfUva: still less 
with rrvvddvofiax. 

106 ftpviv. The nightingale may be 
meant (cp. 963, EL 148 dlrw adtv "lrvv 
6\o<pvp€Tcu); but it is also possible that 
the image is general, as in Ant. 423 ff. 

106£ docucpvrcov proleptic : cp. Ant, 
1200 6pyds e&fji€V€is KCLTaffxefeTp, and id. 
791 n. — pXcijxifKov iroOov : cp. fr. 729 6/ifid- 
reios wodos. 

108 It is simplest to construe «tt- 
|&vcurrov StijMt oSov dvSpds, though the 
adj. might go with dvdpos, and deifxa with 
6dov only. Casaubon's emendation Tp€*- 
<fx>v<rav (cp. 28) has been generally re- 
ceived. But the MS. 4^pov<rav must not 
be lightly rejected. It right, it means 
• bearing' as a burden; cp. 0. T. 93 r&vde 
yap irXtov <f>4pu) \ rb rrivdos. The word is, 
however, much more suitable to t4v8os 
than to Seifia. And we cannot compare 
passages in which (ptpeiv is said of the 
temper or mood which a person ' carries' 
within him, as Eur. Hipp* 1 18 <rir\dyxyov 
Zvtovov (ptpuv (cp. Ant. 705 n., and ib. 



1 090). A scribe might easily have written 
<f>4pov<rav for Tp£<pov<rav by a mere slip, — 
as the true J?j8a\' became i\ap in PA. 680, 
or as in Ant. 180 the true <popov seems to 
have been made in L from aoifrov: cp. also 
the variant fxtveiv for vifioi below, in 163. 
On the whole, I believe that Tptyowav 
is right. 

llOf. IvOvpCois ci5vais dvavSp«6roi<rt 
rpvxc<r6ai, lit., is afflicted by that deso- 
lateness of her bed which is always in 
her thoughts, = ivBvfxovyukvqv evicts dvav- 
dp&rovs rpijx€<r6ai. This may be freely 
rendered, ' pines on her anxious, widowed 
couch. ' But the dat. is really causal, not 
locative; and the schol.'s explanation of 
iv$v/jdois by /xeptfxmrjTiKais ('full of care') 
assumes a sense which seems neither neces- 
sary nor tenable. Everywhere else ir$6- 
pnos means 'dwelling in the mind,' and is 
said of that which lies heavy on the soul, 
as a cause of misgiving or anxiety. So 
O. T. 739 ri 5' i<rrl <roi tout,' Oldlwovs, 
£v$v/Juov;—ikirClowrav, of evil foreboding, 
as iXrlfa in At. 'jgg.-^wrravov. Deianeira. 

112 iroXXd -ydp.-.tSoi. For Ktifiara 
rj v6tov rj popta (waves belonging to, i.e. 
raised by, them), cp. //. 2. 396 rov b* (sc. 
ffKQireXov) ov wore K^/iara \elwet \ rravroitav 
dvipMv. 3t' &v iv6' rj IvQa yfrwPTcu. Note 
the last clause as parallel with the men- 
tion of two opposite winds here, — showing 
that Sophocles had that passage in mind.— 
kv\uit* dv...t8oi is clearly right: cvpfi 
irovry is a locative dat. of a common 
kind, like El. 174 /Uyai ovpav$ | Zeus. 

Three other views claim notice. (1) 4v, 
not dv, should be inserted after tajfjiar, 
and tSot taken as a potential opt., 'might 
see.' But in Attic poetry the opt. is so 



22 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



2 KvficLT *av evpei rrovra) pavr emovra r iooi, 115 

3 ovro) he tov KaS/ioyeinj ^arpe^et, to 8* au^ct, /3i6tov 

ttoXvttovov axrirtp rrekayos 

4 Kpijcnov. aXXa ns deoiv aUv dvafiTrXaKr/Tov *Ai8a 

cr<^€ S6fi(t)v ipvtcei. 120 



arr, 



• p • cuv €7rifJL€n<f)OfL€va cr *aiooia //,«', curia o 



otcrct). 



2 c/>a/u yd/) ouk drroTpveiv i\mSa tolv dyaddv 125 

3 xpfjvaL cr ,# dvdkyrjra yap ov8* 6 rrdvra Kpaxvwv fia- 

(rikeus ine/Sake Ovarois KpoviSas' 

114 KtificLT' av evpi'C Porson and Wakefield: KVfjuir* h evpt'C Erfurdt: k6imit > evpii' 
MSS. (/cu/xara ei)p# Triclinius) : eup^'t xvfiara Brunck. 116 ^rtdWa t' tdoi MSS. 

For Wot, Erfurdt gave f6fl. hridvr 9 cu> tdoi Zippmann (with tv evpii' in v. 114), 
and so Subkoff: cWit' £y Wots Hense, with ij (3op4a tov (instead of Tts) in 113. 
117 <rrp4<f>€t Reiske: Tptyei MSS. In B and Lc the gloss rd /ikw precedes rp£<pei. 
— rd 5'] too" B, T. — atf£et made from a£« by S in L. 118 uxrvep A : wore L. 

120 dyafjLTrXdKTjrov] drr^js^ffCv L (and so Hesych., dnXdicrrrov, dpa/xdpTTjTOv). But 



used only where there is some stress on 
the notion of the possible or conceivable ; 
as in Ant, 605 Tts...Kard<rx.ot; (n.) : see 
O. C, Append, on 170, p. 275 (2d ed.). 
(2) iv is to be inserted, but t8ot changed 
to 18jj, an epic subjunct. of comparison, 
as in 77. 2. 474 f. tSoT€...diaKplvuxriv. But 
there is no Attic example of this ; for in 
Eur. Hec. 1026 the iKviaji of the mss. 
should be emreoet (3) The objection to 
Zippmann's compromise — jciJ/wit' 4v. .Sdvr 
iwiovT &v — ^ the harsh asyndeton, which 
is foreign to the poet's manner. 

Pavr tirtlvra t', lit., 'having passed 
by, and coming on.' The spectator sees 
wave after wave go by. — Others under- 
stand, * driven back, and then coming on 
again' (Blaydes, 'ebbing and flowing'). 
This gives a forced sense to pdvr . 

116 ff. ofrrw 81: cp. El. 25 ff. woirep 
yap t'mros...<Jjo , avT(i)$ Si av. — tov Kao- 
|urycvtj (cp. O. T* 1, n.), not merely be- 
cause he was born at Thebes {Qypayevfis, 
Hes. Th. 530) ; but because, though Alc- 
mena and Amphitryon were Argive Per- 
seidae, the youthful Heracles had been 
adopted into the 'Cadmean' nobility of 
Thebes. This was symbolised by the 
tripod dedicated on the boy's behalf in 
the Ismenion, after he had served as 8a<f>- 
va<p6pos of the Ismenian Apollo. (Paus. 
9. 10. 4.) 

Construe: — fShlrov iroXvirovov hri\a- 
70s), &<nra> ircXayos Kpiionov, (to fih) 
orptyci to 0' ati(ci r6v KaopoyfVfj. With 
Kpijo-vov cp. Hor. C. 1. 26. 1 ff. The 



image is that of a strong swimmer buffet- 
ing a rough sea. One wave twists him 
aside (orptyci) from his course : the next 
sweeps him onward, lifting him on its 
crest. It is characteristic of Sophocles 
that, in the second clause, he has pre- 
ferred atfgci to atpei, through thinking of 
that which the uplifting wave figures, — 
viz., the honour won by the hero. For 
the omission of rb p.kv (implied by r6 8') 
before orp^et, cp. //. 22. 157 tJ pa 
trapadpafiiTTjVj <pevyuv, 6 d" oVtotfe dabicutv. 
Remark that piorov iroXvirovov could not 
stand for to /3i6tou iroXiJiroyoi' : and the to 
6' before a0£et in no way alters this fact. 
It is therefore necessary, as it is easy, to 
supply ir^\o7os from what follows. 

Among those who receive orptya 
(due to Reiske) are Dindorf, Nauck, 
Wecklein, Hartung. The last-named, 
however, takes it as =* overturns,' re- 
ferring it to the swimmer being plunged 
down into the trough of the sea. For 
this sense of o-Tp^0eti», see on O* C. 
i453f. But here the idea of 'turning 
aside or back' better suits the image 
of reverses alternating with triumphs. 
o~Tp£<p€iv was said of the wrestler who 
'twists back' his foe (Pollux 3. 155: cp. 
dirovTptxf/as in Ar. Eq. 264). 

As to the MS. Tptyci, we may ob- 
serve: — (1) Eur. Hipp* 367 w irbvot, Tp4- 
<f>ovTes /SpoTotfs may fairly be quoted to 
show that the sense here might be, 
'troubles make up the life of Heracles.' 
(2) But the context seems to show that, 



TPAXINIAI 



23 



deep by the tireless south-wind or the north, so the trouble of 
his life, stormy as the Cretan sea, now whirls back the son of 
Cadmus, now lifts him to honour. But some god ever saves 
him from the house of death, and suffers him not to fail. 

Lady, I praise not this thy mood ; with all reverence will I *nd anti- 
speak, yet in reproof. Thou dost not well, I say, to kill fair hope stro P he - 
by fretting; remember that the son of Cronus himself, the all- 
disposing king, hath not appointed a painless lot for mortals. 

the schol. in L has the true &pafnr\&Krrrov, in which /*, having been accidentally 
omitted, is written over *■, — thus illustrating the origin of dirkiicrjTov. — "Aida] dtda 
L, A, etc. : aXda B. 121 iptiicei] iptiKoi T. 122 t. iirifi€fj.<po/x^va <r' r : L has 

iirtfKfKpofi^vacT, followed by a full stop (a. having been inadvertently substituted for 
<r ). — aldoia Musgrave: &deia MSS. O. Hense conj. tdeiaa (Nauck, <re|$«(ra) : Subkoff, 
<tol I Xeta. 127 araKyrjTa] M. Schmidt conj. av&XKaKTa. 128 Irl/faXe r: 

^J3a\\e L. 



instead of this, we require a word (a) 
which shall convey the idea of vexing, 
and (b) which can be opposed to a0£et. 
For other views of the passage, see Ap- 
pendix. 

119ft dXXd: {though he is harassed), 
yet he is not suffered to perish (cp. 88). 
Since the words r& 8' av£ci may be re- 
garded as parenthetical, the idea of 
trouble remains the dominant one in the 
sentence before dXXa : hence the anti- 
thesis is logical. — dva|i.ir\cCKT|Tov, 'un- 
erring,* in the sense, 'not stumbling or 
failing,' Avraiarow (schol.), &<r<pa\r). Cp. 
0. T. 472 Kijpet dvair\dKT)TOi. As to the 
forms with and without /a, see n. there. — 
IpvKCi, a somewhat strange phrase (though 
B6.vo.rov ipfaeiv rtvds would be natural), 
since it might suggest that he wished to 
reach Hades: cp. //. 18. 126 iiifii fi' 

122 <Sv, causal gen.: II. 1. 65 e^xwXiJs 
hrifiifi^erai : Thuc. 8. 109 fUfA\fniTat...T&v 
...yeyevripJvwv. The pron. refers back to 
w. 103 — in, which spoke of Deianeira's 
laments. There is no real obscurity in 
this, since her grief is the main theme of 
the ode, and the second strophe (112 — 
121) referred to the fate of Heracles as 
the cause of that grief. 

Hense (whom Nauck follows) thinks 
that this second antistrophe (122 — 131) 
requires to be transposed, so as to become 
the second strophe, immediately follow- 
ing v. in. But this change is worse than 
unnecessary. It is liable to the fatal ob- 
jection that w. 132 ff. (pAvei yb\p etc.) are 
then severed from the thought which they 
develope (w. 129 — 131 dXX' M T7/yua koX 



Xapd etc.). They are brought into a con- 
text which does not suit them (vv. 119 — 
121 aXXd nt OeCov etc.). 

128 alSota, Musgrave's correction of 
dScto, is certain. In L the d of ddeta is 
at the end of a v., and the loss of t after 
it would have been peculiarly easy (see 
Autotype Facsimile, p. 66 a). The diffi- 
culty of dScta is not the construction, 
which, if somewhat harsh, is quite pos- 
sible : ' I will counsel in a pleasant vein * 
(the adj. used adverbially), 'though the 
counsel is adverse.' The objection is the 
sense. * In a pleasant vein ' must mean, 
'suggesting thoughts of comfort': as in 
0. T. 82 ^5tfs, ' pleasant,' = 'bringing 
good news.' But, since dvria expresses 
remonstrance against her despair, there is 
then no proper antithesis with dStfa. 
Further, the word required by the con- 
text is clearly one which shall temper 
opposition with deference : as alSota does. 
— oE<ra>, prof er am, 'bring forward,' 'sug- 
gest': cp. O. C. 166 \6yov ct Tiv' oftrets | 
irpds e/xdv \iaxav. Isocr. or. 7 § 6 ro&rotv 
iveyicciv £x w irapadelyfMTa. Not, 'give 
an adverse judgment,' like ypij<pov <pep€tv. 

124 f. ydp, prefacing the statement 
(0. T. 277 n.). — diroTpvctv, 'fret away.' 
The midd. occurs in Ant. 339 yav...diro- 
rp&ercu. (Cp. Tac Hist. 2. 76 si quid... 
ferociae habuit,...commissationibus deteri- 
tur.) — IXirffia rdv dyaOdv, that brighter 
forecast which the case permits: cp. Ai. 
606 kclkw iXirtd 1 ix uv ' 

128 ft dvd\yr]Ta, a lot with no pain 
in it; for the absol. neut. pi., cp. Od. 8. 
a 1 3 deol dc rot <5\/3ta doicv. Elsewhere 
wd\yrfTos= t insensible to pain,' or 'un- 



€7T. 



24 IO<t>OKAEOYI 

4 aXX* hri 7rrjiia k<h x a P^ iraa KVKkovaiVy oXov apicrov 
or/xx^aScs KeXevuoi. 130 

fievei, yap ovt aioXa 

Vvi; /3pOTOl<TLV OVT€ K7)p€S 

ovre 7tXovtos, dXX' a<j>ap 

fiefiaKe, r<p 8* iiripxerai 

yaipeiv re kol crepeo'dai. 135 

a ical ere rav avaco'av ikmcrw Xeyco 

rao ai«> i<r)(€iv enei ns a>0€ 

t4kvomti Ztjv af$ov\ov elSev ; 

AH. irenvcriievr) /lev, cos cnrei/cacrcu, irdpei 



140 



129 iH?Aia *ai x a P^ made from tt^/mitl kq! xap&t in L. For x a /^ Hermann wrote 
Xapap. 180 oloi'] Nauck writes ate*. 182 oUt' aloXa vj>£] Meineke conj. 



feeling. ' — ov8* 6 irdvra Kp. K.T.X.: 'a 
painless lot not even Zeus hath appointed/ 
i.e.j 'Zeus himself hath not appointed.* 
It is the will of Zeus himself that mortals 
should have pain along with joy. For 
this use of oufe, emphasising a person, 
cp. 280: O. C. 590 (n. on ov5£ <rol). In 
fl. 5. 22 ov 5 £ yap o&de xev avrbs iireKipvyc 
(as in Od. 8. 32, a like case), it is the 
second ovSe, belonging to atirds, that is 
parallel with ov8* here. — Mf3aXc: since 
the reference is to an eternal law, it seems 
best to take the aor. as=a perfect, rather 
than as gnomic ('usually imposes'). For 
the sense, cp. Eur. Med, 11 12 tws ovv 
Xtfei... I Tfivtf kri \61n1v... \ OvrfroZot. Oeotos 
iiup&XXeiv ; II. 6. 357 ohriv iirl Zei)s diJKe 
Kdicbv fibpov. 

1 29 t. kir\. . . kvkXov<tiv = iiriKVK\ov<Ti, 
by tmesis: 'come round in turn* to all. 
Others prefer to join M. irocrt, ' over the 
heads of all,' thinking that this suits the 
imagery (from stars) better; but the first 
view seems more in accord with idiom. 
There is no other sound instance of an 
intrans. kukXclv in a writer of the 5th 
cent. B.C.; for in El. 1365 jcvjcXoOptcu is 
probably right ; it was so written by the 
first hand in L, and then altered by an- 
other to icwcXowri. But Arist. uses dva- 
KvicXeir intransitively : De Gen, et Corr, 2. 
11 (p. 338 a 4) dv ay Kti {Hjv y beaut) dpa- 
kvkXciv koI draK&fnrreu' : and so again in 
Meteor. 1. 3 (p. 339 b 28). In later Greek, 
too, this usage was current, as appears from 
Plut. Mor. 160 F (6e\<t>u>et...KVK\oviTet). 



There is no reason, then, for doubting that 
Soph, admitted the use here ; cp. the in- 
trans. imviafiay and irpo<T€vdofxa in /%. 168, 
717. Nauck, holding with Herm. that 
kvkXov<tiv must be transitive, adopts his 
Xapdv for xap^ an d further changes olov 
to aUv, thus destroying the beautiful 
simile, and reducing dpKTOv..M\ev0oi to 
an equivalent for ireptreWdficvai tSpai. 

dpicrov <rrp<M^<£8cs K&cvfoi. As the 
Great Bear moves ever round the pole, 
so joy and sorrow come round in un- 
ceasing rotation.  The peculiar fitness of 
the comparison is in the fact that the 
Bear never disappears below the horizon : 
H. 18. 487 Apicrov t\..7J t' aitrov ffrpe- 
06rcu, 'that revolves in its place? — 'having 
no share in the baths of Ocean.' Ov. 
Met. 13. 293 imtnunetnque aequoris arc ton. 

Cp. Soph. fr. 396 dpKTOV <TTpO<t>&S T€ KOl 

Kvvbs yj/vxpav Svaw. 

182 ft ovt' atoXa (94) vv{ k.t.X., 
the 'paratactic' form, instead of, 'as 
night does not abide, so neither does 
woe,' etc. — Krjpcs, here merely 'calami- 
ties,' ffvfupopal, a sense recognised by 
Hesych. s. v. irfjpes. The sing. oft. has 
this meaning (cp. 454): but the plur. 
usu. denotes either (a) 'the Fates,' as in 
O. T. 472, or at least 'dfeoM-dooms,' as 
in H. 12. 326. 

dXX' otyap fKfkiicc : the subject is each 
of the preceding nouns, the verb agreeing 
in number with the nearest {O. C. 8 n.): 
'but (each) is suddenly gone (from one), 
while joy, and the loss of it, come to 



TPAXINIAI 



25 



Sorrow and joy come round to all, as the Bear moves in his 
circling paths. 

• 

Yea, starry night abides not with men, nor tribulation, nor Epode. 
wealth ; in a moment it is gone from us, and another hath his 
turn of gladness, and of bereavement. So would I wish thee 
also, the Queen, to keep that prospect ever in thy thoughts; for 
when hath Zeus been found so careless of his children ? 

De. Ye have heard of my trouble, I think, and that hath 

ofrr' d/xap o&re [? ou] ?i>£. 184 pipaice r: ptfaKe L. 139 rdS y alb] 

Hense conj. Kebvaunv. 140 rAcpoun] riKvoicnv L. a@ov\ov] Wecklein conj. 

ayvw fjioi>\ 141 aireiKacrcu MSS. : Hermann conj. toreucdaai: Wunder, adtf 
eU&ffcu, 



another man in his turn.' — t$ 8' is opposed 
to the r<p yukv implied in the preceding 
clause. It is true that the main point is 
the changing experience of the individual, 
rather than the transference of joy or woe 
to his neighbour. But these two notions 
are closely linked here by the image of 
joy and woe coming round, as the Bear 
revolves about the pole. Cp. Her. i. 
207 (Croesus to Cyrus), iieeivo vp&rov 
fi&de, c!>s kvk\os twv dvdpwwqluv iffrl 
TrpTjy/x&TCM, W€pi<f>€p6fi€vos Si otiic iq. 
alel roifs airobs etirvxeeiv. — For \ai- 
pciv re ical <rWpc<r0ai as. nomin. (without 
art.) to tirlpxcTcu, cp. Aesch. Ag. 181 

Tap* CUCOVTCLS 7J\0€ <T(ti(PpOV€lV. 

Other views are as follows. (1) The 
constr. is, dXXd x°^P €lv T€ Ka ^ <Fripe<rdai 
&<pap (34(3aK€ (r<£ fxtv), r<£ 5' hripxerai. 
This is less simple. (2) r$ 5'= simply 
'and to him? — i.e., to the person from 
whom woe or joy 'has gone.' But: (a) 
Ttji 5* surely implies an antithesis. \b) 
The clause ry 5 ivipx^rai k.t.X. would 
thus mean merely, — 'and then his ex- 
periences begin over again.' 

187 ff. <£, 'as to which things,' 
'wherefore': Isocr. or. 8 § 122 & koL 
tt&vtcw fxdXiar' av tis davtxdaeiep 8ti wpo- 
Xcipt$€<rOc drjfiayurfovs. So the sing. 8, 
Thuc. 2. 40 d rots tiWots dfxadia fxkv 
Op&ffos \oyurfibs Si Skvov <pipei. 

Others suppose that d is governed by 
tcrxctv, and that tcC8* is pleonastic. But 
this view is not proved by the alleged 
examples. They are: — (1) Eur. Andr. 
1 1 15 wv K\vt cu/xvJ}<TT pas t6kos \ ets rjv, 
dirdvruv twvSc ftrix<wopp&<t>o$. Here, how- 
ever, tar is masc, referring to the \6xos 
mentioned just before, and a comma 



should follow ijv. (2) Eur. I. A. 155 
<r<ppayl5a <f>6\cur<r y rjv ivl SiXrtp \ HpSe 
KOfdfas. Here the v. I. r^Se is clearly 
right. 

For Xfyu as = ' command,' with ace. 
and inf., cp. Ph. 101 n. — IXir&nv to*xciv: 
iv would usu. be added to the dat.: cp. 
Ant. 897 iv iXirUriv rpitfxa. So Thuc. 
2. 8 dpyij efyov . . .roifs 'AQrjvcdovs, instead 
of the regular kv dpyjj (id. 2. 18 etc). 
Cp. too O. C. 1678, iv [MSS. el] wbOy 
Xd/3ois, with Plut. Ale. 18 dpyy 8' a/ia koX 
<p6^(f) rb yeyovbs \aftpdvovrcs. — rdv dvcwr- 
crav, wife of the son of Zeus, and so 
having the better reason to hope. — 
dftavXov, having no irpbvoia for them: 
cp. El. 546 d/3o«JXov...irarp6s (alluding to 
Agamemnon's sacrifice of his daughter). 
Racine has an unconscious echo of this 
verse, Athalie, acte 2, sc. 7, 'Dieu laissa- 
t-il jamais ses enfants au besoin ?' 

141 — 496 First iireicrbbiov. Deia- 
neira confides to the Chorus her spe- 
cial cause for anxiety at this time, — viz., 
the oracle. Lichas arrives from Euboea. 
Deianeira learns the history of Iole. 

141 dirciKcunu : cp. Eur. Or. i298'EX4- 
vrp rb kAkv/jl* iarlv, wj direiKdcrcu. These 
are isolated examples of directed fa so used : 
for in O. C. 16 (where see n.) we must 
read <!>s <rd<f> f eUdatu. Elsewhere direi- 
Kdfav ri is 'to express the likeness of a 
thing,' either in art, or (as in Soph. fr. 
154. 2) by a comparison. Hence Herm. 
wished to read here the usual word inci- 
te da cu (cp. 1220). He dismissed the 
example in the Orestes by saying that 
there & direuc&acu means, 'to compare 
the voice heard with Helen's voice': but 
that is obviously a forced explanation. 



26 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



irddrj/Jia rovfLOV c5s 8* eyci OvfiocbOopa) 
fLTfr eKfidOoLS tradovaa, vvv 8* aireipos el. 
to yap vedtpv kv rototcrSc jSocricercu 
X<*>poio'Lv avrov, Kai viv ov Odktros deov, 
ovo o/jb/Spos, ovSc wvev/Marcov ovSev ickovei, 
aXX* ySovals dfioydov itjalpei /3Cov 
is rovff, lews ris dvrl wapuevov yvvrj 
K\y)djj y hafty r iv vvktl (fypovriScov fidpos, 
tJtol tt/oos dv8po$ rj T€KV(ov (ftofiov/jiepr). 

TOT dv TIS €tO"lSo6TO, TTjV OVTOV (TKOTTtoV 

wpa&v, KaKoiaw ots eyci ftapvvofjLaL. 
7rd$7) fiev ovv 8r/ ttoXX* eyoyy iKkav&dfLrjv 

€V O , (HOP OVTTG) WpOCTUCV, CLVTIK €£€/>0>. 

686v yap tJ/ios r))v rcXcvratav dva£ 
(opfL&T dif olkcov 'Hpa/cXf}?, tot iv So/xots 
XctTrci Trakatav ScXtov eyyeypa/i/jievriv 



H5 



150 



155 



148 l*/id0ois] iKfidOys Harl. — vO? 5' L, with most mss.: >w r* Harl. 146 x&poujw 
airrov] In L the first hand wrote airrov: S then placed a rough breathing over a, 
without deleting the other (cp. Ph. 715 cr. n.), thus leaving dirrov. A, with most 
mss., has avrov: but the Aldine, avrov. 146 oi>8tv kXovci] L has an erasure of 



iirciKdfa is strictly, to * enter upon* con- 
jecture, M giving the notion of advance, 
as in iirivou) : while aireiKafu, when used 
as here, is rather * to throw off,' or * hazard,' 
a guess, — dw6 being used as in diroKiv- 
Hwe&ta. 

142 Ovpo^Oopw, from the epic dvfio- 
<p06pos, occurs only here : for the form cp. 
ypvxoppdydo. 

148 (iiJt £k|m£0ois. . . vOv 8' dirctpos ct : 
i.e., *mayest thou remain ignorant, — as 
thou now art.' For the combination of a 
wish with a fact, cp. 582 ff., Ant. 686 n. — 
vOv 8' has better authority than vOv t\ 
Greek expression had a pervading bent 
towards antithesis, and this tendency some- 
times asserted itself after a sentence had 
begun in the * paratactic ' form. Thus here, 
vOv 8' sprang from the thought, ' you may, 
indeed, know in the future, — though I 
trust that you will not, — but now, at 
least, you do not. ' I therefore keep vvv 
6". Each traditional instance of tc.84 
should be carefully weighed before chang- 
ing 6V to re. Cp. 285 f., 333 f.» 11516*.: 
Ant. 1096, Ph. 131 2 {.: and for the nega- 
tive fA'fyre followed by 84, O. C. 421 f. 

144 & t6 *ydp vcrftov k.t.X. The 



young life grows in * regions of its own,' — 
sheltered, like some tender plant, from 
scorching heat, from violent rain, and 
from rough winds. toio&tSc refers to the 
preceding words, vw 5* direcpos el: i.e., 
1 such* = * thus untroubled.' For this re- 
trospective roioffde, cp. At. 148. P&r- 
Kcnu : cp. At. 558 r4<ai & icottyots wvetf- 
fjuiaiv P6jkou, v4av I ipvxhv drd\X(av. 
X»pourtv avToO: schol. rots IdLon avrov 
toitois. He notices the other reading 
avTofl, which Paley supports by the 
Homeric avrov 4vl Tpo% (//. 2. 237), etc.: 
but here it would be both weak and ob- 
scure. For the image of the sheltered 
plant, cp. 77. 18. 56 (Thetis of Achilles), 
6" dv&pafiev tpve'C Zeros, \rbv fiiv 4y& 
6p4if/ao*a, <j>vrbv ws yow$ aXtarjs k.t.X. — 

0aXiro$...6(tppos...wcv|iaT«»v : Schneid. 
cp. Od. 5. 478 (of ddfivoi) rovs fUv dp 9 
oOt* dvkfiiav bidy /xivos vypbv dkvrtav, \ 
otire iror' -fjeXtos <j>akO<av dicrurtv £jSa\\ev, | 
otir* 5/j.fipos wepdaaicc bta/ATrepes. 

The text is as clearly sound as the 
passage itself is beautiful. But numerous 
changes have been proposed: for these, 
see Appendix. Here I will only remark 
that the genuineness of the words koC 



TPAXINIAI 



27 



brought you here ; but the anguish which consumes my heart — 
ye are strangers to that ; and never may ye learn it by suffering ! 
Yes, the tender plant grows in those sheltered regions of its 
own; and the Sun-god's heat vexes it not, nor rain, nor any 
wind; but it rejoices in its sweet, untroubled being, till such 
time as the maiden is called a wife, and finds her portion of 
anxious thoughts in the night, brooding on danger to husband 
or to children. Such an one could understand the burden of my 
cares; she could judge them by her own. 

Well, I have had many a sorrow to weep for ere now ; but I 
am going to speak of one more grievous than them all. 

When Heracles my lord was going from home on his last 
journey, he left in the house an ancient tablet, inscribed with 



perh. three letters before ovbtv, and kXopcT made from kKovcw. 160 — 162 Din- 

dorf now rejects these three w.: he formerly rejected v. 150^ only (ed. i860). 
160 irpbs dvSpbs] Tournier conj. irpb rcwSpbs. 161 r6r , L: rod 1 r. — ai/rouL: 

airrov r. 



vtv — which most of the conjectures as- 
sume to be corrupt — is confirmed bv a 
fragment of the orator Antiphon (no. 
xxvin. 10 in Sauppe, Oratt. Att. vol. II. 
p. 151)* where he speaks of education as 
a permanent influence: — h vey <r(bfiari 
8rav Tts tt]v iraLdevatv yevvalav ivapday, 
flj tovto koX ddWei 5tA vavrbs rod /Slow, kclI 
airb otire 6/j.fipos otire avoftppla a^cu/Ktrai. 
The last sentence is manifestly a remi- 
niscence of Kal vlv oi daXiros Ocov \ otir 1 
ojxppos K.T.\. 

147 f. ^Sovats, a dat. of attendant 
circumstance, 'amid* them. — 4£a£p« fKov, 
'uplifts its life'; a phrase suggested 
by the image of the plant shooting up 
(cp. 77. 18. 56 dvtdpap,ev, Od. 6. 163 
tpvos dvepx^evov), but also implying, 
' exults in its life': cp. At. 1060 fiTjdev 
Hewbp tt-dpys fUvos. — l«S without &v f as 
Ph. 764, O.C. 77, Ai. 555: but *w$ &v in 
Ph. 1000, O. T. 834, O. C. 114, fr. 736. 

5- 

149 f. to wktI, though virtually 

equiv. to ivvvxlw, belongs by constr. to 
Xaft): in the (sleepless) night she re- 
ceives her portion of those cares which 
haunt a wife. Cp. 29 f.: Ar. Eq. 1290 
hvvxioucn I <ppovrl<n. — Not: *on the mar- 
riage-night.' — 4froi...^, as Ant. 11 82, 
Aesch. Ag. 662, Eur. Ion 431: but if... 
iiroL (Pind. N. 4. 5) does not occur in 
Trag. — wpds dvSpo$...^<>Pov|i{vi|, lit, 
• feeling a fear from the quarter of her 
husband'; i.e., 'fearing on his account.' 
Cp. El. 783 vvv V awijKkdryriv <p6(iov 



irpbs T7j<r8\ where the last three words 
cohere. It is needless to take the partic. 
as pass, ('alarmed by him'). 

161 f. avroQ, the masc, because, 
though thinking of a wife, she puts her 
thought in an abstract form: cp. El. *j*i\ 
oiSe yap kcikws I iraoxovTi fjuaos w t4ktj 
tcpwrylyv trail Ant. 463 (6arts). — tcaicot- 
<rtv ots = /ca/cA ots. The antecedent, when 
attracted into the case of the relat. pron., 
usu. follows it (0. C. 56), unless it stands 
at the beginning of the sentence, in ace. 
(as below, 283 n.), or, more rarely, in 
nom. (0. C. 1 1 50). But the peculiar 
form found here can be paralleled. Plat. 
Men. 96 A £x«$ otiv etiretr d\\ov brovovv 
7rpa.yp.aT0s 0$ ol fib (pderKOvres 5t5d<r- 
kcCKoi etvai...bp.o\oyovvTat k.t.X. Dem. 
or. 2 § 2 frii pjovov rr6\eu)v kclI roiruv uv 
rjpue'v irore jctfpiot <f>alve<rOat vpotefibovs. 
\icpoU<Tdai never takes a gen., like /te- 
Oleadcu.] — It is also possible to take ica- 
tcototv ots as=ofois kclkoU: for this use 
of 3j, see on O. C. 1171. But I prefer 
the other view. 

168 jUv o$v 8^ : the only Sophoclean 
instance of this formula, which was always 
rarer than either p£v ofo alone, or fiev Mj 
(627). Si) nere really =^5i/: cp. Ant. 
823 ifKovaa Slj. . 

166 ^|ios: cp. O. T. 1 134 n. — r\v 
TcXcvraCav: when he left home (for 
Lydia), fifteen months before : cp. 39 n. 

167 f. S&rov: the tablet mentioned 
in 47, recording the oracle given to 
Heracles at Dodona. — ^YYrypafi|j^vT|v 



28 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



1~vv6r\\Laff , d/jiol irpoaOev ovk erXrj wore, 
ttoXXovs dy&vas icjic&v, ovwc* <f>pdcrcu, 
dXX' c5s tl 8pd<r(ov elpwe kov uavovfievo^ 
wv o (as er owe g>i> cittc fi€i> acyovs o ti 
XP € ty p cXccr&u kttJctlv, elire S* r;z/ ritcvois 
fLoipav Trar/oaJas yfs Smu/>€Toi> vefiou, 
yjpovov irpordtjas, cJs TpL\M)vov rjviica 
•^copas direirj Kaviavcrios /3e/3(6s y 

tot rj Oaveiv XP e ^V °"^ € T ^^€ tg> XP° V( ?' 
rj Tovff VTrc/cS/oa/ioira tov ^povov rcXos 
to \oirrov r)8rj tfjv d\vTrrjT(o /3i(p. 
ToiavT €<f>pa^e irpos deaiv el/iap/ieva 
T<ov e H/oa/cXcia)i> c/CTcXcvracr^ai rrov(av % 



1 60 



165 



170 



168 dfiot] afxoi L: a /xoi Aid. 169 othru] otiicta L: otfrw Harl. : and so 

Tournier conj. 161 \£x°v*] Naber conj. Xdxow. — 6 ti] L has 3n (jjV): 

there is nothing, then, to show that the scribe meant 6V1 rather than 6 ti. But 
the Aldine and all the earlier edd. have Art. Musgrave, while keeping &tl in 
his text, first recommended 6 n (ed. 1809). l * a XP 6 * 1 ? Brunck: xp € ? $ L 

(with ei in an erasure, from 17). Cp. cr. nn. on O. T. 555, O. C. 268, Ant. 884. 
168 Siatperov L : SiatpeHjv r (as Harl.) : A has Siaipcrbv with t)v written above. 
Hermann, with Lobeck (Paralip. p. 482), writes Stalperov. — v4fUH L, with most 



(wOijpaO*, 'inscribed with tokens,' i.e., 
the writing in which Heracles had taken 
down the oracle (1167). The ace. with 
the pass, partic. denotes the object of the 
act. verb (iyypa<fxt> ^wd^fiara dcXrtp): 
cp. Her. 7. 69 Xeovrkas ivafifUvoi: Xen. 
An. 5. 4. 32 iffnyy^kvovs avde/jua: Verg. 
Eel. *. 106 inscripti nomina. The word 
(w6r)|MiTa recalls the Homeric aiifMra 
\vypd (II. 6. 168), — now generally held 
to denote some kind of alphabetic or 
syllabic writing (Introd. to Homer, p. 112, 
n. 1). In later Greek avvd^fiaTa meant 
a preconcerted cipher: Polyb. 8. 17. 9 
dvvd. Xapuv kcU ir&rreis ('a letter in cipher, 
and credentials'): cp. id. 8. 18. 9 <rvv- 
drjfMartKa ypdfifiara. There is possibly a 
touch of designed archaism in the poet's 
phrase; he may have felt that it suited 
the heroic age to speak of writing as a 
mystery. This is more likely than that 
he thought of Heracles as using secret 
symbols. 

169 dvwvas !(u»v : cp. At. 290 &<pop- 
H$s ireLpcw: Thuc. 1. 15 <TTpaT€las...oinc 
iiyeaav: Dem. or. 19 § 163 tr€...-rip wpo- 
ripav dirypopev irptapelav. — otfara», after ov, 
the compound negative after the simple, 
is normal (like ofa toriv o&8£v t etc.); not 



an irregular repetition, like that in 1014 
(n.). — ttXt), brought himself to do it: cp. 
1070. 

160 ft>S ri Spcbruv : for Spay tl (to do 
something notable), cp. O. C. 732 n.: for 
the place of ti, id. 280 n. 

161 ff. It* ovk cSv: cp. PA. 1217 £r' 
ovbtv dpu : and, for the place of fr', also 
0. T. 24 n. — etirf |Uv...ctirc 8*: epana- 
phora: 0. C. 610 n. The 64\ros (157) 
contained the oracle only. Heracles first 
expounded this (hence the aor. part, irpo- 
ragas in 164): then he gave his testa- 
mentary directions, — not in writing, but 
merely by word of mouth. 

ctirc.o n xpefr) P* &&H)ai Xi\ovs kttj- 
o*iV, ' he said what I was to take for myself 
as marriage-property, ' i.e. , * as my property 
in right of our marriage.' This means, in 
accordance with the Attic usage of the 
poet's age, that she was to take as her own 
the dowry (irpoi£) which she had brought 
to her husband, together with any gifts 
that he might have made to her. Thus a 
widow is described as diroXiirovva rbv ot- 
kov k<xX KOfxurafjUvT] rfjp irpouca, [Dem.] or. 
40 § 7. The bride's father (or other repre- 
sentative before the law, *tf/>tos) kept a 
record of the rpol^ with a view to its re- 



TPAXINIAI 



29 



tokens which he had never brought himself to explain to me 
before, many as were the ordeals to which he had gone forth. 
He had always departed as if to conquer, not to die. But now, 
as if he were a doomed man, he told me what portion of his 
substance I was to take for my dower, and how he would have 
his sons share their father's land amongst them. And he fixed 
the time ; saying that, when a year and three months should 
have passed since he had left the country, then he was fated to 
die ; or, if he should have survived that term, to live thenceforth 
an untroubled life. 

Such, he said, was the doom ordained by the gods to be 

accomplished in the toils of Heracles; 

MSS. : iUpcip A, Harl., Aid. 164 Tplfirji'os Wakefield : Tplfirjvov MSS. — 

tyUa Dawes: ^vlk* fa> MSS. 166 ai-efry] dmjei (sic) L, with et written over y, and 
rj over €i, by the first hand. — Kavtarjeios MSS. : K&vtafoiov Brunck (writing Kqjfia(i<nov). 
166 — 168 Dobree suspected these three w., which Dindorf rejects. 166 XP^V 
<r<t>c] XP C *'» $*$* L« *OT tov$'] Wunder conj. rov8\ — inreKSpa/xovra MSS. : 

Wunder and Burges conj. birepdpafidvTa, 169 TotavT'...elfiapni£va] Nauck 

proposes to read d$>v...€lp.*pix4vov> and to omit vv. 166 — 168. 170 Wunder 

and Dindorf reject this v.: O. Hense would read rbv 'HpdicXeiov tKreXevraffSau. 
irovov. (with a full stop), and place the v. before v. 169. 



covery at the husband's death, or in the 
event of a divorce : Isaeus or. 3 § 35 idv 
diroklirQ ij yvvy rbv dvbpa, ij iav 6 Avrfp 4k~ 
irifirffQ Hjv ywaiica, oi>K ££e<m Tpd^aadai 
r$ 86pti [i.e. the father, or KiJptos] 6 fiij iv 
irpotKl rifi^aas ZSiokcv : 'which, when 
he gave it, he did not record at a certain 
value, as part of the dower.' Thus in 
[Dem.] or. 47 § 57 a widow claims some 
pieces of property on the ground 8n airrijs 

€tr) iv T% TTpOUCl T€Tlfl7)fl4va. 

4\v T^KvoiS v4|&oi : ' what share of their 
father's land he assigned by division to 
his sons,' i.e., 'assigned to them sever- 
ally.' — Suuperov: for the verbal adj. of 
two terminations, cp. 0. T. 384 n. 

164 — 168 The constr. is: — \fxSvov 
irpoTcL£as, having first prescribed the time 
[for the division of the property], — <&s 
(saving) that, — tfvfrca x^pas diwdq fUpws 
Tpt(j» Xpovov Kavtavo*., when he should 
have been absent from the country, after 
his departure for fifteen months, — tot€ 
XpcCt) <r<Jx f Oavctv t^Sc t$ xP«» 1 1-ti v 
jc.t.X. The words xpbvov Trpordj-as refer 
to his having expounded the oracle to her 
before he gave the directions as to his pro- 
perty : <as depends on the notion of * say- 
ing' contained in ir/>or<££as: and the sen- 
tence, wj, rjviKa...dir€irj, XP € ^V, explains 
Xf>6vov irpord£as. 

I leave the MS. rp£pi)vov...K<iviavo'io$ 



unaltered, because it is conceivable that, 
while rpifMjvov was prompted by the xp6- 
vov before it, K&viavffios should have been 
adapted to /3€/3ws. Cp. the personal con- 
str. with xpbvws (0. C. 44m.), x&ftfe, 
Trcwv6x i ' os > etc « But I should prefer icdvi- 
avctov. — The repetition \povov.. \p6v<p 
...Xpovov does not warrant a suspicion 
(cp. 0. C. 554 n.) : it expresses her anxiety 
to be precise as to the all-important point. 
— farcKSpaplvTa is lit., 'having run out 
from beneath,' having 'eluded' the immi- 
nent danger: Ant. 1086 rwv <ri> ddXiros 
o&x vireKdpafJiet Her. 1. 156 ijv rb irapedv 
v7T€K5pd/xo}at. As the vpovov t&os is 
here a perilous crisis, vircicSp. is more 
forcible than the conjecture vircpSpopSv- 
ra, which would mean simply, 'having 
passed. ' 

The arguments which have been brought 
against vv. 166 — 168 are examined in the 
Appendix. 

1601 tou&vt' Jtypatc.irlvwv. Among 
the various explanations of the gen. rwv 
*Hpaic\c£a»v irovwv, two seem better than 
the rest ; and I prefer that which I place 
first. 

(1) It is a gen. of connection, equiv. 
to the gen. with irepf, and going with the 
whole phrase clpapplva £KTfAcvrao4ai 
rather than with either word alone. ' He 
said that such things were destined to be 



30 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



o5s rfjv irdkaidv (fyrjyov avBrjaaC wore 
Aco&covl Sicrow 4k UeXeidScov e<f>r). 
/cat rcivSe vafiepreta cvfi^aivei ypovov 
rov vvv trapovros, o5s Teke&dfjvai ypea>v 
toed* rjSeas evSovcav iiarqhav ifie 1 75 

<f>6/3a> y <f>i\cu, Tap/Sovaav, el fie XPV r L * v * ll/ 
wdvrcov dpioTov ((kotos ioT€pr)/jL€vr)v. 
XO. €v<fyr)iiLav vvv l<r\* C7rcl /caracrrc^ 

GTGxyovff opoi tlv avSpa tt/oos yapav \6ycov. 

aiteaos. 

8e<nroLva Aydveipa, irp&ros dyyeXcov 180 

okvov ae Xvcw rov yap 'AXfc/i/yp^s tokov 

KCU IfiWT C7TXOTG) KoX KpdTOVVTCL KCtK fld)(r)S 

dyovr dirapxds Oeoiai rots iyxtopiois. 

171 ai8ij(ral irore] av5ij<rai irork (from tot4) L. 178 vafUpreta r : vafiepreta 

L. 174 <£ O. Hense, and so Nauck: ws mss. 175 <*r0' ij5^ws] Wecklein 

conj. defxvicov: Herwerden, war' evdtus: Mekler, <&rr' hSeiat. 177 The 

first hand in L had omitted this v., the last of p. 66 B. It has been added, not by 
the scribe himself, but by the diorthotes (S). A similar instance is Ph. 1263, 



accomplished in regard to the toils of 
Heracles.' This is only a rarer and bolder 
form of the gen. used in poetry after verbs 
of * speaking about 9 (El. 317 rov Ka<n- 
yrfyrov rt <frfp;) 9 'asking about* (Ph. 439 
cparrbs tfaprfyroiuu), 'hearing about' (O. C. 
307 icXiW <rov). And there is another 
passage of Sophocles which shows a simi- 
larly bold use of it, viz., O. C. 355 (ixav- 
reia) a rovd' ixfrijvQy <r<fy«iTos, 'the oracles 
that had been given concerning me': an 
example which (to my mind) strongly 
confirms this view. 

(2) It is also possible, though less pro- 
bable, that the gen. should be taken as 
partitive with ^KTiXeurdo-Oat : destined 
to be accomplished as part of (in the 
number of) his toils. For this we might 
compare such uses of the partitive gen. 
as TrXew rov irpdrrov ot6\ov (Ph. 73), tf-e- 
T&fcaOcu r(av <rvyx<u>p6pTcw (Dem. or. 21 
§ 202), dpiOfieiffdou tCjv ficucdpuv, etc. 

(3) ir6vo>v depends on irpds Oc&v cl|iap- 
\Uva as if it were a subst. elfxapfjLe'vrjv : — 
'he said that such a doom for the toils of 
H. was to be fulfilled.' 

(4) irrfvwv depends on itcrfXcvrcUrtiai 
as equiv. to reXevrijv yiyveaOcu: 'he said 
that such events were to be accomplished 
as the end of his toils.' I do not think 



that the Greek words will bear either of 
the two latter versions. 

171 f. cos tt)v iroXaidv <|»i|ydv jc.r.X. 
A note on the Oracle at Dodona, illustra- 
tive of this passage and of w. 1 166 — 1 168, 
will be found in the Appendix. The 
signs were taken from the movement and 
rustling of the oak's leaves ; and these 
signs were interpreted by the priestesses 
called UeXe aides. Cp. fr. 414 ras Oearrufi- 
5oi>j leplas Au8iovldas. Euripides spoke of 
three such priestesses; but Pindar, like 
Sophocles, gave the number as two (schol. 
here). In saying that the oak 'spake' 
(aiSfyrai) by their mouths, he follows the 
established mode of expression with regard 
to it. See, e.g. t Lucian Amor. 31 ij lv 
A<a8(brg <fnjybs...Updiv iiroppfy-cura (pwfjv. 
Constantine Porphyr. 2. 55 Aw&fc'q, lc>' 
fjs ij Spvs ij Qdeyyoiitvn to. tQv ScupAvup 
fjLvarijpia. 

Others understand : — (1) ' by the agency 
of two doves': s.i., the signs from the oak 
were somehow combined with, or ex- 
plained by, signs derived from birds. (2) 
'The oak spake from between two doves '; 
i.e. a symbolical dove, of stone or metal, 
stood on either side of the tree. The 
Appendix will show what can be said for 
or against each of these theories. Here 



TPAXINIAI 



3i 



as the ancient oak at Dodona had spoken of yore, by the mouth 
of the two Peleiades. And this is the precise moment when the 
fulfilment of that word becomes due ; so that I start up from 
sweet slumber, my friends, stricken with terror at the thought 
that I must remain widowed of the noblest among men. 

Ch. Hush — no more ill-omened words ; I see a man approach- 
ing, who wears a wreath, as if for joyous tidings. 

Messenger. 

Queen Deianeira, I shall be the first of messengers to free 
thee from fear. Know that Alcmena's son lives and triumphs, 
and from battle brings the first-fruits to the gods of this land. 

where see cr. n. 179 x a P& v ] Brunck gave, from his own conjecture, x^P lv * which 
is found in one of the later mss., L a ( = Lb of Dind., M of Blaydes, cod. Laur. 31. 
10, 14th cent.). The other mss., so far as I know, agree in x a P^< 181 tokop 

L, with most mss. : ybvov B, Lc. 



it may be noted that neither seems to 
accord so well with the phrase avStjinu 
4k. It was through the inspired lips that 
the utterance of the oak became a 'voice.' 

AuSwvi, as in frr. 413, 415 : so fr. 412 
Auduvos. The nom. Auddbv is not extant; 
unless it should be restored to a verse 
which Steph. Byz., s.v. Atadtivrj, quotes 
from Simmias of Rhodes (c. 320 B.C.?), 
Trqvbs fSos Kpovidao fi&icaip inredtfaTo A<a8d>. 
For the locative dat., cp. 0. T. 900 rbv 
'Aficuai. vabv. 

173 £ vaplpTCid: for the Doric form, 
see on Ant. 715 n. Cp. Aesch. Pers. 246 
(dial.) va/jL€pT7) \6yov (so Porson for 107- 
fieprrj). — rwvSc = the predictions (of the 
alternative issues, prosperity or death): 
yaplprf ia= 'precision,' i.e. the precise term 
of fifteen months. <ruppa£vci = ' comes 
right,' 'tallies' (cp. n 74; and with dat., 
1 164). Thus the sense is: — 'The precise 
term foretold by these prophecies tallies 
[with the period which has actually e- 
lapsed] at the present time,' <&s ( = wore) 
TcXfar0jjv<u xpcov, 'so that they must be 
fulfilled.' (With xP €(av we may under- 
stand either iorl or eb>aii the former is 
simpler: for the ellipse, cp. Ai. 668 dp- 
Xovrts claur, wrO' vtreucHov.) In other 
words, 'This is precisely the time when 
the fulfilment of these predictions falls 
due. ' The schol. saw that <&s is for wore 
(wore fa-ore pov wpaxOw 01 *)' The change to 
if is needless, and worse. 

Others understand: — (1) 'The true ful- 
filment of these words as (ws) they are to 
be accomplished'; or (2) 'the truth of 



the prediction that ((as) these things are to 
be accomplished.' 

This is one of those passages in which 
the manner of Sophocles recalls that of 
Vergil. The general meaning is simple 
and clear; but a verbal analysis demands 
the nicest care. 

176 £. nStas has been variously altered, 
from a feeling that it is out of harmony 
with the tone of 29 f. and 149; but the 
word is well fitted to express that even a 
sound sleep, when it came to her, was apt 
to be suddenly broken. — $6ffcp goes with 
Tapf3ovcrav, which it strengthens: cp. 
0. T. 65 virvifi y etiSorra (n.): Ant. 427 
y6ouriv ££(£fi<aj;€v. (O. C. 1625 and Ph. 
225 are not similar.) 

178 £ cfyr\\Uav refers to the ominous 
iarefnjfiiprpf : cp. At. 361 f. AI....a\\d fie 
<jvvdaC£ov. I XO. eC<pr]fxa <fxavei. — icara- 
<TT€^tj, with a wreath of laurel : cp. 0. T. 
83 n. — irp£s X C 4 M ^ V ^©Y«*v refers to icara- 
<rT€<pij: 'in view of (suitably to) joyous 
news.' Brurick's reading, irpbs \dpiv "K6- 
y<av, would be weaker ('on account of his 
tidings'). 

180 irpwros dyy&av, forestalling Li- 
chas: the words mark his eagerness to 
assert his claim on her gratitude (i9of.). 

181111 ydp as in 155. — KpaTOvvTO, 
the pres. (= 'is victorious'), as oft. vucQv : 
cp. n. on O. T. 437. — airapxds refers 
more especially to the train of alx/iaXta- 
rldet which the Messenger had seen with 
Lichas, but can also include the spoils 
which were to come later with Heracles. 
For airapxr) said of human beings, cp. 



32 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



AH. riv cT^ras, & yepaie, rovSe fioi \6yov ; 

AR to)£ cs 86fiovs crovs rov irokvlprjkov iroaiv 185 

rji~£W, (fxLvevra <rvv Kpdrei vucr)<f>6p<p. 

AH. /cat rov roS* daraiv rj izfrow fiaOcov Xeycis ; 

AR ev {iovOepel XeifJLwvi wpos ttoXXovs dpoel 
Aix a ^ o icr}pv£ raura* rouS' eyci /cXvg>i> 
airy^, ottcds rot ttdcwtos ayyciXas raSc 1 90 

7ry>os crou rt Kep8avai/jLi feat KTw/JLrjv yapiv. 

AH. avros 8c ttoJs airearLi/, eiirep evrv^ei; 

AT. ovk evfJLOLpeia ^pcu/icvos 7roXX^, yvvai. 
kvkXco yap avrov Mt^Xicus a7ras Xcais 
Kpivei 7ra/oacrT0L9, ouS* e^ct /3r}v<u irpocro). 195 

to yap iroOovv c/caoros iKfiaOelv OeXcov 
ovk av [xedeLTo, irplv Kaff rj&ovfjv k\v€lv. 

OVTG)<$ €/Ce«>OS OV^ €K(01/, £kOV<TI §€ 

186 ^€iv, <pavivra avv Kpdrci] iji-eiv tpavivrcf <rvyicp&T€t (with v written over 7) L. 

187 rov rod'] tov rod* (sic) L. tovto 5' Aid. : too toS' Canter : tov to'8' Brunck. 
[Dindorf, ed. i860, has: 'tovto 5' pr. TotiToV (sic) sec.,' which Subkoff repeats. The 
Autotype Facsimile (p. 67 a) will show, however, that the supposed acute on v is 
merely a short upward stroke from the lower end of <f> in <pavivra (v. 186), this <f> 
standing just over the v of tovto. Cp'. the <f> of eiKprjfiiav, KaraarecpTJ (178), vucrj<p6p<p 
(186).] 188 fiovdepei] Wecklein reads (3ov06p<p: Hense conj. /fov/rcpet: Nauck, 



Arist. fr. 443 (p. 1550 b 39) ap. Plut. 
Thes. 16 Kprjras...aj'$p(air<ap dirapxv u & 
AeXQovs diroffTiWew, So in Eur. Ph. 
202 the captive $olvia<rat describe them- 
selves as aKpodtvta Ao^La. — Ocofrrt (for 
the synizesis, 0. C. 964 n.) rots tvxwptois, 
esp. Zeus OItolios (200), Apollo, and Arte- 
mis Ortygia (2\oft.). Cp. 245 (of the 
captives) avnp KTjjfia koX OeoTs Kpnbv. 

184 r£va...T6vSc: 0. C. 68 n., Ph. 
441. The Messenger has been explicit; 
but she is bewildered with joy. So in 
Aesch. Ag. ' 268 the Chorus makes the 
Krjpv£ repeat his tidings. Cp. below, 876 f. 

186 iroXv£nXov, in this context, is 
best taken as = ' exciting much £fjkos t * 'ad- 
mired by all': though it could also mean 
merely, *very prosperous.' In 0. T. 381 
(n.) it means, 'full of emulation.' — <}>aWv- 
iu adds vividness to the thought of the 
joy that awaits her : cp. 199 €/Mpavrj f 224 
ivapyrj.— <n)v of attendant circumstance 
(0. T. 17). — Kpdrct vucncfxSfxp : Kpdros is 
the superior strength, the mastery (Ph. 
594 n.), which vlia\v <p4perai : cp. 497 : 
O. C. 1088 <r$4v€i 'Tuwceltp (* triumphant 
might'). 

187 curr&v rj ££vo»v, i.e. 'from whom 



in the world?' Cp. El. 975 Hs yap tot 1 
do-T<ai> rj %4v(ov. So far as the £4poi are 
definitely conceived here, they may be 
supposed to arrive from Euboea. 

188 povOcpct : only here. Hesychius 
gives the right sense, — h £ (36es $4povs 
uipa vifiovrai.. A poet might feel that a 
simple compound of /Sous and dtpos would 
suffice for a picturesque epithet of \eifubv : 
t.e., 'the meadow of the oxen's summer' 
would readily suggest ' the meadow which 
is the summer pasture of oxen.' Those 
who object to such a compound seem to 
try it by the standard of prose. — Hesy- 
chius adds to his explanation of fiovdepel: 
Kal f3ov06p<p t6 avr6. Wecklein adopts 
this, as = ' in which oxen jump about' : 
but surely they must be olffTpoirXiiyes to 
behave so. The word occurs only in 
Aesch. Suppl. 301 (3ov$6p(p ravpip ( = qui 
vaccam salit). — The Xcifjufo was in the 
plain of Malis, between Trachis and the 
Malian Gulf : cp. 194 n. 

190 TOi implies that the motive was 
a natural one, which she will readily 
comprehend: cp. the frankness of the 
messenger in 0. T. 1005, and of the £/*- 
iropos in Ph. 552. 



TPAXINIAI 



33 



De. What news is this, old man, that thou hast told me ? 

Me. That thy lord, admired of all, will soon come to thy 
house, restored to thee in his victorious might. 

De. What citizen or stranger hath told thee this ? 

Me. In the meadow, summer haunt of oxen, Lichas the 
herald is proclaiming it to many: from him I heard it, and flew 
hither, that I might be the first to give thee these tidings, and 
so might reap some guerdon from thee, and win thy grace. 

De. And why is he not here, if he brings good news ? 

Me. His task, lady, is no easy one ; all the Malian folk have 
thronged around him with questions, and he cannot move 
forward : each and all are bent on learning what they desire, 
and will not release him until they are satisfied. Thus their 

eagerness detains him against his will; 

povpoTip or flowo/up. — irpds iroWoiK Herm. : irp6<nro\os mss. 189 icijpvg] rfpvtj L, 
as in 6. 7*. 753 (corr. from icrjpvl-), and ib. 802 : though below, in 757, Krjpvj-. — rov 5' 
(sic, not rovV) L, made from rbv 8* by S. 190 rot] omitted in Harl.: Brunck conj. 
aoi. 191 KT(pfir)v] KTufirjv L. 198 edfiap€L^...iroW^] In Lthe first hand wrote 
€v/xap€ia...iro\\^: S added t to each word, correcting rj to rj. 196 irapcurras] 

Paley (ed. 1880) conj. irepurrds. — *xci] Schneidewin conj. ^£. 198 iicovai W] For 
W Blaydes writes $77 : Nauck conj. CKovalots. 



192 ctircp cvrvxct: if he comes with 
good news, and may therefore expect a 
cordial welcome (cp. 229). 

198 (&ir€<TTtv), ovk cv\l. \pw\uvo9 y be- 
cause he does not enjoy much facility (for 
moving forward). For the partic. in a 
reply, cp. Ph. 1228. 

194 Mt)\icvs: for the Ionic form, 
cp. Ph. 4 n. Trachis was on a rocky spur 
under the heights (*Trachinian Rocks*) 
which bound the plain of Malis on s. and 
w. ; the distance from the (ancient) coast- 
line of the Malian Gulf was about six 
miles. — Airas: not only the Tpax^tot (the 
highlanders of Malis), but the UapdXioi 
also. As to Malis, cp. Ph. Introd. p. ix. 

196 Kplvci = dvcLKplvei: cp. 314, 388, 
Ant. 399. — irapao-Tots: a crowd has 
gathered round him (kvkXco); and the 
eager people keep pressing close up to 
him, to put their questions. So this 
partic. is used of one who comes close up 
to a person, in a threatening way: 0. C. 
992 et rls <re... \ urdvot irapourrds : El. 
295 poq. wapaffTaa'. Thus, while the con- 
jecture ircpiOTcts would merely supple- 
ment xticXtp, irapaords really adds a new 
touch. — pijvm, aor., set forward from the 
place where he is halting : stronger than 
fiaiveLv, keep moving on. Cp. prjpai said 
of death, 0. C. 1226. 

J.S. V. 



196 to ydp iroOovv k.t.\. I leave 
to...itoOovv in the text, not feeling cer- 
tain that it is corrupt ; though I am dis- 
posed to read, with £. Thomas, tcL *ydp 
iroBeCv*. A discussion of other views will 
be found in the Appendix. Here I note 
these points. 

(1) If To...iro0ovv is sound, it means, 
* the feeling of desire* in the questioner's 
mind. It cannot mean ' his desire' in the 
sense of 'that which is desired by him' 
(t6 iroBotinevov schol.). This, at least, is 
the inference from all the evidence avail- 
able: see nn. on O. C. 267, 1604. 

(2) to ttoOoOv licuaOctv cannot mean, 
then, 'to learn what is desired.' {K|ta0cCv, 
if it is to govern rd irofovv, must be 
explained as having a pregnant sense, 
iicw\ij<rai /jlclBwv, 'to satisfy the desire 
by learning.* Some analogies might be 
quoted (Ant. 399) : but the phrase seems 
impossibly harsh. 

(3) It remains, then, to take to irofovv 
as an ace. of reference: 'with regard to his 
curiosity, wishing to be fully informed.' 
This is awkward; but it is not incon- 
ceivable. 

198 ofa tiuSv, iKovo*i Si: the omis- 
sion oi fxb> is like that in Ph. 971 ovk el 
Ktucbs ad, irpbs kclk&v 5' dvbp&v fxadwv k.t.X. 
Cp. Ant. 276 (the 0tfXa£) irdpeipu tf Akotv 



34 



ICWOKAEOYI 



gvvea'Tiv oxpec o aviw avriK e/Mpavr. 
AH. c5 Zcv, top Ofrtys arofiov os Xetfioiv ^(€ts, 
ۤa>/ca? tJ/aTi/ aXXa crw ypovo) yap&v. 
(fxoinjcraT, c5 ywcu/ces, at t' euro) crreyTjs 
at r c/cros avAiys, a>s a€A7rro^ ofifi e/JLOi 
(fy^fiyjs avacrxpv r^crSc vvv KapirovfieOa. 

XO. *ai>o\oAv£aTG) So/xots c^ccrrtots 
aXaXayal? # a [leWovvfMftos, iv Sc 



200 



205 



200 fo] L has &r made from wr by S. 201 XP^V X a M»'] made from XP° V(J} 

X a P& in L. 202 0wv7^rar'] A stroke before this word in L indicates a change 

of person. 204 dvavxbv] avcurxw (& from 6) L, with written over w. — r^crSt] 

Blaydes conj. rrjad* d. 206 — 224 L divides the vv. thus : — droXo- 



o&x. &Kov<rip. Here, too, perhaps, the 
conceit is meant to be a trait of homely 
humour. 

200 tov Otrqs arojiov . . . Xcipttv'. 
The uplands of Oeta were sacred to Zeus 
(1191). Lands dedicated to gods might 
be cultivated for the profit of the temples 
(238 n.). Sometimes, however, they were 
left idle, or served merely for ornament 
It was in such cases more especially that 
they were said to be dveipukva. Cp. Plato 
Legg. 761 C et rl tov AXaos fj rifievos ircpl 
ravra dvetfUvov # , rd /Jeifyxara d<pUvT€S els 
airrd. rd rwv 0€<av Upd KOfffirjffai. Athen. 
P* 503 C rods dXaudeis ical <tv<jkLous rb- 
irous rods rots foots dvei/uivovs. So Deme- 
ter reproves the wood-cutter in her grove : 
Callim. Hymn* Cer. 47 t4kvov, 6V« rd 
deolcriv to&iUva dfrSpea /c6irrets, | t4kvov 9 
FXlvvaov. The exquisite verses of Eur. 
(Hipp* 75 ff.) describe an inviolable 
meadow of Ajtemis : GvO* otire toi/aV 
d£iot <f>4p(3€iv fiord, \ otir rjXOi tw aldrjpos, 
d\X' dKifjparov \ puiXuraa Xeifx&v' fyivbv 
SUpxcrai. In a Cretan precinct of the 
Dictaean Zeus, it was forbidden to keep 
flocks or sheepfolds, to sow, or to cut 
timber (C. /. G. 11. p. 1003). With firo- 
pov cp. Hesych. dlpiicavov ddpeirrov 
OeoTs avcLKeliievov. 2,o<PokXt}s. 

201 dXXd, 'at least'; 320, 0. C. 
1276 n.: <rdv xp4v<p, At. 306 t/ufrpwv fx6- 
Xis irtas ain> xpovtp Kadlararou : O. C. 1653. 

202 ff. ctero» = tvdov, as 867, and oft.; 
but it properly implies motion (336, 492, 
693, 900). The form da<a is here used, 
as in O. C. 18, without metrical necessity; 
and it has been held that the form <<r» 
(which does not occur in Ar.) was ad- 



mitted in Tragedy only when metre re- 
quired it : Ant. 491 is, however, an ex- 
ception. — ctWytis ... avXtjs: the second 
word here is a mere synonym for the first; 
hence Kvicala conjectures afrrijs : but see 
n. on O. C 1 50 1. Those * within* are her 
handmaidens ; those 'without/ the Chorus. 
— 8p|ta <^ii|&T)S TTJrSf , dtcXitrov tpol dvacr- 
\6v : for the fig. sense of o/jlim, cp. O. T. 
987 n. As said of sunrise, etc., cwlffx<a is 
more usual than a^x w: yet cp. Bekk. 
Anecd. p. 400. 4 av^xew to dvartWew 
rbv rjXiov rj r^v <jeXi)vrjv. 

The wording here, »s...dvcurx6v, is so 
suggestive of an ace. abs. (0. C. 380 n.), 
that it had occurred to me, as to Mr. 
Blaydes, to ask whether ttj<t8c ought not 
to be Ttjo-8' S : but the answer, I think, 
is that this would practically make &Xir- 
tov too prominent; the surprise would 
be more emphasised than the joy. 

206 — 224 This lively 'dance-song' 
(\nc6pxvHui) is the direct response of the 
Chorus to Deianeira's appeal (202 <pwvi)- 
o-ar 1 ), — expressing their delight at the 
good news. As Dr W. Christ, who calls 
it 'a paean to Artemis and Apollo/ justly 
remarks (Afetrik § 443), its contents 
clearly point to a distribution of the 
verses between different singers. (1) The 
first part, down to v. 215 (Ntjfupas), is an 
invitation to song and dance ; this would 
be given either by the coryphaeus, or by 
the leader of one semichorus. (2) The 
second part, vv. 216 — 220 (deipo/x ...afuX- 
Xop), is the response, delivered by the 
leader of the other semichorus. (3) Then, 
at v. 221, the whole Chorus joins in with 
the refrain of the paean, lu> Id Uaid*. 



TPAXINIAI 



35 



but thou shalt presently see him face to face. 

De. O Zeus, who rulest the meads of Oeta, sacred from 
the scythe, at last, though late, thou hast given us joy ! Uplift 
your voices, ye women within the house and ye beyond our 
gates, since now we are gladdened by the light of this message, 
that hath risen on us beyond my hope ! 

Chorus. 

Let the maidens raise a joyous strain for the house, with 
songs of triumph at the hearth; and, amidst them, let the 



Xi)£er€ — | dXaXaur — koi \ vba — | ic\aryydL — | &ir6XXu)i>a — | 6/jlov 6" — | to&yer* — | 
/Soare — | aprefiiv — | £Xa<paft6Xov — I yeirovda re — | delpofj? — | rbv avXbv — | I80O 
/*' — | etfoi — | \rrro<JTpt(puv — | Id) lw — J tSe W — | ytivai — | irdpeor' ivapyrj. 206 dvo- 
XoXv^drta Burges : dvoXoX6l-eT€ L: dpoXoXtij-are r. Seidler conj. droXoXtij-aT 9 w. — 
86fxots MSS. : 86/ms Burges: vb/xos r' Wecklein. 206 dXaXaur L, A, etc.: 

dXaXayais r (B, Vat., etc.) : dXaXaXacs Schneidewin. — d /teXXoVu/i^os MSS. : d fieX- 
Xbvvfupos Erfurdt. 



(4) The coryphaeus then gives the last 
three verses, which introduce the next 
scene. — For the metres, see Metrical 
Analysis. 

206 £ dvoXoXv£aTa> has been recog- 
nised by almost all recent critics and 
metrists as a certain correction of dvoXo- 
XiJ|cTt (L) or -are. But I should keep 
the MS. S6|mhs, merely reading d for 6 
with Erfurdt. The clue to a right inter- 
pretation here depends on two points in 
the context. (1) Deianeira has called for 
a joyous cry from the women in the house, 
and from those outside of it (203 f.). The 
first words of the Chorus accordingly 
appeal to the women in the house, — as is 
marked, not only by Sojiois, but by tyco*- 
rCois, adding that the men of the house- 
hold are to join in. Then, at v. 210, 
dftov 5e...ir<uaV...<5 vapdivoi, the maidens 
of the Chorus are invited to raise the 
paean. (2) The words kv Si koivos dfxrl- 
vo»v jcr.X. could not have been used un- 
less a reference to women had preceded ; 
it is not enough that it should follow, in 
w irapBtvoi, at v. 210. 

Hence we have to choose between these 
views, of which I prefer the first. (1) d 
l&cWowf&^os, 'she whose nuptials are 
soon to come/ is a poetical phrase for 
virgo nubilis, and denotes the maidens of 
the household generally. Nauck, reading 
86fms...Q fA€\\6vv[i<pos, gives this sense to 
it, but admits that the masc. {'auisguis 
nubilis est') is awkward: rather it is im- 



possible. (2) d |icXX<S vvjk{x>$ = 'she who 
is soon to be (re-)united to a husband,' 
i.e. Deianeira. This is a forcing of the 
Greek word which can easily be smoothed 
over in an English paraphrase, but which 
would probably have seemed very strange 
to a Greek. (3) Reading Sd|&os...d jmA- 
X6vvp{x>s, 'the household of maidens,' 
i.e. ' the maidens of the household.' This 
seems an untenable usage. — Another ver- 
sion of this reading, 'the house which is 
soon to receive the husband,' not only 
strains fieXXdwfi^s, but fails to supply 
the necessary antithesis to apabnav. 

dvoXoXufdro) : the dXoXvy^ or 6\o\vy- 
fju6s was a cry to the gods, usually expres- 
sive of joy or hope, in prayer or sacrifice : 
and it is especially said of women (e.g. II. 
6. 301, Od. 3. 450: Aesch. Theb. 268 
etc.). But this verb denotes a cry of 
horror in El. 750. — 8d|&ois, ' rather for 
the house' (dat. of interest) than merely 
'in it'; cp. Aesch. Ag. 27 56/xois \ 6X0X1/7- 
yJbv €v<pi)fiovvTa rfl$e XafiirdSt \ eiropdid- 
fav. — dXaXcvyats, probably due to Tricli- 
nius, has been received instead of dXa- 
Xcws by many recent edd., in order that 
the first foot of the verse may be a tri- 
brach (see Metr. Analysis). dXaX-f) was 
the more frequent form; but the other 
occurs as a v. I, in Eur. Phoen. 335, as 
dXaXaXcd is a v. I. for dXaXal in Ar. Av. 
1 761: and a loss of Xa would of course 
have been easy. The aXaXiJ was a cry of 
triumph (Ant. 133 n.). 

3—2 



36 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



koivos dpcrevwv ltcd 

Kkayya rov eixjxtpirpav 

* Attoaag) irpoaTaTav oaov be 

iraidva irauiv dvdyer, <o irapOevoi, 2IO 

fioare rdv onocnropov 

"Aprefiiv 'Oprvyiav i\axf>a/36\ov 9 dfJL<f)L7rupov, 

yeCrovds re Nv/i^as. 215 

deipofi, ov$' a7raJ(ro/x,(u 

tov avkov, (3 rvpavve ras e/ias <f>pevo$. 

ihov fi, dvarapdaceL 

evoi fM 

6 /ctcrcrds, dpn fHcuc)(iav 220 

V7rocrTp€(f)(ov d/jiiWav. 

la) id) Uaidv 

t8', (S <f>t\a yvvai, 

ra8' dvTiTrp(pp a S77 <toi 

)8Xc7T€6i/ TrdptGT ivapyrj. 

2O0 'At6\\o> Dindorf: 'ArAXXwa MSS. 210 iraiava iratav'] ircaava iraiava MSS. 
214 After 'Oprvylav Dindorf inserts 0edv : Wecklejn (Ars Soph. em. p. 33) and 
Blaydes suggest rkv. 216 delpofi'] delpo/JM (without elision) Erfurdt, Hartung, 



207 ff. koivAs, fern. : cp. 0. C. 751 n. 
— The ace. t6v ev^*. 'Air. depends on tr» 
KXayyd as = bfivtina: cp. EL 123 rd/ceis 
...olfuirybr I ...'Ayajjitfjwora: id. 556 €/ 5^ 
/*' <ab' del Xbyovs | *£%>x«' — ' Air6XX», the 
shorter form of the ace, as in O. C. 1091 
(lyr.) : like Uoaetdu), it was used chiefly 
after vi) rbv y ph. rbv. — irpoorctrav : cp. 
EL 637 $ot)8e irpo<rTarfipie 9 — with refer- 
ence to his image being placed in front of 
houses. Paus. (1. 44. 2) saw at Megara a 
hieron of Apollo tlpocTaT^pios. C. O. 
Miiller (Dorians bk 11. ch. 2 § 6) points 
out that the title TcpoardTrp was given to 
Apollo in the Ionian colonies of Miletus, 
on the shores of Pontus. So, as protec- 
tor of roads, he is oywetfs. Artemis, too, 
is called Trpwrrarripla, Aesch. Th. 449. 

211 dvdyer* : cp. Eur. EL 1 25 m rbv 
abrbv fyetpc ydov, I apaye voKObaKpvv A5o- 
vto : id. Ph. 1350 cwdyer' drdyere kukvt6v. 

213 ff. "ApTC|nv 'OpruyCav. The 
epithet was usu. understood as meaning 
'born in Ortygia.' That name, like Nysa, 
was associated with various places (as 
Syracuse; Aetolia, schol. Apoll. Rh. 1. 
419 ; Ephesus, Strabo 14. 639) ; but 
most frequently with Delos, as a name 
either for that island itself, or for some 



islet near it (Rheneia?) : cp. Horn. h. 
Apoll. 16, which describes Artemis and 
Apollo as born, tV /*& i* 'O/wiryfy, rbv 
bk Kpavajj ivl AJjXtp. The epithet is paro- 
died by Ar. Av. 876 Aiproi bprvyop.-fifrpq. 
(* Quail mother'). Asteria, Leto's sister, 
was said to have escaped from Zeus by 
taking the form of a quail (fyrv£): Apol- 
lod. 1. 2 § 2. One theory explains the 
name Ortygia as simply 'abounding with 
quails'; another (Preller vol. 1. p. 238) 
supposes that the 6frrv% was taken as the 
type of a good mother; but the question 
remains uncertain. 

Artemis was worshipped on the coasts 
near Malis (637 n.), but we have no proof 
that the name 'Oprrvyla was specially 
given to her there. Perhaps the poet uses 
it here merely as one of her standing 
epithets. — IXo^ofttXov (like dava.Ta<t>6pa, 
O. T. 180): see on O. C. 1092 f.— d\ij>C- 
irvpov : with a torch in each hand : see 
on 0, T. 207. — N^p^as : the Ma\«£$e5 
vtifx<pcu (Ph. 724 ff., n.) of Malian hills, 
woods, and streams. 

216 tUCpop*. Homeric verse admits 
the elision of at in the verbal endings 
-/tot, -<rat (except in the infin.), -rat, 
-<rdcu. There is no other example of it in 



TPAXINIAI 



37 



shout of the men go up with one accord for Apollo of the bright 
quiver, our Defender ! And at the same time, ye maidens, lift 
up a paean, cry aloud to his sister, the Ortygian Artemis, smiter 
of deer, goddess of the twofold torch, and to the Nymphs her 
neighbours ! 

My spirit soars ; I will not reject the wooing of the flute, — O 
thou sovereign of my soul ! Lo, the ivy's spell begins to work 
upon me ! Euoe ! — even now it moves me to whirl in the swift 
dance of Bacchanals ! 

Praise, praise unto the Healer ! See, dear lady, see ! Behold, 
these tidings are taking shape before thy gaze. 

Nauck : Hense would insert t65' between delpoficu and odd'. Reiske conj. deUrofuu. 
218 l5ov fi' mss. : l8oi> ISoO /*' Dindorf. 210 evoT fi 1 MSS. : cfoi evoi (without 

/*') Dindorf. 220 PaKxlav Brunck: ^aK\eiav MSS. 221 Htudv MSS.: 

Haid? Head* Dindorf. 222 «* Dindorf: tde W MSS.^yifcat] Dind. writes 

yvvaucwv. 



Tragedy; but it does not seem impossible 
that Sophocles should have used the 
familiar epic licence in a lyric passage. 
If we read dcCpo juu oi>5' diruaofxai, a 
cyclic dactyl is substituted for a trochee ; 
which does not seem very likely in this 
metrical context. (Cp. J. H. H. Schmidt, 
Compositionslehre p. cxlii., and W. Christ, 
Metrik p. 378.) In the lemma of the 
schol. we certainly find ddpofuu otfS' dirw- 
ffo/xat : but that proves nothing. — For the 
sense {/xerewplfaficu iv t$ x°P € ^ v schol.), 
cp. Ar. Eccl. 1 1 79 atpeffd* am, led etial. 

217 tov av\6v, the instrument asso- 
ciated with religious enthusiasm, and more 
esp. with the Dionysiac worship. In 
Attic Tragedy the lyre seems to have been 
the older instrument (cp. Ar. Ran. 1304, 
1285): but after the time of Aeschylus, at 
least, the av\6s was the regular one. Cp. 
A. Miiller, Gr. Buhnenalt. p. 192 n. 3. — 
<S rvpawc clearly refers to the av\6s (for 
the change to the voc, cp. 99) — not to 
Apollo or Dionysus. — The words to* 
4|mIs 4>p€vds bring out the spiritual sense 
of rtpavve, and express the compelling in- 
fluence of the flute. 

218 ft l8ov p.* : this /*' must depend 
on Idov: that after cvot depends on dva- 
TapcCo'O'ci, the shriek being here literally 
an 'interjection.' 

6 Kunros : the ivy was sacred to Dio- 
nysus, who is styled Kivaefa (Paus. 1. 31 
§ 6), Ki(rcro<f>6po$ f KiaffoxcdTTjSf etc.: cp. 
Ovid Fasti 3. 767 hedera est gratissima 
Baccho. It was worn by bacchanals (Eur. 
Bacch. 81); though there seems to be no 
proof that it was worn, at least ordinarily, 



by tragic choreutae. Here, however, the 
Trachinian maidens imagine themselves 
to be bacchanals ; the music of the adXfo 
suggests the spell of the Kta<r6s : and they 
speak as if the ivy on their brows was 
sending its mystic power through their 
whole frames, stirring them to the dance. 
Just so the laurel was the symbol of poeti- 
cal inspiration. 

fkLK\Lav.. .apiXXav, the Bacchic compe- 
tition of eager dancers, i.e.> the swift dance 
itself. a/itXXa is oft. thus associated with 
eager speed : cp. 0. C. 1062 /kfupapn&Tots 
afdWcus : EL 861 xaXa/ryots iv afxlWais : 
Ant. 1065 rpdxovs dfuKKrjrijpas. — viro- 
<rrptya>v, lit., 'whirling a little* (cp. biro- 
Kweiv): i.e., just beginning to set the 
dance in movement. Not, ' bringing back* 

221 UU ILuctv: the refrain (t<ptiix- 
vior) of the paean: the whole Chorus 
would strike in here (cp. n. on 205 — 224). 
Dindorf adds a second Tlcudv, on the 
assumption that the verse is an iambic 
dimeter, comparing Ar. Ach. 12 12, where 
the MSS. have ICo lu) Uaiav Uaidv (Metra 
Aeschyli 1. etc., p. 119). But the MS. 
reading is kept by most critics, including 
W. Christ {Metrik, § 443). 

222 tS\ The mss. have tSf tS*. The 
hiatus would be justified by the slight 
pause after tSe: cp. Ph. 832 tdt Wi pot 
waubv (n.). But most edd. agree with 
Dindorf in omitting tde: and they are 
probably right, since it disturbs the other- 
wise regular metre of w. 221 — 224. 

228 f. toC8': the good tidings (i8off.) 
of which their minds are full.— 4vofryv) 
(cp. 1 1 n.) is strengthened by dvr£irp<ppa. 



38 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



AH. 6p(o, <f)i\aL yvvaiKes, ovSc ji o/i/iaros 225 

*<f>povpav irapi}\0€ rovSe p,r) Xcvcrcrcw/ <tto\ov 
yaiptiv Sc rov KqpvKa irpovwe7rcu y xpov<p 
7toXXg5 (fxtvevra, ^aprov c? ti koX <f)€p€L<z. 

AIXAS. 

aXX' ev p,kv iyp,eff, ev Sc wpoa^covov/Meda, 

yvvai, kolt epyov ktyjo'W avhpa yap fcaXals 230 

irpa<T<rovT avayicq ^/o^ord KepSalvew em). 

AH. (o <ptArar avopcov, Trptou a irporra povAo/iai 
StSa^bi/, €t ^cS^ e H/>afcXca Tr/DocrScfo/iai. 

AL eyarye rot <r<f> £\enrov ioyyovra re 

ical tjLvra koX ddXKovra kov voaq) fiapvv. 235 

AH. ttov yfjs, irarpaias etre fiapfidpov ; Xeye. 

AL aKTTj rts ear Ev/Jous, h/v opifaerai 

226 (ppovphv Musgrave : (ppovpd. mss. — /xr)] Hermann conj. /*-») ov. — \evjaeiv made 
from X&jaeuf in L. 228 cptpeicr L : (pi pet r. 280 ipyov tcrrjaiv] Hense 



226 f. ov& \k ftpitaTOS +povpdv irap- 

3"{X0c : the ace. of tne part ( = <ppovpovv 
fifia) follows the pers. pron. ; cp. Ph. 
1 301 fiides /*€... x«pa« The subject to 
iropijXOc ('this sight') is easily supplied 
from t&8' in 223. For the phrase, cp. 
Ph. 151 (ppoupew 6pp. 1 ('that the eye 
should watch'). The MS. ppovpd is pos- 
sible : the sense would then be, 'nor has 
the task of watching with the eye escaped 
my care. But the phrase appears some- 
what less natural; and the nom. <ppovpa 
may have been generated by traprjXOe. — 
pi) Xcvco-civ: it is unnecessary to insert 
oti : cp. 90 n. 

227 f. Trpovwbro) > primum iubeo, with 
ace. and inf., like \£y<a in 137 (n.), and 
ivviirw in O. T. 350. — <^pcis: for the 
change to direct address, cp. O. C. 1353 f. 
(rovly followed by <3 K&Kurre). For ical 
emphasizing the verb, cp. 0. T. 851 el 5' 

OVV TI K&KTp€TTOlTO. 

229 dXX' replies to the doubt implied 

in x a P T0V € * Ti K0 ^ 0^>«*» Hence the two 
co-ordinated clauses are here equally im- 
portant: this is not a case in which the 
main stress is on the clause with Si (as in 
O. C. 1536, Ph. 503). 

280 f. icar' Ipyov kttjoiv. As vtmj 
can be called a K-nj/na {Ph. 81), and as 
ipyov itself often='a notable deed' (Ant. 
730 n.), so KCKTrpdai ipyov might well 
mean, 'to have made an achievement 



one's own.' The phrase in the text, then, 
seems sound, as meaning, 'the achieve- 
ment of the deed ' ( = ' the deed achieved '). 
We cannot understand, 'the acquisition 
(booty) made by the deed.' — ctvopa yap 
k.t.X.: ydp refers to icar' ipyov KTrpw. 
the welcome befits the deed, for the deed 
has prospered. — icaXos irpcunrovr* k.t.X. : 
the sensitive Greek was quick to see his 
good or bad fortune mirrored in the be- 
haviour of his neighbours : cp. n. on Ph. 
I 353* We must not, then, alter koXms 
to koXo, — a change which Nauck thinks 
'necessary.' 

282 f. & irp&ra ffcrfXopcu, sc. 5i5d- 
<t k€<t6 ai. For the plur., cp. 64. — *Hpa- 
icXIa, -~~-; it is needless to assume 
synizesis, since a proper name excuses an 
anapaest in any foot except the 6th. An- 
other choriambic name ( ArTiy6vrj) holds 
the same place in 0. C. 507. Below, in 
v. 476 — the only other place where Soph, 
has the ace. of 'HpcucXqs — most editors 
write 'H/xucXi; (L having rjpajcXeT), since 
*Hpa*X&, at the end of a verse, must be 
a trisyllable, and the synizesis of -ea, in 
that position, would be awkward. So, 
too, in Ar. TTi. 26, where the Ravenna MS. 
has 'HocucX&i at the end of the v., Dind. 
writes H/xucXj}. In Attic inscriptions the 
ace. of proper names in -kXtjs is regularly 
-icXia down to c. 300 B.C.; later it is 
-«X^v: while -kM} does not occur. The 



TPAXINIAI 



39 



De. I see it, dear maidens; my watching eyes had not 
failed to note yon company. [Enter LlCHAS, followed by 
Captive Maidens!\ — All hail to the herald, whose coming hath 
been so long delayed! — if indeed thou bringest aught that 
can give joy. 

LlCHAS. 

We are happy in our return, and happy in thy greeting, lady, 
which befits the deed achieved ; for when a man hath fair 
fortune, he needs must win good welcome. 

De. O best of friends, tell me first what first I would know, — 
shall I receive Heracles alive ? 

Li. I, certainly, left him alive and well, — in vigorous health, 
unburdened by disease. 
. De. Where, tell me — at home, or on foreign soil ? 

Li. There is a headland of Euboea, where to Cenaean 



conj. iprf dvfyrifi'. 288 'H/xurX^a MSS. : *H/xurX^ Dindorf. 286 L 

points thus : trod • yija irarp(via<T etre fiappdpov \4ye. 287 Ev^ods] eifioto- L. 



-k\tj form is frequent, however, in non- 
Attic inscr. (as those of Delos, Delphi, 
Sparta), though not before 228 B.C. (Meis- 
terhans, p. 58.) 

284 f. iyvyi rot: for 7^ toi, cp. O. C. 
1324. — JXfiirov: 76 n. — In the sequel, 
Deianeira dies before Heracles is brought 
home. The answer of Lichas is uncon- 
sciously evasive; it is also undesignedly 
suggestive of a contrast between the hero's 
present state, and that in which he is to 
arrive, vboy /Saptfs. — Ur\vcvr6. tc ical 
twrra. The word £»vra was prompted 
by the form of D.'s question; and the 
double copula, re k<h, links UrjrCovra 
with it more closely than the following 
words are linked by the simple kcu. 
Hence the whole phrase, * strong as well 
as alive,' = 'not only alive, but strong.' — 
OdXXovra is more than Urxpovra^ as im- 
plying radiant health : cp. El. 952 ply \ 
0&Xkov7>: Eur. I. A. 1223 ff. apd <r'... 
6\f/o/juu I {wav re icai ddXXovjav; — kov 
vo<np Papvv: cp. 0. T. 58 yvtarh. koIk 
Ayvurra (n.). 

286 irov YtJS (£Xe«r€$), (etre) irarfxpas 
ctrc Pappdpov (fXeiwes) ; where did you 
leave him, — whether it was in Greece or 
abroad that you left him? ctrf, either 
doubled or single, is thus used, with 
ellipse of the verb, when a statement or a 
question is to include two alternative sup- 
positions: cp. Plat. Legg. 844 D 6s av 
dypolKov dirupas 7etfoT7Tcu, fiorpfaav efre 



Kal <tuk(j3v [sc. £ye^J<^aTo],...e^r , iv rclts 
avrov xcop/ots etre koI iv dXKw f ...ir€VT'fr 
Kovra 6<pei\4r<o Spaxfids. So, with a single 
etre, O. T. 517: with doubled rfre, id. 
194, 1049. In such sentences ctrf be- 
comes practically equivalent to 1}. But it 
cannot, of course, replace ^ in a direct 
statement or question: i.e., 'This is either 
good or bad,' could not be rendered, 
tovto rfr' Ayadbv etre tcaicbv iari. Hence 
the following punctuation, adopted by 
Dindorf, is impossible: — irov 7ns; nu- 
rfxpas ctTf fSappctpov ; Xcyc. This would 
require rj instead of etre. (Paley, who 
follows Dindorf, seems to have felt a mis- 
giving; 'The use of etre for ^,' he says, 
' is remarkable. 1 ) — Ellendt prefers a third 
way of pointing, which L (see cr. n.) also 
suggests: — irov yi}s; nuTp<pa$ cfrc pap- 
pdpov, X*yt ('say whether..:). The ob- 
jection to this is that it throws too much 
emphasis on the distinction between Greek 
and foreign soil. 

irarfxpos {yrjs) = jraTplSot (as in 0. C 
1292 etc.), i. e. Hellas, as the land of his 
ancestors (not as 'the land of his father 
Zeus'). Cp. 1060 000' 'EXXAs oUt* &y\<o<r- 
ffos. The rumours reported by Hyllus 
spoke of Heracles as freed from Omphale, 
but left it doubtful whether he was yet in 
Euboea (69 — 75). 

287 £ EvPoUs: 74 n. The north- 
western extremity of Euboea is a small 
peninsula, which runs out westward just 



40 

AH. 
AI. 

AH. 

AI. 

AH. 

AI. 



IO0OKAEOYI 

/3o>/x,ov9 Tekrj r eyKapira Krjvaicp Aw. 

evtcrala <f>aiv(ov, t] Vo fiavreias twos ; 

crJ^ais, off ypet, Ttavfi avaoTaTOV hopl 240 

Xdpai/ yvvaiKtav wv 6pa$ ev ofifiacriv. 

avrai 8c, irpos 0cc3i/, tov ttot* eloi ical rives; 

oiicrpal yap, ei fir/ £vfJL<f>opal kkewrovcri fie. 

ravras eKelvos Ev/ovrov irepcra? 7roXii> 

et~eikeff avr$ Krijfia /cat flcois Kpvrov. 245 

^ /ca7ri Tavrg tq ttoXci top (utkottov 

ypovov fie/Has t\v rjfiepwv dvypidfiov; 

ovk, aXXa toi> ^ie> fl-Xcurrw ei> AvSots yfiovov 

KaTei)(e(? 9 cos (frijcr avros, ovk ekevdepos, 

aXX* eiiirohqdeis. rov \6yov 8* ov x/m) <f>dovov, 250 



238 WX17 L, with most mss.: but A is one of a few which have tcKci, and 
so Aid. reads. 239 tpalvtav] Nauck conj. KpaLvuv. 240 e&xaua L, 

with most mss. : efara? A, R, V s , Aid. — 5opi mss., as always : d6pei Dindorf. See 
on O. C. 1304. 243 ZufMpopal A (and a few others), Aid. : j-v/upopSU L (the t 



opposite the mouth of the Malian Gulf. 
It ends in the promontory once called 
Krjvaiov, and now Cape Lithada. Zeus 
Kfycuos was worshipped on the neighbour- 
ing hill- tops (upwards of 2800 ft. in 
height), as on so many other summits 
(cp. Ph. 1040 n.) : Aesch. fr. 29 E£/9ot8a 
KdfXTTTojy dfKpl KtjpcUov Atos I aKT-qv. The 
legendary Oechalia, which Heracles 
sacked, was not near Cenaeum, but some 
50 miles s.b. of it, in the territory of 
Eretria (Hecataeus ap. Paus. 4. 2. 3 : 
Strabo 10 p. 448). Sophocles shows his 
knowledge of this tradition by his refer- 
ence to the hero's march from Oechalia 
to Cenaeum (750 etpre). 

opC&crai pw|M>ta: the verb denotes 
properly the act of tracing the temenos in 
which the altars were to stand. Cp. Her. 
3. 142 Aibs...Bu)fibv Idpfoaro ical rt/xevos 
T€pl avrhv ovpure. In v. 754 the act. 
dplfri is used : the midd. occurs in Xen. 
An. 7. 5. 13 <rr^\as dpurdfievoi. The 
plur. ftapoyt (as in 754, 993) might be 
used of a single altar (cp. Ant. 1000), but 
here prob. denotes several, — the sacrifice 
being on so great a scale (760 ff.). — r&i) 
r* fyicapira, tributes (or dues) of fruits; 
ue.y the revenues derived from a temenos 
containing fruit-trees or capable of yield- 
ing crops. The poet can say, dplferat 
t4\ii fyjca/nra, because he is thinking of 
the temenos itself (cp. 754). Such lands 



were sometimes cultivated under the 
direct control of the priests; sometimes 
they were let to tenants : cp. Plat. Legg. 
759 E rafdas...Kal refiepQp koX tcaprQu 
To&rutv kolI /jLtffOdxreutv Kvpiovs. C.I. G. 
4474 (a Kw/xTj is attached to a shrine of 
Zeus), oTcot if dirb raijnjs rptoodos d*a\l- 
cricrfTcu els rds Kara, fxijvas crvvreXov/xfras 
Owrlas /ecu rcfXXa rd rpbs afii-Tjcnv rod UpoG 
arvPTclywra k.t.\. 

239 £ €^KTa£a...Tj 'ir& paiTcCas : he 
may have vowed them before the event ; 
or, after it, an oracle may have demanded 
them. Thus, after the battle of Salamis, 
the Delphian Apollo claimed a thank- 
offering from the Aeginetans (Her. 8. 
122). — fyatvtav, presenting them, in fulfil- 
ment of the promise. This is a rare use 
of the verb, but somewhat like that in 
O. C. 721 vvv cbv rh. Xa/xrpd raura 5^ <pai- 
vhv imj (n.), * to make those bright praises 
seen in deeds.' 

240 tvxats, causal dat : cp. 1127: 
O. C. 332 f. — dvcwrraTOv, proleptic: cp. 
106 ddatcpfrruv. 

241 iv: for the attract., cp. O. C. 3511. 
— kv 6\l^mo-\.v: Ant. 764 i» ctytfctA/Icuj 
hp&r (n.). 

242 rov iror' cUri : schol. &rrl rUnn 
elal 5€<tt6tov. Their appearance in 
charge of the herald shows that they are 
captives, and consequently slaves (302): 
she asks, then, who is their captor. 



TPAXINIAI 



4i 



Zeus he consecrates altars, and the tribute of fruitful ground. 

De. In payment of a vow, or at the bidding of an oracle ? 

Li. For a vow, made when he was seeking to conquer and 
despoil the country of these women who are before thee. 

De. And these — who are they, I pray thee, and whose 
daughters ? They deserve pity, unless their plight deceives me. 

Li. These are captives whom he chose out for himself and 
for the gods, when he sacked the city of Eurytus. 

De. Was it the war against that city which kept him away 
so long, beyond all forecast, past all count of days ? 

Li. Not so : the greater part of the time he was detained 
in Lydia, — no free man, as he declares, but sold into bondage. 

No offence should attend on the word, 

added by S). Most of the later mss. have £vfx<t>op$, which is preferred by Schneide- 
win and Campbell. 246 QefXed' r: i&Xed (^ from rj) L. — aim?] atrial L. 

246 AaKoirov] Herwerden conj. Sxrverov. 247 dvifjpidfiov A : dpldfuov (made 

from dptdfxeLov) L. Erfurdt conj. dv^pidfxos : Wakefield, dvypidpuv. 249 dt 

0^0-'] Cut tyqW L. 



Hence a slight emphasis falls on licctvos 

(*44>- 
243 olicrpal ydp: '(I ask this,) for 

they deserve pity, unless their present 
plight deceives me,' — i.e. % unless it ex- 
cites greater pity than I should feel if I 
knew more. — £vu.<j>opal is much better 
than the v.l. £vp9<>pqi, which would easily 
arise from a wish to have the same sub- 
ject in both clauses. When a common 
word for fraud, such as KXiirretv, is used 
in the figurative sense, 'to produce an 
illusion/ it is evidently fitter that the sub- 
ject to the verb should not be a human 
being. Cp. Ant. 681 cl /irj r£ XP& V V 
K€K\4fifj,€da: ib. 12 18 Btoiffi KXhrrofxai. 

246 i£ct\c6': the midd. here suits 
afrr<p : but in ref. to Ocots the act. ifcTXev 
would have been more usual, cp. PA. 
143m.: [Eur.] Rhes. 470 deoiel r dicpo- 
divC i£i\y$: Thuc. 3. 50 ic\r)povs . . . 7-97$ 
yijs . . . roh Oeois Upovs ij-eTXov. — Kpi/nSv : 
so in At. 1302 Hesione is the tiucpiTov 
d(i>prjfia given to Telamon as a prize of 
valour. Prisoners of war often became 
lep68ov\oi in temples (cp. Her. 6. 134: 
Paus. 3. 18. 3). 

246 £ tj icdirl: for rj koU in a ques- 
tion, cp. O. T. 368. — cftncoirov, 'not to be 
looked for,* i.e., here, longer than could 
possibly have been expected. Cp. El. 
864 &<TKOiros a \<b(3a : PA. 1 1 1 1 n. — ijjupwv 
goes with dvtjpiOjjLov, not with \p6vov : 
'without number of days,' =' extending 



to countless days.' Cp. At. 601 f. ii-qvuv 
dv^ptdfios : O. C. 677 n. 

The form dpr)pid/ws is of a frequent 
type. When the second part of a com- 
pound adj. has a disyllabic stem (usu. 
a verbal stem), beginning with a short 
vowel, this vowel may be lengthened. 
Such forms were oft. convenient in poetry 
(as drffxyros, etf^c/iof, 4>t\^p€Tfxos), but 
many of them were equally current in 
good prose (as apijuccaros, awJjvvros, wr\- 
Xc<3s, cixbvvnos). The restriction of dyrj- 
piOfws to classical poetry and late prose 
(as Athen. p. 253 f) is not due to its 
form, but to the fact that classical prose 
preferred dMapLdfirjros. Tragedy uses dvd- 
pidfAos (a) where it suits the metre (as in 
El. 225). In Theocr. 15. 45 dvdpidfwi 
(a) is Doric for dvr)pi0fxoi. 

248 £ r&v p2v ir\cferTov...xp6vov: 
i.e. t twelve of the fifteen months (44). — 
<&$ <H°"' <rfr6$: cp. 253 cfcs avrbs \4yeu 
It would have seemed incredible without 
such testimony. 

260 £ 4piro\i|9c£s may be freely ren- 
dered, 'sold into bondage,' but its literal 
sense is rather, 'made merchandise of,' 
or, '.bought. ' Hesychius, indeed, explains 
J)fiir6\ri<r€v by dWSoro : but, though ifc/x- 
wo\ai' = 'to sell off,' ifiiroKay as='to 
sell' lacks classical evidence. (Cp. PA. 
417 ifiiro\riT6s, 'bought.') irpadijvcu (252), 
ireirpdffOcu were the proper terms for 'to 
be sold ' (as a slave). 



42 ZO0OKAEOYZ 

yvvai, irpoativaiy Zevs otov it patera) p <f>avf}. 
Kelvos 8c irpadels 'O/x^aX^ rfi fiapfidpcQ 
iviavrov ifjeirkrjo'ev, cos avros Xeyci. 
vovTftis iBiJxOri tovto Tovveihos \a(3tov 
oxrff opKOV avT(a irpoa/Baktov Siajfiocrev, 
rj p/fjv top dy^iarfjpa roSSc rod iradovs 
j;vv irouhl teal yvvauci 8ovX<uo"cu> eri. 
kov^ t/Xigktc rov7ros, aXA. otf ayz>os r/i>, 
(TrpaTov \a/3coi/ hraKTov ep^erai irokiv 



255 



262 f. Wunder brackets these two verses. 



263 i&irXriffev] i^iirXfjaaev L. 



tov Xoyov^.^Oovov, dislike (felt by the 
hearer for the narrator) on account of the 
telling. — irpocrctvcu, abs., to be an atten- 
dant circumstance (Ant. 1252 n.), — to 
attend upon the act (of telling).— 5tov, 
neut. : (in the case of anything) of which 
Zeus is seen to be the doer. Cp. Thuc. 
6. 14 to KaXuk dpl-cu tout 1 efrcu, fa dp ttjv 
irarplda a><t>€\if}<Ty. We cannot make otov 
masc. (relat. to tov \6yov), because 6 
X070J here denotes, not the reported deed, 
but the (mere) act of reporting it, as con- 
trasted with the causing of it. — irpoicrap 
<^avjj: cp. 862: for otov without &», cp. 
O. T. 1231 n. The agency of Zeus is ex- 
plained below, 274 ff. 

The meaning is: — 'You may think that 
the humiliation of Heracles ought not to 
be related by his servant to his wife. But 
this humiliation was imposed by Zeus 
himself, and can therefore be related with- 
out reflecting upon Heracles. ' 

262 kcivos Si: & resumes the story 
after the parenthetic apology (rod Xoyov... 
<f>cwy): cp. k€ivol y in 281. Wunder re- 
jects these two verses, (1) because they 
repeat the substance of w. 248 — 250, and 
(2) because Lichas ought not to pain his 
mistress by mentioning Omphale. But 
( 1) these w. explain h AvSots, and de- 
fine \p6vov ' (v tne herald's motive for 
silence concerning Iole does not apply to 
the case of Omphale. Hyllus had already 
mentioned 'the Lydian woman4 to his 
mother (70). 

irpa9cl$... , 0|t^dX < g. Hermes, by com- 
mand of Zeus, took Heracles to Lydia, 
and sold him in the slave-market to 
Omphale : the price was paid to Eurytus, 
as a voivf\ for the murder of Iphitus 
(Apollod. 2. 6. 2). 

Two tragic poets of the fifth century 



B.C., Ion of Chios and Achaeus, had 
written an 'OfHp&Xri aaTvpuc/). Two poets 
of the Middle Comedy, Antiphanes 
(Athen. 112 c) and Cratinus jun. (id. 
669 b) wrote an 'OjMpdXrj, picturing Hera- 
cles abandoned to sensuous pleasures. It 
is the more noteworthy how Sophocles, 
in lightly touching on this episode, has 
guarded his hero's dignity. For he speaks 
only of servile labours for the Lydian task- 
mistress (70, 356); and marks how the 
bondsman felt his disgrace (254). 

263 {viavrov. The popular version 
spoke of three years. This was the term 
assigned by the mythographer Herodorus 
(c. 430 B.C.?), ace. to the schol.; as it is 
by Apollodorus (2. 6. 2). If this change 
was due to Sophocles, we can see the 
artistic motive. Three months or so, 
after the bondage, were required for the 
war in Euboea. If the poet had made 
Heracles go to Lydia 39, instead of 15, 
months before his death, there would 
have been less room for those hopes 
which contend with fears in the opening 
scene of the Trachiniae. 

264 XoficSv, having incurred : cp. fr. 
742 fr/dar I Xafieiv: (O. T. 1494 toddy 
Xa/xp&vw is not exactly similar:) Thuc. 
2. 18 alTlav...f\ap€v. 

266 £ SpKOV avnp irpoajSaXfliv : cp. 
Her. 1. 146 a<f>Un avrjjiri 6pKovs iw/jXturav : 
id. 6. 74 6pxovs rpwrdyuv <x<pi r\ fih t\j/€<r- 
6 ax k.t.X. — Su»|ioarcv. With the excep- 
tion of the perf. (Lycurg. § 127), the act. 
voice is rarer than the midd. (378, Ai. 
"33).--^ Hvj Ph. 503. m 

tov ttYx MTTf|pa tovoc tov iraOovs, the 
man who had brought this calamity near 
to him, — brought it upon him: since 
Eurytus, by insulting him, had provoked 
him to slay Iphitus, — the crime for which 



TPAXINIAI 



43 



lady, when the deed is found to be of Zeus. So he passed a 
whole year, as he himself avows, in thraldom to Omphate the 
barbarian. And so stung was he by that reproach, he bound 
himself by a solemn oath that he would one day enslave, with 
wife and child, the man who had brought that calamity upon 
him. Nor did he speak the word in vain ; but, when he had 
been purged, gathered an alien host, and went against the city 

264 iB-faBy made from ibetxBrj in L. — rotiveidos] r' 6rei6oa L. 266 avr$] 

avTwi L. 266 dyx urr VP a MSS - *• Musgrave conj. dfm&rfjpa : Blaydes, apTV<rrrjpa 

[a/mrrijpa ?] : Nauck, abrbx^tpa : Mekler, rbv ol KTiarijpa. 267 waidl] Turnebus 

conj. ircual. 268 ko&x] *' obx L> with x written over k by the first hand. 



this irdBos was the penalty. dyx<*rrhfa in 
this sense, presupposes a trans. dyxLfrw. 
That verb does not occur, but would be 
analogous to iyylfav: and the latter, 
though usu. intrans., is trans, in Polyb. 
8. 6 iyylffavres ry yy rbs pads. Compare, 
too, the phrases of converse form : II. 5. 
766 ij £ ftdXurr* etude kclktjs 6dbvg<ri ireXd- 
jtar: Aesch. P. V. 155 decrfxols...Tre\d<Tas 
(/it). — Others understand: — 'the man 
most nearly concerned in this calamity.' 
This is the general sense intended by the 
schol. : rbv atruov koX <rx*8bv avrbv woiif)- 
aavra rod irdBovs (where the words kolL... 
Tcovfyrwra are parenthetical): i.e. t 'the 
(ultimate) cause, and almost the actual 
author, of the calamity.' But, though 
dyxurHjp might naturally mean, ' nearest 
kinsman' (^dyxurrefo), it would be 
strange to say, a*yx tffT fy> rod rdBovs, as = 
'the person who had most to do with' 
that rddos. 

No emendation is probable. Nauck's 
avr6\tipa would be possible only if 
Eurytus had himself sent Heracles into 
slavery. 

267 j^v irtnSl ical ywoikI, i.e., with 
his whole family. Eurytus had several 
children (266) , but the prosaic conjecture 
iraurl would only weaken the phrase. 
Schneidewin cp. Od. 9. 199 ofo€K& fuv 
ebr iraidl irepiffxbMxB* fyt ywaucl: where 
ratal is a v. /. This may be parallel : 
there is nothing, however, to show that 
the sing, cannot there be taken literally. 
For the collective sing., cp. Aesch. Theb. 
197 dvijp yvplj re x& TL T & v nercUx/uov. — 
Sov\»<rciv: the prose word, in ref. to 
prisoners of war, was not dovXovv, but 
drdpairodlfriv : hence Thuc. 8. 28 ra d»- 
Spdxoda TrdvTa koX SovXa koX iXetjBepa (re- 
ferring to their previous condition). — en, 
as oft. in threats: EL 66: Aesch. P. V. 



008 ri fxrjv eri ZeiJs, koXtco abBd&ij <f>popQv 9 
J rareivbs £<rrac. 

268 kov\ ^XCwcc roiWros: modelled 
on the Homeric obd* dXLuxre (MXos (II. 16. 
737), with a reminiscence also of oW 
SXiov twos to-fferai (ib. 24. 92). — 80* ayv6% 
ljv. The Homeric poems know nothing 
of a ritual for purification from homicide : 
the blood-shedder either flies into exile 
(II. 24. 480 ff.), or prevails on the kins- 
folk of the slain to accept a iroivif) (ib. 9. 
632 ff.), and stays at home. Here the 
schol. supposes that, by dyv<Ss, Sophocles 
alludes simply to the year of exile having 
expired. This may be so ; but it is more 
probable that Heracles is conceived as 
also undergoing a formal KdBapait. Ac- 
cording to other writers, he received this 
from Deiphobus at Amyclae, after vainly 
seeking it from Neleus at Pylos (Apollod. 
2. 6. 2: Diod. 4. 31). So Aesch. makes 
the exile Orestes receive the Kadap/xol 
XOipoKrdvot (Eum. 283, 449). The homi- 
cide who withdrew into banishment was 
said arepiavrlfrur (or dreviavretp), — a word 
not always restricted to one year : Plat. 
Legg. 868 D iptavrobs rpeis aTOHavretv. 
Cp. ib. E KadalpecrBcu /xev robs abrobs 
KaBap/jLobs, Tpterets 8i dreviavT^aeii 
SiareXeTv. The rites of KdBapcis for homi- 
cide are fully described by Apoll. Rhod., 

4. 693—7I7- , 

269£ arparov...hraKr6v : theadj. here 

merely =^w, 'alien,' i.e., not belonging 
to his own home, iraicrbs is prop, said of 
allies, or mercenaries, whom a foreign state 
calls in (irdyercu) to its aid: cp. O. C. 
1 5 25 n. But here it denotes the allies of an 
exile, — just as Polyneices is said to bring 
a orpdrevfi' iwcucrbv against his country 
(Aesch. Theb. 583). — Apollod. 2. 7. 7 de- 
scribes this army as composed of Arca- 
dians, Malians, and Epicnemidian Lo- 



44 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



rfjv JLvpvreiav. rovhe yap fxerairLov 260 

flOPOP fipOTWV €<f>a<TK€ TOvS* €LVOLL irdOoVS* 

05 avroi> ekuovT cs oo/iovs €<pco*rtoi/, 

££vov irakaiov ovra, 7roXXa /jlci/ Xoyois 

c7rc/)/)o^crc, TroXXa 8* drr/py <f>p€vi, 

Xeya>i>, \€po7,v fiev o5? a<f>vKT e)(a)p fiekrj 265 

TftJl/ cSl/ T€KV(OV Xct7TOlTO 7r/>0$ To£oV Kpi<TW, 

<f>covei 8c, SovXos ax>8pos a>$ ikevdepov 
paioiro* htiirvois 8\ rjviK rjv covoj/jLevoSy 
eppuftev iKTO$ avrov. &v tynv -)(6\ov, 

260 yaeTa/rtoi'] jueV clLtlov L. 261 In L ftporCbv has been made from fipvrbv by S. 

264 f. The words iroXXd, 5* arripq, 4>pwl, \ \tyw x € P°i y f^ v are rejected by Bergk 
and V. Jernstedt. — L points thus:— -4ircppb0ri<r€' iroXXd. 5' drrjpSU <f>pcvl [I made from /] 
\{yw x € P°^ v etc. 266 XeftroiroA: XJhrotro L. • 267 ^cwet] ^(fcet L (not ^vei). 



crians : but those who cite him here have 
not observed that he supposes Heracles 
to make the war from Trachis. 

gpXcrcu with ace. of place : O. C. 8o, 
El. 893. — irtfXivnjvEvpvTfCav: cp. O. T. 
267 Tip AajiidaKeLp irai.81 (n. ): ib. 450 
<j>bvov I rbv Aafetop. — tovSc, as if rty .Etf- 
pfrrou had gone before : so in 77. 5. 640 6s 
refers to (3lr)v 'Hpa/cXqelip' : in O. C. 942 
afrrobs to v6\ip in 939: in Ph. 1364 d ye 
to Tpolap in 1363. — |mt<iCtu>v : Zeus was 
primarily aXnos, but Eurytus was the only 
mortal who had a part in it. 

262 tyloriov, added to 4s S6|aovs, 
marks how the hospitality of the hearth 
had been violated. Cp. Eur. Med. 713 
&£cu de X&PQ- koI 56[moli i<p4(mov. The 
stranger who had been received as an 
inmate was under the protection of Zetfs, 
both EeVtos and 'E^eVrtos (At. 492). For 
the phrase !X06vT...ty6roov, cp. Od. 23. 
55 ijXde yJkv abrbs {tabs itfrktrrun. 

263 f^vov iraXcubv 6vra : Eurytus was 
said to have taught Heracles the use of 
the bow (Theocr. 24. 106 f.). 

264 tircpp66r)<rc. This verb can de- 
note the blended sound of many voices 
(Aesch. Ch. 458); esp., the responsive 
shout of a crowd (Eur. Hec. 553, Or. 901). 
Here it refers to loud and vehement rail- 
ing: cp. Ant. 259 \6yot...ipp60ow kukoI 
(n.), and ib. 413 iirippbOoit \ kclkoIctiv. 

From ineppoBrjae a verb of more general 
sense, such as tySpure, is to be supplied with 
drnpqi 4>pcv£. (For the sense of drrfpq,, cp. 
Ph. 1272: Paley wrongly takes it as= 
4 deluded/) This is the easier, since the 
antithesis between X£yois and focvi at 



once suggests a distinction between af- 
fronts expressed in speech and those which 
showed the malicious intention in another 
way, viz., by acts: two examples of the 
verbal insults are given, and then one of 
the other kind (Schrvois 8' ic.r.X.). In- 
stances of zeugma quite as bold occur 
elsewhere in poetry ; for the Greek mind 
was quick to seize the hint of a contrast, 
and did not always require full expression 
of it: e.g.y Od. 15. 374 eTr $' &pa 5e<nrol- 
vrjs oif fMeiXixw &<mv &Kov<rai \ otir* tiros 
otire ti. tpyov {sc. iradeiv) : ib. 20. 312 f. 
fjrfjktav <r4>a^ofiiv(jjv otvoib re 7rivofi4voLo\ 
Kal alrov (sc. i<r$tofUvov). In these ex- 
amples, just as here, the antithesis of nouns 
supersedes an explicit antithesis of verbs. 

Others understand: — 'railed against 
him both with (rude) words and with evil 
intent* To this there are two objections. 
(1) Since all the supposed affronts are 
then verbal, the antithesis would require 
an epithet for X6*yois (such as afrx/xus), to 
balance clrqpa. (2) The formula iroXXd 
pfcv...iro\\d m would be out of place, 
unless two classes of verbal taunts were 
distinguished by the presence or absence 
of a spiteful intent; but the context ex- 
cludes such a distinction. 

The text is clearly (I think) sound. It 
is unwarrantable, as it is undesirable, to 
strike out iroXXd 8\..x€potv ykv (see cr. 
n.). Again, it is improbable that a verse 
has been lost after v. 264. 

266 f. Xiyuv x^°^ K^ v : metre has 
influenced the place of iUv, which answers 
to 8) in 267, and ought to come next after 
Xfywv: cp. Ph. 919 owcu tc<ucou pew wpQra 



TPAXINIAI 



45 



of Eurytus. That man, he said, alone of mortals, had a share 
in causing his misfortune. For when Heracles, an old friend, 
came to his house and hearth, Eurytus heaped on him the 
taunts of a bitter tongue and spiteful soul, — saying, 'Thou 
hast unerring arrows in thy hands, and yet my sons surpass 
thee in the trial of archery ' ; ' Thou art a slave/ he cried, ' a 
free man's broken thrall ' : and at a banquet, when his guest 
was full of wine, he thrust him from his doors. 

So most of the mss., and Aid. Wunder conj. Cxrel for ^uvet, and opt 1 for wy : Her- 
mann, adopting avr\ changed <puvei to <pavels : Nauck, reading <pavels, would prefer 
i£ to avr. 268 (fvufitvos Pors. and Elms. : olviofUvos MSS. 



tov6\ (vena Se \ ...vopdrjffou. — dtyvKra... 
P&t), those which Heracles had received 
from Apollo, and which he bequeathed 
to Philoctetes (Ph. 198 n. : ib. 105). — r&v 
cSv -Wkvwv : the sons were four in number, 
ace. to Hesiod (fr. 70, ap. schol. here), — 
Ai^ow, KXtfnos, To£€tfe,l0iToi. An ancient 
vase from Caere, which depicts the re- 
ception of Heracles by Eurytus and his 
family, gives the names of three sons as 
KXtfrios, T6£o$, AiSalfwv (Preller II. 226 
n. 3). Creophylus, the author of the 
OtxaXlas aXcixn?, named only two sons 
(schol.). 

XcfaroiTo: cp. Thuc. 6. 72 dvijp koI is 
r&XXa tyveaiv o&Sevbs Xeiirdfievos. — irpds 
t6£ou KpCo-tv: for the prep., cp. Ph. 1306 
ko.kov% I ...vpds cUxftfy. Her. 1. 99 {ovk) 
is dvhpayadi-qv Xetvd/ievoi. By rbl-ov Kplffis 
is meant a trial (of the competitors) which 
the bow decides. Kpiais thus almost 
= dytif»: cp. Ph. 1050 n. There was a 
legend that Eurytus offered the hand of 
his daughter Iole as a prize for the man 
who should surpass him and his sons in 
archery. Heracles conquered, but Eury- 
tus broke his promise (schol. : A poll. 2. 
6. 1). — Eurytus, like his father Melaneus, 
was a great archer. In Od. 8. 226 ff. he 
challenges Apollo, and is slain by him. 
The bow of Eurytus, inherited by Iphitus, 
was given by the latter to Odysseus (ib. 
2i. 31 ff.). 

207 ff. (fwvci 8i, instead of (pojvCov 
Be (answering to Xiy cay... flip): cp. El. 
190 oUovofiu dakcyiovs irar/xfc, code fiiv \ 
aeucei avv <rroX£, \ Kevats a dfupLarafiau 
Tpodfau (instead of dfx<puTTafj^vr]) : 0. C. 
351 n. This very trait confirms the 
soundness of the MS. text. For the his- 
toric pres., standing between irrcpp68ri<re 
and tppiif/cp, cp. Ant. 269 X£y«, between 
fy (268) and vpofopetyev (270). The optat. 



^oCoito is admissible (instead of jhiUtu), 
because the historic present counts as a 
secondary tense : cp. Her. 1. 63 povXty... 
iirLTCxvarai, Bkws /jlt^tc aXurdetev k.t.X. : 
Lys. or. 1 2 § 1 2 ipwrwriv &vq paSLfafxev • 
6 5' (<pa<TK€V k.t.X. 

dvSpds ...IXcv&pov with SovXos (not 
with ftalotTo, as gen. of agent, like irXi7- 
yels Ovyarpbs rrjs ifirjs^ Eur. Or. 497) : 
iXevOipov serves merely to emphasise Bov- 
Xos by contrast. — ^aCoiro: Od. 6. 325 ivel 
rrdpos 06 ttot axovcas \ pcuofjiivov, Sre fi 
tppaiev kXvtBs hvoalyaios. 

The conject. Ravels Be SovXos avBpos 
dvr iXevdipov (cr. n.) has been received 
by several edd. , who cite At. 1020 SovXos 
Xoyoifftv dvr iXevdipov <pavels. There, 
however, the force of (pavets depends on 
X&younv. * represented*, 'made out,' in 
his taunting words, to be a slave. Here 
tpavels would mean simply, 'found to be.' 

ScCirvois, dat. of the occasion : cp. Plat. 
Sytnp. 174 A rots iirtpuclois: fortheplur., 
cp. 0. T. 770, El. 203. — cpvwjj^vos, Hera- 
cles. Cp. Eur. Ale. 756 (of Heracles) 
vorrjpa S' iv x^9 €<r<rL ^IffffOfov Xafiuv \ vi- 
va fieXalvrfs firjTpbs evfapop fie" do, | £ws 
idip/JLTjv' avrbv dfJupLfiaaa <f>\6£ \ otvov ori~ 
<pet Si Kpara fxvpcivrjs kX&Sois \ dfiove* 
vXclkt&p. The drrfpd <ppfy (264) of Eury- 
tus seized this opportunity of inflicting an 
insult. 

¥ppu|rtv 4ktos avrov. A Greek vase, 
found in Sicily, quaintly illustrates some 
such incident. The inebriated Heracles 
is lying on his back outside a closed door, 
from above which an old woman is pour- 
ing cold water upon him. Satyrs and 
maenads appear at each side of the group. 
(Benndorf, Gr.und Sicilische Vasenbilder, 
pi. 44.) I am indebted for this reference 
to Mr A. S. Murray, of the British 
Museum. 



4 6 



IO*OKAEOYI 



7T/0OS tfXlTW, t7T7rOV5 VOfiqihaS iijlYVOO'KO'n'COP, 

tot aAAoo" avrov Ofifia, uarepa be vow 
e\ovT air a/cpas ^/cc 7rvpycu8ovs TrXajcos. 
epyov 8* c/caTi tovSc /i/typtcra? axxi^ 
d t<3z/ airavrtov Zevs irarrjp *0\vfiwio^ 
irparov viv c^eTrc/i^cz/, ovS* rjve<r)(€T0 9 

60OVV€K aVTOV fAOVVOV dvdpCQTTOJV h6\(0 

€KT€W€P. el yap ifJL<f>av(o<z rjfivparo, 
Zevs t&v avveyva) £i>v 81icq v€tpov/ia>G> # 
vfipiv yap ov (rripyov&iv ovoe Saifioves. 
Ketvoi o virepxkiovres 4k yXdaarjs Kaiajs 
avrol fieu *Aiooi> iravres eur olidJTopes, 

7TOA.IS 0€ dol/Aty* TCLCTOC O aO"7T€/> €lO"O/0£$, 

272 dar^/09] S'-rjT^fxtt L : ddripa r. 276 6\\jfiwioa L : ouXuyaTtos r. 

vov] /i6vov L. 278 rjfivvaro L, with most MSS. : i^twero B. 



2 70 



275 



280 



277 fiou- 
279 r&y 



«5v K\«v X^ov: f° r *he causal gen. 
cp. /%. 327 n. 

270f. cri0is, at a later time: Ant. 
1 204 n. — TipvvOCav. . . kXitvv. We cannot 
be sure that Sophocles had any clear pic- 
ture of the place before his mind ; but his 
phrase, at least, is not unsuitable. jcXinJf, 
'slope,' does not necessarily imply great 
elevation. The site of Tiryns is a ridge 
of limestone rock on the Argolic Gulf 
(cp. 1 151), in which, at some prehistoric 
time, it formed an island. The length of 
this ridge, from N. to s., is about 328 
yards : its width about 109. The upper 
citadel of Tiryns was at the southern end, 
where the rock attains a height of about 
72 feet above sea-level, and of 59 feet 
above the present surface of the plain. 
North of this was the lower citadel ; and 
the whole was surrounded by those mas- 
sive * Cyclopean* walls from which Tiryns 
derived its Homeric epithet (77. 2. 559), 
Teix«>e<r<ra. See Schliemann's Tiryns*, 
p. 177. Such a site, though not steep or 
lofty, might correctly be described as the 
TcpuvSia *cXinJf. — For the v in kXvHiv, cp. 
Ant. 1 14411., and ib. 1127 Xvyvvs: so 
pififo (Eur. Andr. 356 etc.). 

fonrovs vo|xd8os: ace. to Od. 21. 22, 
Iphitus came, tirirovs dttfjiuevos , at ol SXov- 
to I SwSeKd drfkeuu, virb d* ijfdovot raXaep- 
yol: but Apollod. 2.6.2 says, KXaveurw 
41- Evfiolas inrb AvtoXIjkov flow. For vo- 
|id8as, 'wandering,' cp. O. T. 1350 n. 



2 7 2 f. dXXoor' . . . #p|ia, farlpq, Si vovv 
H\ovt : he was gazing forth from the high 
place, in the hope of descrying his horses ; 
and, as he could not see them, his thought 
was wandering to other places where they 
might perhaps be. Cp. Diod. Sic. 4. 31 : 
Heracles commands Iphitus, d<f>opav, fx-q 
TTov vefx6fx€v<XL rvyxdvowrw 06 dwafjUvov 
8e Karavoijacu rod 1<t>lrov k.t.X. Thus 
(forlpq, does not merely repeat 6W<xrc, 
but is opposed to it: as in Her. 1. 32 
&XXo fJ.lv $x €l to 4r4pov Be hridierai. 
Cp. Plat. Theages 129C (3ovX6p£v6s fie Xa- 
deur .dv€ , <rrri 1 ...i7riTrifrfi<ras aXXocre top vovv 
ixovra. 

irvpyaSovs itXok^s. The current ver- 
sion spoke of Heracles as hurling Iphitus 
from a wall or tower, Pherecydes the 
logographer (5th cent. B.C.) is quoted to 
this effect (schol. Od. 21. 23): tov 6e 
'Rpa.KXtafXTjxcu'y ran Kod ffrpaTrjyla ffwe<f>- 
eXfcvad/xevop avrov dyetv ets iwlicpTjfx- 
vov rctxos. Apollod. 2. 6. 2 ftavels 8e 
avdts (Heracles) dv6 twv TtpvvBiwv 
tppi\f/€v avrov retx&r. Diod. Sic. 4. 31 
tovtov fiev dvafiipdaas 6 'H/xucX^t irl 
riva v&pyov v\f/rjXov iiciXeveev d<f>opav. 
The word ir&pyos oft. = a city-wall with 
its towers (O. T, 56 n.). Thus it would 
satisfy all these statements to suppose 
that Iphitus was thrown from some high 
part of the walls which encompassed 
Tiryns Teix«$w<ra. And by vvpyd&ris 
rXdij Sophocles may well have meant 



TPAXINIAI 



47 



Wroth thereat, when afterward Iphitus came to the hill of 
Tiryns, in search for horses that had strayed, Heracles seized 
a moment when the man's wandering thoughts went not with 
his wandering gaze, and hurled him from a tower-like summit. 
But in anger at that deed, Zeus our lord, Olympian sire of 
all, sent him forth into bondage, and # spared not, because, this 
once, he had taken a life by guile. Had he wreaked his ven- 
geance openly, Zeus would surely have pardoned him the 
righteous triumph ; for the gods, too, love not insolence. 

So those men, who waxed so proud with bitter speech, 
are themselves in the mansions of the dead, all of them, and 
their city is enslaved ; while the women whom thou beholdest, 

Erfurdt : r' av mss. 281 ftirepxMoyret] So the lemma of the schol., and the first 
hand in L, where S has altered it to vvepxXiddjvTes, the reading of A and other later 

MSS. 



'the summit of a tower-like building* 
Modern critics have usually held that he 
meant 'the top of a towering rock or 
cliff': and so the schol. here explains, 
i>\jnjkov 6povs. We need not press the 
argument that it is not well-suited to the 
locality. But it may be doubted whether 
a Greek poet would have compared a 
rock or cliff to a irtipyos merely because it 
was high and steep. On the other hand, 
where Trvpyoeid^s occurs elsewhere, it re- 
fers to a building. Josephus Bell. Iud. 
5. 5. 8 (the 'Am-iavla, or citadel of Jerusa- 
lem) irvpyoeid7)s...oticra to vav oxw-ta. 
Dion Cassius 74. 5 trvpa irvpyoeidfy. And 
it is consonant with the style of Tragedy 
that, in regard to such a detail, the vaguer 
phrase vvpywdris rXa£ should be preferred 
to irXa£ ir&pyov. 

276 6 t<Sv dirdvTttv k.t.X. The 
emphasis of this verse is designed (like 
the comment in 25of.) to bring out the 
higher and more soothing aspect of the 
doom suffered by Heracles. — For the 
strengthening art. with avavrw, cp. Aesch. 
P. V. 483 tcls arrdffas...u6ffovs. — irarqp 
'OXvpmos, not ouXvpi-mos (cr. n.), since 
the words form a single notion (0. T. 
ugon.). 

276 £ irparov vtv 4££irc|M|rcv, sent 
him out of the country to be sold (cp. 
2*2 n.): the adj. is proleptic (106 n.). — 
ov8* ijW<rxfTO, 'and did not tolerate* 
(his deed) : the verb is really absol. (as in 
At. 75 ov <riy dv^€i;), though it is easy 
to supply an ace: oOovvck = 'because,' 
as in 571. — Others understand, 'brooked 
not that (cp. 813) he had slain him.' — 



povvov: 0. T. 141811. 

278 ifpvvaTO, avenged himself: O. C. 
873 ?/ryois Trewovdun fflfiaalv a afivvoficu. 
The bppts of Eurytus would have justified 
Heracles in challenging Iphitus to open 
combat. 

279 f. x € 4 >0V K^ v< P T V 'HpcucXct top 
"I(fnToi> : for this midd. , cp. 1 109 : 0. C. 
950, 1009 : Ph. 92. Of the pass., Sopho- 
cles has only x«pw0€k (below, 1057, and 
O. C. 903). — ovhk SaCpovcs, i.e., they like 
it as little as mortals do : for the adverbial 
o684 after otf, cp. O. T. 287, El. 595, Au 
1242. 

281 Kftvot 8': for the resumptive 5^, 
cp. 252. — vircpx^kHT** : this form, at- 
tested by the first hand in L and by the 
schol. (cr. n.), is confirmed by the fact 
that Aesch. twice uses xkleiv with ref. to 
insolent triumph. Cho. 137 h roiat <rois 
TTovoiffL "x}dov<nv fUya: Suppl. 914 jtdp- 
ficwos &» 8* "EihXrjffiv £yxXfeis dyav. The 
compound with inrtp does not occur else- 
where. — Ik yXomto-tjs kcuctJs: here ix is 
virtually 'with' : cp. 875 : 0. T. 528 # 6> 
luirtav bpQ&v k.t.X. (n.): O. C. 480 l£ efyw- 
v(av I ffrtpvw 6£x€<rdai. This is better 
than to take £k as = 'in consequence of.' 

282 For avrol |Uv after Kctvoi and 
before irlXis 8i, cp. 0. C. 1008 icXtyas... 
ifj£ I airrbv r 9 ixetpov t&s *6pas r* o?x«* 
\a(3<i>v : and ib. 462 (n.). — olxifropcs : 
1161: Au 517 "Atdov davacrL/xovs oton}- 
ropas. 

288 £ rcurSc, instead of atSe, by 
attract, to dhnrcp: see on O. T. 449. — 
l£ 6Xf3(a>v: 0. T. 454 Twf>\6s...iic dedopicd- 
rof : so below, 619, 1075. 



48 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



cf ok/3C(ov dtprjkov evpovcai fiiov 

^(apovai 7rpos <t4' ravra yap irons t€ <ro$ 285 

€<p€lT, CVG) 0€ TTtOTO? G)I> K€ll>G> T€AG>. 

avrov o eicewov, €vt av ayva uvfiara 

pi&Q irarpa>q> ZtjpI Trjs dkriaeoj*;, 

<f>povei viv (os yj£ovT<f tovto yap Xoyov 

irokkov Kokcos kexdevTos rjhi(rrov K\vew. 290 

XO. dvaaaa, vvv <roi TepxftLS ifi^avrjs icvpei, 

tcjv /iev irapovrtov, ra Se ireTrv<rfievy Xoya>. 
AH. 7T(5s 8* ovk eya> ^aipoifi av, dvhpos €vrx/)(rj 

Kkvovaa irpd^iv r^Sc, iravhiKto <f>p€vC; 

ttoXXt; '<tt avay kt\ rjj8e tovto <tvvt pectus. 295 

0/16)? 8* eveoTL Totcriv ev (TKoirovfievois 

Tapfieiv top ev irpdo'<rovTa, firj (r<f>akjj wore. 

i/iol yap oIktos Oewos eiae/Hr), <^tXat, 

ravra? opcooy SvcriroTfLovs em tjevrjs 

vaJpas aotfcovs cwraropas r* dkco/ievas, 300 

at 7rpu> /icz> 7^crai/ eg eKevuepcov nxg>s 

dvSpcov, Tavvv 8c SotJXoi/ laypwiv /Slop. 

3> Zev rpoTratc, /177 ttot* €icri8oi/u <rc 

286 ir6<ns re <rds MSS. : Erfurdt conj. irbets ye <rbt : Brunck, ir6<ris 7' 6 <rbs. 280 ^70; 
5^ MSS. : £y<6 re Wakefield. 289 <f>p6vet r: (ppbvetv L, with two dots under the final 
v. For 4>pov€i viv Cos Hartung conj. (ppovet acufius : Hense, (ppovrjerov us. 292 rd 
5£ Scaliger: ru)* 5£ MSS. — irewfffUvTj] ireirvfffiivri L. 296 iroXXifr 'ffr'] iroX- 

Xifor' L. A few of the later mss. have toXXiJ t* (as B, V), or iroXXi) 8* (Vat.). — 
di'dyKi;] dvdyicrji L. — crwrpexcti'] Hartung writes rf?5e tovto <Tvp.<p4peiv ('that I 



286 £ yQipovci irpds <ri. The ac- 
centuation irpbs at, which is L's, seems 
right, as implying, 'to thee, their new 
mistress.' If we wrote irpds <re, the em- 
phasis would fall wholly on v. 284 : ' these, 
who are coming to thee, are now slaves.' 
— iroVis Tf...€7<& 84: the antithesis be- 
tween tycfro and tcX» seems to warrant 
us in keeping d4 here (instead of changing 
it to re): cp. 14 jn. 

287 £ dyvaQv\kara: cp. 0</. 21. 258 
eoprJ) toTo Oeoio | Ayv^: Eur. Ion 243 
ayva Ao£loi> xP rr l <rr hP La * — irarp<p<p Zijvl, 
Zeus as the god of his fathers, the protec- 
tor of his race, rather than with ref. to the 
personal relationship : so again in 753. — 
ttjs dXwraaSy/or it, causal gen. (here akin 
to the gen. of price), with the whole 
phrase Ov/xara M%q : cp. O. T, 47 wj <rk 
vvv fiev rjde yrj | cnorijpa ifX^fet ttjs rrdpos 
TTpodvpdas. 



289 <|>p<Svci vtv <os ^jfovra : for the 

redundant viv (after avrov $* iiceivov), cp. 
O. T. 248 (n.). For c&s prefixed to the 
partic, after an imperative verb of think- 
ing or knowing, Ph. 253, O. T. 848. 

290 koXos XcxScvtos, 'auspiciously/ 
'happily,' told; since the news is good. 
kcl\m Xcyeu' more usually means to speak 
(1) sensibly, or (2) speciously, Ant. 1047. 

29 If. vQv <rot T€pi|us 4|i^avi]s itupet, 
now thy joy is manifest, *.*., is assured 
beyond all doubt (cp. 223 f.). — t«v jicv, 
the herald and the captives: rd 84, the 
news that Heracles will soon return. For 
the gen. absol. co-ordinated with a partic. 
in another case, cp. O. C. 737 n. 

294 iravS(i«p 9pcvt, 'with a thorough- 
ly justified feeling' (not, 'with my whole 
heart*): cp. 611 n. The adj. occurs only 
here. 

296 rj8c, sc. rg Trpd£et: tovto, sc. 



TPAXINIAI 



49 



fallen from happiness to misery, come here to thee ; for such was 
thy lord's command, which I, his faithful servant, perform. He 
himself, thou mayest be sure, — so soon as he shall have offered 
holy sacrifice for his victory to Zeus from whom he sprang, — 
will be with thee. After all the fair tidings that have been told, 
this, indeed, is the sweetest word to hear. 

Ch. Now, O Queen, thy joy is assured ; part is with thee, 
and thou hast promise of the rest. 

De. Yea, have I not the fullest reason to rejoice at these 
tidings of my lord s happy fortune ? To such fortune, such joy 
must needs respond. And yet a prudent mind can see room 
for misgiving lest he who prospers should one day suffer re- 
verse. A strange pity hath come over me, friends, at the sight 
of these ill-fated exiles, homeless and fatherless in a foreign 
land ; once the daughters, perchance, of free-born sires, but now 
doomed to the life of slaves. O Zeus, who turnest the tide of 

battle, never may I see 



should share this feeling with him'), finding a hint of this sense in the corrupt v.l. 
vvfiirp&TTetv (V 2 , Vat.). This verse, suspected by Wunder, is bracketed by Dindorf 
and Nauck. 299 L has dfxixrrn (there is no line under u>), the u> in an erasure. 

Four dots before ra&raff called attention to the original mis-writing, whatever it 
was, of dpdxnjt. 300 x&P a *\ Reiske conj. x^P as - 301 *■ Hense and 

Nauck reject these two w. 302 dvdpQv] Blaydes and Paley conj. otxwp. 



rb ifxt x ai P €LV - — <rwTp^X <lv > coincide 
with, be combined with: for this sense 
of the verb, cp. n. on 0. C. 158 ff. — Not 
(as Linwood),.'Such joy must needs ac- 
company [the event] in this way (rjSc).' 

The rejection of this verse (see cr. n.) 
would be deplorable. Deianeira rejoices, 
but feels a certain sadness, and knows 
that she cannot help showing it ; all the 
more she wishes to assure them how real 
her joy is. 

296 f. rotcriv fv o-Koirovfiivois, absol., 
for those who take just views, — who pru- 
dently consider human affairs. For the 
midd., cp. 0. T. 964: it was common also 
in good prose. — Tappciv r&v €$ irpour- 
<tovto, instead of rapfielv inrkp rod ciT 
Tp&<T<rovTos (Plat. Rep. 387 C bvkp r(av 
4>v\6.Ktov <t>ofioviieda, /Ar)...yfr<tiVT<u etc.). 
Cp. Ph. 493 ov Ify rraXatbv ii-brov di- 
8 oik* £yw I fiif) fioi ftefflxy. 

This shadow which flits across Deianei- 
ra's joy is the more dramatically impres- 
sive for the spectators, because it arises so 
naturally out of her tender sympathy for 
the captives. It is a touch worthy of the 
greatest master. 

298 4|iol.. clo-4pt|: for the dat., cp. 

J. S. V. 



O. C. 372 n. — ScivAs, of strong feeling : cp. 
476. 

300 airotTOpas, since their fathers 
are supposed to be dead; for, when a 
city is sacked, avdpas fikv Krelvovat, ir6\iv 
64 re irvp dfiaduv€i t I riKva 5£ r etXXot 
ay ov<t l paOvfyvovs re yvvcuicas (II. 9. 
593)* Cp. O. T. 1506 TTTtox^s dw&pdpovs 
tyyevets AXw/xfras. 

SOI £ For bras in a like conjecture, 
cp. Ph. 180 otiros irpoiToybvuv taojs \ c/Ikuv 
ovdevds tier epos. — irplv pfcv ifcrav, not elcrlv, 
because t£ ikcvQipvv clvSp£y implies Aeu- 
Sepai. The word ctvSpiSy (which some 
would change to o(kojv) has been suggested 
by ciiraTopas (300). — Nauck's grounds for 
rejecting these two w. are: (1) that f<rws 
is out of place, since they must have been 
free-born ; but cp. Thuc. 8. 28, quoted on 
v. 257 : (2) that vpiv p£v rj<rar is wrong, 
because their origin remains the same. 

303 f. cS Zcv rpoirati. Zeus who 
turns foemen to flight: see on Ant. 143. 
He is fitly invoked by her, since it was he 
who had brought the captives to this 
plight. Not, 4 Averter of evil,' for rpo- 
tratos is not a classical equiv. for aicorpbic- 
aios. Plutarch, indeed, supplies an in- 



5o 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



irpos Toifiov ovrcw airepfia ytoprjaavra Trot, 

/ir]8\ el tl 8/>acr€t5, rfja8e ye £a>cr>7$ ert. 305 

outcos eya> SeSot/ca TacrS* opa/ievr). 

3* hvaraXatva, rts 7ror* €t peavC8o)v ; 

avav8po$, rj T€Ki/ov<r<ra ; Trpos //,€*> yap <f>v<rw 

irdvrcov arreipos 7w8c, yei/vaia he rts. 

Ai^> tiuos 7tot' €otIi> 17 (re/77 fiportov ; 310 

Tts 17 TeKovcra, rU 8* d <f>LTv<ras iranjp ; 

e£eiir* iwei vlv rwvhe ir\ei<TTOv G>KTi<ra 

/3\eirov<r , 5<rqmep Kal <f>poveiv ol8ei/ fiovr). 
AI. ti o 010 eyo) ; tl o av fie /cat /cptz/oi? ; io*a>s 

yevvr/fia tcjp eiceWev ovk ev vorarois. 315 

AH. firf t&v Tvpavvtov ; Evpvrov <riropd rts 771/ ; 

304 ttol L, with most MSS. (but ^77 Harl.) : irov Wecklein. 306 {uxttjs] 

{uxrrjicr L. G. H. Miiller rejects this v. 308 reicpovaaa Brunck. The MSS. 

have T€Kov<ra, as L (with v written small above k) and A ; or racvoOcra (T) : the 



stance in later Greek, Mor. p. 149 D rbv 
Ka.6a.pp.ov. ..kipcip 8iapo€t Kal Tca.p6x.eip vpdy- 
fiara rots rpoiraiois (alluding to the excla- 
mation 'AXe&icaKc just before); unless 
drrorpoTralois should be read there. — tov- 
|idv (nrfopo, though it is the mother who 
speaks (so Aesch. SuppL 275 avippuaT* 
ebre'KPOv /3o6s, and oft.). 

X«prj<ravTa. The notion of hostile ad- 
vance was associated with this verb in 
such phrases as 6/x6ae x^/kip. But when 
it is followed by els, eVf, or vpds nva, 
the poetical usage varies somewhat from 
that of good prose. (1) The sense of x«- 
pevp eU riva is usu. friendly in prose, as 
Thuc. 5. 40; more rarely hostile, as id. 
4. 95, and Ph. 396. (2) x w P« y M rwa 
is hostile in prose, as Thuc. 1. 62, but 
friendly in Pind. N. 10. 73. (3) xwpeti' 
7rp6s T&a is friendly in prose, as Thuc 5. 
43, and above, v. 285; but hostile here. 
Sophocles would possibly have preferred 
els to irpos here, if v. 303 had not ended 
with 01. — The aor. part., not the pres., 
because she thinks of the onset in its 
ruinous result: cp. Ph. n 13 Idolpav 6V 
vlp... I ifiAs \ax6pT 1 dvias. — irot, in any 
direction, — £*., in any of their homes, or 
in any point of their fortunes. The 
conject. irov seems unnecessary. 

306 |ti)S', ft rt Spdbrcis, sc. dpdoeias: 
cp. El. 1434 vvv, to. irplv e& dt/xepoi, rdd y 
cos rd\tp (sc. eft SijcrSe). Remark, as evi- 
dence that this suspected verse is genuine, 



the thoroughly idiomatic use of the fut. 
indie, with cl, in connection with the 
prayer: 'if thou must do it, at least do it 
thus.' So O. C. 166 \6yop et tip* ot<rets\ 
irpbs ifidp XeVxap, dfidrutp dirojSds | ...<pui- 
p et.— 4ri after £»<rns is here almost pleon- 
astic: cp. Ant. 3 (n.). 

This verse is a development of |uj itot' 
cUrCSotjit: 'may I never see it; nay, if it 
is ever to happen, may it not happen 
while I live,' Her words unconsciously 
foreshadow the troubles which, after her 
death, were brought upon her children 
by Eurystheus (Eur. Herael.). Such an 
allusion is quite in the poet's manner (cp. 
n. on Ant. 1080 ff.). 

The objection to the verse as illogical 
assumes that the cV in |&t|84 means 'or,' 
and that, therefore, the wish *not to see* 
the woe is distinguished ixom a wish which 
it includes, — viz., that the woe may not 
come while she lives. The answer is 
simply that the 64 in fxrj54 means ' and. 1 

308 f. T€KVoO<r<ra: schol. ritcpa txowra. 
Ifarep KaXklfiaxfo <f>ri<n irai8ov<ra [ircu- 
dovffffa: though Schneider Callim.fr. 431 
defends reicpovaa and ratdovcra]. No part 
of T€Kv6eis or irat86eii occurs elsewhere. 
But the adj. is decidedly fitter here than 
rcKOtkra (esp. in view of v. 311): nor is 
there sufficient ground for the assumption 
that reKPovffffa would imply several chil- 
dren. — irpos...^vtriv, judging by it: cp. 
Ph. 885 n. : ipvens of physical aspect, as 



TPAXINIAI 



5i 



child of mine thus visited by thy hand ; nay, if such visitation 
is to be, may it not fall while Deianeira lives ! Such dread do 
I feel, beholding these. 

[To Iol£.] Ah, hapless girl, say, who art thou ? A maiden, 
or a mother ? To judge by thine aspect, an innocent maiden, 
and of noble race. Lichas, whose daughter is this stranger? 
Who is her mother, who her sire ? Speak ; I pity her more than 
all the rest, when I behold her ; as she alone shows a due feeling 
for her plight 

Li. How should I know? Why should'st thou ask me? 
Perchance the offspring of not the meanest in yonder land. 

De. Can she be of royal race ? Had Eurytus a daughter ? 

latter is the Aldine reading. 309 t&vtwv has been suspected : Meineke conj. 

tt&vtws : Nauck, Zpyiov : Subkoff, iraBCbv (or vovtav) : Hense, &v€ipos et ev rwpde. — 
yevpcda] The letter v has been erased before this word in L. 312 irXeicrrov] 

vXdaTuv L. 313 (ppoveiv otdcv fioyy] Axt conj. doKei for otdev : Blaydes, 

rrXiov for privy : Hense, (ppovelv Mcrarax : Wecklein, /ecu* <f>p6vy)fj? (or /xaXurr') oddrj- 
fxouei. In L the p of Qpovelv was omitted, but has been inserted by the first hand. 
314 kolI Kplvois r: KeKplvour L. As Harl. has koX Kplvei% y Blaydes conj. ri cV dvd fie 
teal Kpivcts ; 316 L points thus: — /if) tu>v rvpdvpuv evpvrov' enropd ns 1fv ; 

For row, a v. I. was tov (B, T) : hence Brunck wrote, fi^i tov rvpavvetiovTos Eupfrrov 
atropd ; Dobree suggested either (a) pH\ tov rvpdvvwv ; l&vptmp enropd rts ty ; or (b) 
nil tov Tvpawuv ty tis, Evpfrrov enropd ; — but suspected that Efy>i/rov was a gloss. 
Heimsoeth (and Blaydes) conj. fit) tQv Tvpavvw tQ>v iicei enropd tis ty\ 



0. T. 740: but otherwise below, 379. — 
irdvTa)v...T(iiv8€, schol. tu>v 4k rod yd/xov 
irpoffyurofUnav. The different surmise in 
536 agrees better with 1225 f. — ycvvaCa 
= evyerffs (0. C 76 etc.). 

311 A 6 <JHTv<ras iranjp: the same 
phrase in Ai, 1296: cp. 0. T. 793, 1482. 
— <j>KTura: for the aor., referring to the 
recent moment at which the feeling began, 
cp. 464, 1044, Ant. 1307 n. — Strcpircp is 
used as if TrXeiarov, instead of p6vt), fol- 
lowed : see 0. C. 743 n. 

<|>povciv otScv, like cruxppove'iv iwlcrTaTcu 
(O. T. 589). Iole (whose actual relation 
to Heracles appears from i225f.) is feel- 
ing not only bitter grief (326), but the 
new shame and embarrassment caused by 
the presence in which she stands. While 
the other captives are comparatively cal- 
lous, she appears to Deianeira as one 
whose sense of the calamity is such as 
might be looked for in a maiden of noble 
birth and spirit. <f>povctv here denotes 
that fine intelligence which is formed by 
gentle breeding, and which contributes to 
delicate propriety of behaviour. So, in 
Ant* 1250, it is conjectured of Eurydice 
that, in her grief, she has sought privacy : 
yvibfXTjs yap ovk aweipos, wad* d/xaprdyeiv. 

314 f. For koI emphasising the verb, 



cp. 490, 600, Ant. yj2 n. : for KpCvoig, 
above, 195. — yfavr\[ia t»v 4icct6cv, an off- 
spring of the folk there (at Oechalia). 
Others make the gen. partitive (supplying 
yevvTju&Tcov) ; but this seems less natural 
here. For tup 4kcWcv as = row ixei, cp. 
601 reus {cruder: Ant, 1070 t&v KdnaBev. 
(In 632 TOKtWep is not quite similar.) — 
ovk fa voTcLroiS goes with yevvrf/xa^ not 
with tQv 4k., as the schol. saw: ovk 4v 
reus direppifx/jievais Kcd evreXiffi Teray- 
p.4vtj &X\a dijXou 6ti Tcpo&xpva* 4v etfye- 
veia. For the litotes cp. //. 15. 11 irel 
oH viv d<pavp6raros jSdX' Axat&i'. 

316 |fct) t»v rvpdwwv; sc. ytvvrifxa 
yv : for the interrogative fiij t cp. O. C. 
1502. The plur. (like paaihtw in Ant. 
1 172) denotes 'the royal house': so, in 
O. C. 851, Creon calls himself Ttpavvot, 
though Eteocles is reigning. — Evpvrov 
enropd tis tjv ; The only natural sense is, 
'had Eurytus any issue?' She had heard 
that he had sons (266). ' But we may sup- 
pose, either that she forgefc this, or, better, 
that her question is qualified by its context, 
meaning, 'had Eurytus anyv daughter?' 
The other version, 'was she N a child of 
Eurytus? ' would make tis strangyely weak. 
Further, in a mere surmise, suchV. as this, 
the less direct inquiry seems the fitt^ er * 

4—2 



52 



IO0OKAEOYZ 



AL ovk oTSa* kclI yap ov8* aviaropovv fiaKpdv. 
AH. ovS* ovofjLa wpos rov tup tjwtinropojp €)£€i$ ; 
AL 
AH. 



^/ctcrra' criyg tovjiov ipyov tjwtov. 
€t7T , a* TaAau> , aAA 



^ \ 

€7T€l 



AL 



aw/, oaa rifilv €K o-avrtys* 
/cat £vfi<bopd roi /it) ctScVat <rc y' 17x15 d. 
ov rapa tg> ye irpoauev ovoev eg ktov 
XP° V< ? ^St^cret yXaJcrcray, rjris ovhafxd 
irpov<f>r)va/ ovre fieitpv ovt ikdaaova, 
d\X* alev (oBCvovaa <rufi<f>opas fidpos 
BaKpvppoel hvcnjvos, i£ otov Ttdrpav 
hv/jvefiov \ekoiirew 77 8c tol Tvyq 
kolkt) fxev avrg y, dXkd a-vyyv(t)fiy]v e^L. 
AH. rj 8* ovv idada), zeal wopeveado) oreyas 
ovtgjs oitcos TjSicrra, //,778c irpos kolkoIs 
toIs ovaiv *d\hf)v irpos y i/iov \vttyjv # 



320 



325 



330 



Xdpy 



319 fyvrov in L was not 'primo omissum, sed postea Uteris exilioribus suppletum' 
(Dind.) : only the first two letters are somewhat cramped. 320 f. yfjilv] yfuv 

L. — rot] rts B, T. — /at) cfoVvcu] fitfUvat L. — For kolL ^v/x<popd tol, Herm. writes 
KCLJ-tifxtpop' tori. Madvig conj. koX %6n<popov aoi n' eibtvai. For this sense, Nauck 
would prefer ical i-v/x<popdL aoi Tovjii fify eldtvat : but he would rather make the two w. 
into one by deleting 321 and changing ivcl in 320 to rlt ct. 322 oti T&pa] otir* 

apa L. 323 dirjcrcc Wakefield: 8toiaei mss. — ovdajia Hermann: ovbap.au. L: 



317 dvuTTopow: cp. Ph. 253 ws firffev 
eldbr 1 tad 1 p. 1 tav avtffTopeis: the simple 
loropeiv below, 382, 397, 404. — paxpav: 
0. T. 220 ov yap av fiaicpav \ t\vevov. 

318 f. £wc|nrrfp«»v : schol. £wcuxm«- 
Xbrrldw. — fyfis, compertum habes : Ant. 
9 (n.). — flwrov: Ant. 231 n. 

320 aXX' i{plv, ' to me at least ' : since 
Lichas has not questioned thee. Cp. 0. C. 
1276 rreipdaar' dXX' vp&it ye: and id. 241 
dXX' ipA. — tic oravrrjs, here = 'from thine 
own mouth 1 (since Lichas cannot tell me), 
rather than, 'of thine own accord. 1 In 
El. 343, anavTa yap <rot TapJa vovdeT^/JLara 
{Kelvins didcucTd, Kovdtv £k ffavrrjs X^76tS, 
the sense is, 'from thine own mind. 1 

321 K<xl closely with £v|uf>op<{, a very 
misfortune. Deianeira is deeply interested 
by the captive, and feels drawn towards 
her. She is anxious to know the stranger's 
story, in order to offer her personal sym- 
pathy. These words express the pain and 
regret which, she would feel at not being 
able to do ? o. The subtle art of the poet's 
language, here depends on the different 
shades of meaning possible for £v/Mf>op&. 
When t Deianeira at last learns all, that 



knowledge is to her a ^vfupopd in the 
gravest sense: she knows that, in Iole, 
she has received a irrifiopty inrboreyov 
(376). But here she is courteously using 
£vfx<f>opd in the milder sense which it could 
also bear, — *a matter of deep regret.' 
Cp. Her. 1. 216 ffvfi<fx>pfyy Toteti/xepoi 6tl 
ovk Xkcto is rb rvdijvcu. 

322 f. oil r&pa ic.r.X. : lit., 'It will be 
in a manner very unlike the past that she 
will utter a word': i.e., if she does speak, 
it will be very unlike her conduct hitherto. 
ov&v l£ to*ov must be taken together : for 
T<j> 7c irp<$<r6cv XP^ V( P depending on 1$ 
ttrov, cp. Eur. Hipp. 302 taov 5' airefffiev 
rip irplv. Siijtrci is a certain correction of 
Stofcrci: yXutrorav here is fig., 'speech,' 
precisely as in fr. 844. 3 TroXXryi' y\<a<rffav 
4kx4** fJL&rriv, and El. 596 17 xcUrav tys 
y\<aoffcuf : for Uuat yXwocw could not 
mean, 'to unloose' the tongue: it means 
'to send forth' an utterance, being a 
poetical equiv. for Uvai (fxavfjv : cp. Plat. 
Legg. 890 D Tacrai>, rb Xeyd/Aevov, tyavty 
terra. The use ofdulvcu, as meaning 
to send speech through the lips, is thus 
the same here as in 0. C. 963 (<pfa>ovt 



TPAXINIAI 



53 



Li. I know not ; indeed, I asked not many questions. 

De. And thou hast not heard her name from any of her 
companions ? 

Li. No, indeed ; I went through my task in silence. 

De. Unhappy girl, let me, at least, hear it from thine own 
mouth. It is indeed distressing not to know thy name. 

Li. It will be unlike her former behaviour, then, I can tell 
thee, if she opens her lips : for she hath not uttered one word, 
but hath ever been travailing with the burden of her sorrow, and 
weeping bitterly, poor girl, since she left her wind-swept home. 
Such a state is grievous for herself, but claims our forbearance. 

De. Then let her be left in peace, and pass under our roof 
as she wishes ; her present woes must not be crowned with fresh 

pain at my hands ; 



o&Safxov B. 326 SaKpvppoet] Saxpvppoei (made from BaKpvppoei) L, with £8a- 

Kpvev written above. 827 t) 84 L : ijSe Wunder. 328 avry y'] In L 

the breathing on v has been changed, and is blotted ; but the corrector seems to have 
meant aitrrjt y\ oXm\ y* V 2 , and so Hermann. Hartung conj. avrfi 'or': Heimsoeth, 
atfrfl 'or': Reiske, avrjj, r&XXa: Wecklein, avrrp (omitting 7'). Hilberg conj. (kXivcv 
ai/rijv, and *x* for *xct. 329 'ij 8* oZv scripsi pro ijd* oiv' (Dindorfy But i) 8* odv 
is L's reading. Nauck writes rj 8* o$v. 331 tout o5<rt Xuxrfv Trphtr y 1 i/xov X&irrjv 

Xdfioi L, with most mss. The variants are worthless, — Xouri^ for the first Xtiiniv (B), 
or Xfarrjt for the second (A). Triclinius amended o5<rt X&mjv to oZaiv dXXyv. Blaydes 
conj. otkrt Kaivrjv, or ofow 17517 : Nauck, odaip avT$. Others propose, instead of the 
second \ihrrf¥ 9 SurXrjv (F. W. Schmidt), vfa# (Dindorf), or Xvirg (Paley). Wecklein 



fwi...) rod (rod dtrjKas <rr6fiaTos. The at- 
tempted interpretations of 810km, and 
some other conjectures, will be found in 
the Appendix. 

H'nSt causal (O. T. 1184), justifying 
v. 322. — ov8a|ul, adv.: O. C. 11 04 n. 

324 o8tc |u££ov* ©fir* IXchnrova : Ant. 
1245 irpiv elvctv iffOXdv 17 kuk6v Xoyov: 
Od. 10. 93 ov yJkv ydp iror' dij-ero Kv/xd y % 
iv avrfp, I otire fUy' ovt* bXlyov: Her. 3. 

62 OVK i<rTl...8lCWS Tl...V€lK6t T0L &TTCU rj 

lUya. rj (Tfuxpdv. 

326 »8Cvov<ra...pdpos (cognate ace): 
cp. Ai. 700 rrpa^iv r)v y}Xyrjff 4y<S>: Eur. 
Her. 990 Hpa fie Kdfweiv tt)v8' ftfy/ce t^v 
vbcov. 

327 f. Siijvcpov simply ^tyefibeGeav: 
so Oechalia is called tyhrvpyot (354) and 
alwean) (858). The word does not occur 
elsewhere in classical Greek, but Hermann 
quotes it from Philo Byzant. De septem 
mirabilibus 1, where it means * fanned by 
breezes.' Hermann prefers the first of 
the two explanations ((py/iov, ify/njXr)v) 
given by the schol.: thinking that the epi- 
thet describes the ruins of Oechalia as 
pcUulum ventis iter praebentes. This 



seems very far-fetched; the more so, as 
the noun is irdrpav. 

^...t5xt|, not the doom of captivity, 
but rather her present condition of mute 
and inconsolable grief. — avrjj ■/ is em- 
phatic ; sad for htr, but to be condoned 
by us: y* is therefore in place. — o-vyyvtf- 
|M|v ^X <i: — Thuc. 3. 4 j. txovrdt n £vy- 
yvdfMTjs (some claim to it). 

329 £ ij 8' ovv - % cd. O. T. 669 6 8' 
ofo frw: Ai. 961 ol 5* ovv yeXdnrrwv: Ar. 
Ach. 186 ol 8* o\tv Bo&irrw. Idiom thus 
favours rj 8* ; and ^8* would here be too 
emphatic. — o&rus 6ira>s 4[ Surra: *.*., in 
silence. 

331 Among the attempts to amend 
X6rniv...Xfa"Qv (cr. n.), the two best, I 
think, are, (1) o\Xt|v ..Xtfirt|v, Triclinius: 
and (2) Xvirt)v...8iirXTJv, F. W. Schmidt. 
In favour of (2), it might perhaps be said 
that the second Xton/v is more likely to be 
corrupt than the first. But it is also con- 
ceivable that the error should have arisen 
through the transcriber glancing forward. 
And, in close connection with xpbs kclkoU 
rots otiaiv, dCXXny seems the fittest word. 
SiitXtjv would be less clear (meaning the 



54 



ZO0OKAEOYI 



aXt? yap rj irapovaa. irpos 8c Scw/iara 

Xcopcofiev 17877 irdvres, c5s <rv ff ol dekeis 

cr7rcvotjs, ey© 0€ ravoov egaptcrj two*. 
Ar. avrov yc irp&rov fiauov d/i/ieCrac', 07Tg>s 335 

[idO^s az/cv t<3i/8' ovoTwds r dyei? ecrco, 

g>i> r ovoci/ €Lar)KOV<ra$ eK/iauys a dec 

tovtwv i)((o yap irdvr eni<TTr\\vt)v iya>. 
AH. ri 8* iarC; rov /i€ ripS' €(^to*Tao"at /3d<riv; 

conj. vpoffQarov y % ^aiou Xd/fot. W under changes t/h$i 7' e^tou to ^ eVtot/. For Xd/foi 
(mss.), Blaydes restores Xdft?. 333 <nJ 0'] <riy Brunck. —of] rj ( = ■$) , 

Harl. — 9i\m A : flexor L : 0Ao« B. 334 4y& 8i L, with most MSS. : £yc£ re 

A (and so Turnebus). 336 a/i^e^cw'] ifx/xebac^ A, Harl. ; and so Aid. 

836 otiffTiv&t r f ] r' was added by Erfurdt. (oiffrivds y % A.) Hense deletes this 
verse, omitting r' after w*» in 337. 337 eAnJ«cov<raj] i^Kovcras K, with efs 

written above. — iK/iddys Turnebus : 4Kfid0r)iff0' L : iKfiddrjs 7* A. 338 For 

vdpr' Wakefield conj. Kdpr 1 . Blaydes writes Tointav ydp el/it irdvr' cfrurr^fjuav iytb. 



former xoucd plus a new Xtfm?) : it would 
also be too emphatic for this context. 

Almost all edd. retain the optat. \df3oi, 
which is possible ('Heaven forbid that 
she should receive...!'). But, as this 
clause is linked with idcrdoj kolI wopevtcr- 
0w, — being, in fact, merely a repetition of 
the command in a negative form, — I feel 
sure that Blaydes is right in reading 

333 £ ot 6l\cis oircvS-ns, back to 
Cenaeum, so as to be in time for the 
sacrifice (287): cp. 599. — *yd 8i, after 
<ni 0', is warranted by the antithesis, as in 
1.43 ( n -)» ?86. — i£apKT) Tidw, make them 
such as they ought to be, — set them in 
satisfactory order. The word is used in 
Aesch. Pers. 237 (irXoOros ££apKi)s). 

336 The ayyeXoj (180), who has 
listened in silence, now places himself 
between Deianeira and the door through 
which she is about to follow Lichas and 
the captives. — avrov 7c irpwrov Patov 
d|t|u£vcur', sc. x<£pet (from xup&f**" in 
333)* Where y* is thus used in reply, 
without an expressed verb, the verb can 
usu. be supplied directly from what im- 
mediately precedes (as in 399 ve/xti from 
v€/xeh). Here we may compare 0. T. 678 
XO....W ftAXets KOfilfetP ddfuav t6v5* 
&r«; I 10. fjMdovird y' ijTis r) tvxv (**• 
ko/ilQ). — cl|A|m£vcut' : Sophocles has the 
form djifUvew in four lyric passages (527, 
648, El. 1389, 1397); but there is no 
other instance of it in tragic iambics. The 
apocope of drd, so frequent in tragic 
lyrics, is comparatively rare in dialogue; 



the iambic examples are chiefly nouns, 
as dfipdrys, vpoo-d/zjScwij, d/^3o\^, dfiiivor), 
dfivrvxh : more rarely verbs ; though cp. 
396 (n.); Eur. Hec. 1263 duPfoet. In 
Tro. 1277 dfATvtovff' is only a v. I. for 
ifiirviovcr', as in Phoen. 14 10 dfuptpti for 
dvcuptpei. An example in Attic prose is 
Xen. Cyr. 7. 5. 12 dfjfioXddos yrjs. 

336 £ tfvcv here = x w />k> as in O. T. 
1464 avev rodd' dv5o6s.— oCo-Tivds r': the 
t' is placed as if |ia0qs were to serve for 
both clauses : but, in the form which the 
sentence actually takes, this re properly 
belongs to |m£0qs, and the second re to 4k- 
|m£0x)$. (Cp. Ph. 14 1 5 rd, At6s re Qpdcrwv 
PovXevfiard <rot, I KaTepryrfow 6* 686u rjy 
crrAXei.) For the simple verb followed 
by the compound, cp. 0. T. 566 f. eVxere 
— irap4<rxpf*€y : PA. 240 f. olvOa — xdrotd'. 
— The masc. plur. oWnvas alludes to 
Iole: cp. 0+ T. 366 aitv rots 0tXrdrotj 
(Iocasta). — «v t' ovSkv clonJKOtioxis : her 
relations with Heracles. The first clause 
corresponds with the information which 
the speaker gives in w. 3796*".; the second, 
with that which he gives in vv. 351 ff. 

338 iravT, adv., *in all respects'; to 
be taken, not with irurr^firfv alone (as if 
= 'complete knowledge'), but with *xw 
ivum)(Miv. — Nauck, who pronounces the 
text corrupt, contends that we can say, 
(1) toCtuv irumfifiriv ex«, or (2) irdrra 
irurHj/JLTiv tyco: but that we cannot 'com- 
bine roxmav Tama. ' He compares irdrra 
iriaTv)firiy *x w with 0. C. 583 rd 8 9 iv 
fxtcry J ^ Xrjarw tffx<eii K.r.X., where rd 6' 
ip fU(T(f depends on \rjarip ftrxet* as = 



TPAXINJAI 



55 



she hath enough already. — Now let us all go in, that thou mayest 
start speedily on thy journey, while I make all things ready in 
the house. [LlCHAS, followed by the Captives, moves towards the 
housed 

Me. (coming nearer to Deianeira). Ay, but first tarry here 
a brief space, that thou mayest learn, apart from yonder folk, 
whom thou art taking to thy hearth, and mayest gain the need- 
ful knowledge of things which have not been told to thee. Of 
these I am in full possession. 

De. What means this? Why wouldest thou stay my de- 
parture ? 

Nauck conj. rofrrw £y& yap icavr* ImoHjfitov £<pvv. 889 rt o" eon* rod fie 

rfyS* i<pL<rTa<rai [<p from it] paow: L. Wunder writes rt o" fori rod ('why and 
wherefore?'). For fie, Porson (on Eur. Phoen. 1373=1354 Dind.) conj. koX. For 
tytoraoai, Dobree conj. viploraff ai t subsistis ('place yourself over against me'). 



iirCKavddvet. Hence it appears that he 
takes rrarra for an ace. depending on 
iTiffT^firfv (fad) as = Morafuai. But wdvra 
in our verse is an adverb. This adverb 
is used by Sophocles, not only ' to 
strengthen adjectives' (Nauck on Ant. 
721), as in 6 iravr 1 ovoKkis (El, 301), but 
also with verbs and participles : as Ant, 
640 yvtbfirjs irarp<pas Tavr 1 onrurdev iordr 
vol: Ph. 90 iravfl' fiyovfie'priv. The adver- 
bial use of iravra with ijrior^firjv tyu is 
none the less correct because a gen., rod' 
tow, happens to be joined with hcwri\fn\v. 
In Ant. 721, <pvvou rbv dp 5 pa icavr* eVi- 
or^fiTjs w\4(avy the adverb certainly goes 
with iirurHffiTjs irXeW: but that proves 
nothing against the phrase used here. 

889 ri 8* *<tti; Cp. 0. T. 1144 rt 
6' fori; vpds rt rovro rotiiros Urropets; (n.). 
Here, as there, a mark of interrogation 
must follow fori, since rts can stand for 
6orts only in an indirect question. — tov, 
causal gen. ; so rtvos PA. 327 (n.). — ifyto-- 
raarai |&c, makest me to halt, ttjvSc 
pdotv (ace. of respect), in this movement 
(towards the house). For the second 
ace, cp. Ph. 1242 rts &rrcu /*' ovttikuXv- 
ouv rdSe; (n.): id. 1301 fiiOes /uc.xetpa. 
Schol. : rtvos eveicev t^v it ope Lav koI rty 
etooSov Urrq.% koI KuXveis ; 

The midd. tytorajuu does not elsewhere 
occur in a causal sense (except in the aor., 
as Xen. Cyr. 8. 2. 19 ippovpovs iweorriod' 
firjp). But the causal use of icaOtorafiai 
(Aesch. Eum. 706 <ppovprjfjLa yrjs KaOtora- 
jxaif Thuc. 2. 6 rd r' h tq irtikei KaOtoravro) 
appears to warrant a like use of iiptffrafuu, 
where, as here, the context helps to ex- 
plain it. Cp. also Plat. Tim. 63 c yewby 
ybn) du&ra/ievoi, 'separating.' [But we 



cannot properly compare O.C. 916 trap- 
tarcurai, 'you bring to your own side? 
'subjugate': nor Plat. Rep. 565 c ha 
riva . . . 8i)fjLos etude . . . irpotoraaOat iavrov : 
where there is a special reason for using 
the midd.] The midd. irpoffoptafiiva in 
O. C. 244 is similarly unique, and has a 
like justification. 

A fact which confirms this view is that 
tyiaravaiy tyUrraaOat were regularly used 
with ref. to a halt. Xen. An. 2. 4. 26 
hropevero &k SXXore koI oXXore i <pt Gra- 
pe vos. 6oov Se xpbvov rb Tjyovfievov rod 
arparetifxaros ivtorlioete, rooovrov ty 
avdyicri \p6vov oV 6\ov rod orpare^puaros 
ytyveoOat r^\v iirtoraotv. (For M* 
<rra<rw, 'a halt,' cp. Ant. 225 n.) Polyb. 

16. 34. 2 iirurr^oayres...Hjv opfi^v. Diod. 

17. 112 rty 656v...iirurr'/jo , as. Plut. Cim. 
i iirurrfyTas...r^v wopetav. Arrian 5. 16. 
i iviorifoe rote lirw4as rod irpbata. 

Another explanation is: tov |m tyfcr- 
Tcurcu, ( why hast thou come close up to 
me, TijvBi pda-iv (cogn. ace), with this 
(hurried) step?' But: (1) instead of pc, 
we should then expect |w>i: which Madvig, 
indeed (Adv. I. 227), proposed, though 
with the further (and needless) change of 

TOV tO ty' OV". Cp. O. T. 776 TTplv flOi 

T&XV I roidd* Mffrq. The ace. |M is not 
adequately defended by fr. 155, rts yap fie 
(jJ>x9os oinc ireorarei; where the ace. is 
like that which can follow impatveiv as = 
'to assail' (Ai. 138 ok o" brav irXnyi) 
Aids. . . I ... iiripy) : ' what trouble was not 
ever coming upon me?' (2) H/vde... 
paatv here refers more naturally to the 
movement in which Deianeira is stopped 
than to a movement which the £776X0* 
makes towards her. 



56 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



Ar. 

AH. 

Ar. 

AH. 

Ar. 



»fcN 



AH. 



Ar. 



aradelcr aKOvcrov koX yap ovoe rov wapo? 
/ivdov imrrjv rJKOvaas, ovoe vvv Sokco. 
norepov iiceivovs Brjra Sevp* avdis irakw 
KCLktojitV) rj 'fiol T<u<r8e r i^wireiv OeXeis ; 
col Tou<r0€ r ovoev eipyerai, tovtovs o ca. 
/cat 8t) fieftacn, vco \0y09 (rtyftawerco. 
avrjp 00 ovoev cov chegev apruos 
(fxovel SiKrjs €5 opdov, aXX' rj vvv kolkos, 
rj Trp6<r0€V ov 81/caio? ayyeXos rrapfjv. 
rC <j>r}s; aa<f)co$ fioi (f>pd^e rrdv oaov voeis* 
a fiev yap i£eipr)Ka$ ayvoia fi e^€i. 
tovtov \eyovroq rdvSpos eiarJKova ey<i> 9 
iroWciv irapovTcov /xaprvpcov, (0$ rfjs Kopr)% 
Tavrrjs l/can Kelvos Evpvrov ff iXou 
rrjv ff v\fjC7rvpyov Ov^akiav, "Epcos 8c viv 
[k6vo% deaiv Oik^eiev aiyjidaai raSe, 



340 



345 



350 



355 



840 f. t6v.../xv6ov] tQ>v...^6(j3v V 2 : rQv.../xv0ov K. 848 

17 fioi MSS. 844 etpyerou] Hense conj. etpyofiai. 

Nauck conj. x"> Tt M? J * 848 dvijp Hermann: dvijp MSS. 



r) Vol Groddeck : 

846 x<b \6yos] 

847 <po)veT\ 



840£ ov8* t6v irdpos...ov8* vOv. 
The double ovSi here must not be con- 
fused with a double otfri: this is not a 
case of parataxis, — l as my first story was 
worth hearing, so will this one be.* The 
first ovbk='not event 1 and the second, 
l no t nor... 1 : cp. O. C. 1402 roiourov otov 
o&8i (puivrjcral tivi | ££e<r0' iraLpuv, 0&6 1 
d.iroarp4\f/ou. rr&kur. — r&v ircCpos |mj0ov: w. 
180 — 199. — jidrnv: not ^evSws, as the 
schol. explains (a sense which must refer 
to the speaker, not to the hearer), but 
simply, * in vain.' His promise of good 
news proved true. — 8ok», se. ft&rriv <re 

&KOlJ<T€<TdcU. 

842 f. ticcCvovs, Lichas and the cap- 
tives: who are moving away into the 
house, but have not yet disappeared. 
Their movement, which would begin at 
v. 335, ends only at 345. As the space 
to be traversed by them would not be 
great, we may suppose that Lichas, though 
he does not overhear the words of the 
cJyyeXos, has paused near the door of exit, 
in uncertainty, on seeing Deianeira stop, 
and is finally dismissed by a gesture of 
hers, after the words tovtovs 8 la (344). 
Here she forgets the avtv t«v8' of v. 
336.— tj *|aoI raia-hi f (the Chorus),—*'.*. 



fjAvais: an addition which the emphasis 
on the pronouns renders needless. 

844 <roV ratarSl *t ovSiv ctpverai: 
the verb is clearly passive: the midd. 
etpyofxai occurs only as = *to keep oneself 
off' from something (0. T. 890 n.). And 
it is simpler to take ov8*v as nom. than 
as adv. with an impers. verb. aro\ rala-Si 
r might be a dat. of interest: *for thee 
and these, nothing is excluded ': but it is 
truer (I think) to carry on ifciireu'. Thus 
the strict sense is: — *for the purpose of 
telling to thee and these, nothing is 
excluded.' The ordinary oddbr elpyet 
occurs at 1257. 

846 teal 8ij : 0. C. 31 n.— \& \6y09 
othmuWto. Blaydes writes B tl \£yeis 
<rf}ixaivt fxoi: Nauck too (cr. n.) thinks 
the text corrupt, chiefly because <r6s is 
absent. But cp. Eur. Hipp. 341 f. $A. 
TpLrr) 6 1 iyu> dforrfvos u>s diroWv/uwu. | TP. 
2k rot irivXriyfJuu' iroT vpop^aercu \6yos ; 
For the verb, cp. 598 <nf}fxcuve. Apitz 
cites Plat. Gorg. 511 b w 6 \6yos ffrifiaLvct: 
but the sense there is different (' as our 
argument indicates'). 

847 f. S£kt|s 1% 6pQ6v, conformably with 
the straight rule of honesty: cp. 0. T. 
853 StKcUtas 6p06v, truly right (for the 



TPAXINIAI 



57 



Me. Pause, and listen. My former story was worth thy 
hearing, and so will this one be, methinks. 

De. Shall I call those others back ? Or wilt thou speak 
before me and these maidens ? 

Me. To thee and these I can speak freely ; never mind the 
others. 

De. Well, they are gone ; — so thy story can proceed. 

Me. Yonder man was not speaking the straightforward 
truth in aught that he has just told. He has given false tidings 
now, or else his former report was dishonest. 

De. How sayest thou? Explain thy whole drift clearly; 
thus far, thy words are riddles to me. 

Me. I heard this man declare, before many witnesses, that 
for this maiden's sake Heracles overthrew Eurytus and the 
proud towers of Oechalia ; Love, alone of the gods, wrought on 

him to do those deeds of arms, — 

<p6v€t L (the acute accent added by S) : cp. 326. — SLktjs] dUrjur L. 86O d*y- 

vola /*' Herm. : ayvoid /*' L, with most MSS., and so Aid. : dyvoiq. /** Triclinius. 
861 \4yovTOS T&vSpbs] \£yovT6<rr f dvhpba L. 868 Etipvrov] etipoirov L, 

with »v» over 01. 



prophecy). For the implied metaphor, 
cp. Eur. Hec. 602 otScv to y y alayjpov 
Kavovi tov kclXov fiaOwv : for els, Thuc. 
6. 82 Is to aucpiph elweiv (so the mss. : 
cJs Krtiger). The gen. bUys can be joined 
to bpOov (though without art.), since the 
latter is felt as a subst. : cp. At. 1 144 ev 
kolk$ I get/awo;. 

tj vw...ij irp4cr0cv...iraf»TJv: since vw 
can mean 'just now, ' it is not necessary 
to supply ir&peffTiv : but it is easy to do 
so: cp. Xen. An. 3. 3. 2 iyd)...Kcd Ktfpy 
mffTbs rjp,...Kal vvv vpuv etivovs (elfd). — 
KOX& here = dVioros, as at 468 it is 
opposed to &if/€v5ea>.—ov SIkcuos is merely 
a synonym for kolkos (cp. 457), 'not 
honest': cp. 411: Ant. 671 SLkcliov K&ya- 
$bv TrapcujT&TTjv. The antithesis, which 
is only between vvv and vobaBev, is thus 
somewhat blurred. 

86O & \ikv ydp i{cCpi|Kas, standing 
where it does, is most simply taken as an 
ace. of respect ; though tovtwv might be 
supplied. — cryvoCa : for the a, see on Ph. 
129 dyvoia Tpwrjj. 

862 ff. paprvpa>v: cp. 188. — Etfpvrlv 
0* g\oi Tijv.e* tyfar. OlxaXCav: i.e., slew 
him, and took the town. Just so in II. 11. 
328 iXerriv 5L<ppov re kal dvtpe (the men 
are slain). This is usu. called a case of 
'zeugma': but it is not really of the same 
kind as {e.g.) Her. 4. 106 iaOrjTd re 



<pop£ov<ri T# 2,KvdiKj) djjLoLrjv, yXCxraav bk 
Idlrjv: where the verb properly suits the 
first clause only, and exowri would natur- 
ally have been added to the second clause. 
The poetical use of iXeir, in regard to 
contests, included the senses, (1) 'to over- 
come,* often connoting l to slay'; and (2) 
'to gain by overcoming. ' Cp. Pind. 0. 1. 
88 IXev a Oluo/xdov /Slap, irapBivov re 
wbvtvvov (overcame the father in a race, 
and won the daughter). So we can say, 
'they conquered their oppressors,' and 
' they conquered freedom.' The difference 
is that we should not say, in one sentence, 
'they conquered their oppressors, and 
freedom.' Schneidewin compares Pind. 
N. 10. 25 iKp&TTpe...o'TpaTbp... | K<d... 
<rr£<pavov y MoL<rcu<rl r' fftv/c' dpbaat. But 
there is much probability in Heyne's cor- 
rection of the MS. MoL<ra«rl r' to MoUrauriv 
(with no comma after <TTi<pavov). 

n)v vtytirvpyov: cp. 327 n. — OtxoXCav: 
for the anapaest, excused by the proper 
name, cp. 233. 

866 \16vos 0e£v : whereas Lichas had 
represented Zeus as irpdicnap of all (251). 
— (MXfcicv, with irony; that gentle spell 
produced these exploits. Cp. 1 1 42 r 1 £ d c 
(pLXrpy. — alxpdVcu tc(8c (cogn. ace), to 
do these warlike deeds. The verb has 
here a general sense, as in Aesch. Pers. 
756 tvbov alxpdfriy, to play the warrior 



58 ZO0OKAEOYZ 

ov Tcwrl AvSois ovS* *vif *OfJL<f>aX , g ttovcjv 
Xarpev/iar, ov8' o /h7Ttos '1<J>ltov [lopos' 
ov vvv irapcicas ovros <=inrakw Xeyct. 
a\X' rjviK ovk cweiOe rov <f>vro<nr6pov 
rfjv 7rat8a Sovvcu, Kpv<f>iov <os expi Xe^os, 
eyK\r)fia /iiKpov alriav ff crot/Lta<ra5 
hrioTpareuti iraTpiSa rqv ravrrjs, iv $ 
rov JLvpvrov rovo 6t7r6 htairotjeiv dpovcov, 
icreivti t avaKTa Trarepa Trjahe. /cal ttoXlv 

67T€/0Cr6. Kdl VW, (09 Op$$, rjK€L 86flOV$ 



360 



365 



860 ovd 1 r: otir' L. — vV 'OfMpdXy Herwerden : iv 1 'OfJL<pd\y most MSS. (a few have da-'). 
In L the e of iv' is in an erasure, — from v ace. to some, from a ace. to others. Neither 
letter can now be clearly traced, but v seems the more probable ; though the erasure 
extends, to the left of e, beyond the space which either v or a would ordinarily fill. 
860 f. These two w. are bracketed by Wunder, whom Blaydes follows. Nauck, 
though he does not bracket them, leans to the same view. 868 6V vvv mss. : 6 vvv 
Erfurdt : a vvv Kochly. — Nauck thinks that after 358 there has been a loss of one or 
more verses, which referred to Heracles asking the hand of Iole. 869 dXX'] 

Blaydes (Addenda p. 289) conj. e?0': Tournier, 6 6". 88O tx<u A, and so Aid.: 



at home: cp. At. 97. In //. 4. 324 
alxM-fa 8* alxjJ>d<r<rov<Ti means, 'shall 
wield spears': whence Ellendt under- 
stands here, 'intorquere hoc excidium.' 

868 f. ov TdirV AvSots. Here iirl 
Av8ols= l in their country* (248 iv AvSoh): 
cp. 1 100 yijs ir* iax&rots rdirots: Her. 5. 
77 M...t$ x&PV* — *vir* *0|i4<£Xx): in 
subjection to her, — a common sense of 
inc6 with dat. (as Thuc. 1. 32 el MpeBa 
for' avTots). vir' is an almost certain cor- 
rection of the ms. tir* (see cr. n.), which 
rdirl may have generated. If 4ir* were 
retained, it could mean only 'in the power 
of: for, in reference to one person, iirl 
could not possibly mean merely 'with.' 
After iirl Avtiois, however, the repetition 
of M in a different sense would here be 
awkward. — iroVwv XaTptw|«iT', service 
consisting in toils (defining gen.): cp. 505 
&60X' dyt&vtav. (0. C 105 fiAxOots Xa- 
Tpevuv, 'thrall to woes,' is not parallel.) 
— -h ^tirr6s...|t6pos: cp. Ant. 30 <f>6vov... 
drjuSXewrov. A sarcastic allusion to the 
vivid detail with which Lichas had told 
the story (270 ff.). 

Heracles had really killed Iphitus. 
The denial here refers only to the 
place which the murder held in the 
story told by Lichas. Heracles was in- 
stigated, not by the Lydian servitude 
which punished his crime, or by those 
affronts (262 ff.) which Lichas represented 
as having moved him to the crime, but, 



in reality, by the refusal of Eurytus to 
give him Iole. 

868 8v refers, not to jibpos, but back 
to"E/xi>s (354), verses 356 f. being paren- 
thetical; just as in 997 y\v refers to KprjirU 
in 992, and not to XcA/Sap in 996. The 
conjecture 6 would enfeeble the passage. 
6v...irap<0<ras expresses that the divine 
agent, who should have been placed in 
the foreground of the story (cp. 862), has 
been thrust out of sight. Cp. Eur. Andr. 
29 'Ep/Jitdmrjv yafxet, \ Tov/xdv Trapuxras 
ifffwbrris HovXov X^xos. — IjiiroXiv X£yci, 
speaks in a contrary sense. Her. 1. 207 
$X« yv(b/x7fv...rd t/xiraXiv % o&roi. 77. 9. 
56 ov8t irdXiv ipia ('gainsay'). 

869 dXX' r\vttt : here iXXd merely 
serves to resume the story, after the pa- 
renthesis: cp. 54 in 252, 281. Others 
make it strictly adversative: '(It was not 
on account of his enslavement) ; rather it 
was when he could not persuade/ etc. — 
ovk tircifo : the imperf. is regularly used 
with ref. to such failure (*.£■., Thuc. 3. 3 
4w€id}}...ouK iiretOov: id. 4. 4 a* ovk &r«- 
0€v).—-*&vtynoair6pov: not yet identified 
with Eurytus. That disclosure forms the 
climax, at 380. 

88O f. Kpv<j>u>v a* l\oi Xfyos: cp. 
Her. 3. 1 ovk ws yvvatxd fuv ifUXKc... 
ifctv, dXX' cuj iraXXaK^v. — fytcXi]|ia is 
properly the matter of the complaint: 
oXtulv, the imputation of blame for it. 
For oUrLa in this sense, cp. O. T. 656, Ai. 

! 



TPAXINIAI 



59 



not the toilsome servitude to Omphalfe in Lydia, nor the death 
to which Iphitus was hurled. But now the herald has thrust 
Love out of sight, and tells a different tale. 

Well, when he could not persuade her sire to give him the 
maiden for his paramour, he devised some petty complaint as 
a pretext, and made war upon her land, — that in which, as he 
said, this Eurytus bore sway, — and slew the prince her father, 
and sacked her city. And now, as thou seest, he comes sending 

ixv (made from £x«) L. 802 — 804 Wunder brackets vv. 362, 363 : and so 

Blaydes. Hartung, followed by Nauck and others, brackets the words rip rojbrqi 
...Tart pa. 888 rbv Etipvrov tQvS 1 L, A, and most MSS. : rbv Etipvrov 

t6»8' B, K, N. The Aid. has r&v E&pvrov rtavd'. Erfurdt, twv Eipxrrov r6vd\ 
Hermann (third ed.) gave rQv S* Evpvrov Hjvd' etwe be<nrtxj€Lv 0p6v<av f placing the 
verse after 368. 884 lerelvei] Blaydes gives ktcuxh. — varipa] In L a 

letter has been erased after ira. — toXiv] ttolKlv L, with written over a by a late 
hand. 886 f. Zirepffe] Blaydes iripccLc. — kclI vw\ Brunck teal viv. — rjicet 

66fxovs I w$] Blaydes rJKet 's tojxovs \ <rot>s. For ws, Brunck gave is : Schneidewin 
conj. Tpbs : Hartung, <r<f>€. — For cus 6p$s, rjicet 56/xovs \ w? rofode icifxiruv ovk 



28. — *Toi|id<ras: cp. Isae. or. 11 § 14 
dyQvas irapacrKcvafeiv (*toget up* law- 
suits against one). 

882 — 884 £irtOTpaTcvci . . . dvaicra ira- 
rtpa. I keep the traditional text, only 
with t6v8* (B) instead of twvS* (L) in 363 : 
in the poet's time either would have been 
written TON A. If the text be sound, it 
means : — 'he makes war upon her country, 
that in which (Lichas) said that this 
Eurytus was master of the throne. ' But 
there are three difficulties: 

(1) It was needless to say that the girl's 
Trarpls was also the realm of Eurytus : cp. 
244 f. : 283 ff. : 315. The excuse must be 
that the Messenger himself had not yet said 
so ; he is wordy, and anxious, in his own 
fashion, to be lucid. The reading rdvS*, 
it may be noted, suits this view of him. 
And t«v6* {Opbvtav) would be very awk- 
ward. 

(2) Heracles is subject to eirurrpaTcvci 
and KTcfrfi: but Lichas to cforc. (He- 
racles cannot be the subject to dire : 
he needed not to tell his warriors that 
Eurytus reigned there; and, on the other 
hand, Scorogciv could not mean, 'usurp- 
ed?) Such a change of subject is very 
harsh : still, it is not impossible; and, as 
the narrative of Lichas has been the fore- 
most topic so far, ctirc would at once sug- 
gest him. An example almost as bold 
occurs in Thuc. 2. 3: oi hi Itkaraiijs... 
\6yovs dei-dfiepot ij<r6x a ? 0P * AXXwj re Kal 
iiretdr) is oidiva ovdiv ivewTiptfov. 
irpdffffovTes 8i ir<as ravra Karevdrftrav 



k.t.X.: where the Plataeans are the sub- 
ject of iptixafw and KaTcvtrqcray, but the 
Thebans of ivetaripi^ov, 

(3) At v. 377 Deianeira asks, £/>' di»c6- 
yvfxos I iri<pvKev ; i.e., 'is she of obscure 
birth?' — and then, for the first time, learns 
that the girl's father is Eurytus, So she 
must have understood avatcra in 364 to 
mean, not 'the king,' but some (minor) 
'prince' or 'chief.' Yet, even so, her 
question at v. 377 is strange. (At v. 342 
we saw that she ignored a hint given in 
v. 336: but on this question — the girl's 
birth — we should have expected her to be 
attentive.) 

The only course which removes all 
these three difficulties is Hartung's, — who 
brackets the words ti\v ravrr\s...'rraripa, 
so that three verses shrink into one, — 
eVurrparetfet varplSa riffle, koI tt6\u>. 
This would certainly improve the passage. 
And it is conceivable that the interpolation 
should have been due to actors. 

Others read twv Ebpfrrov rtfvS*, render- 
ing: 'in which (Lichas) said that Heracles 
(rtoS') holds' [or 'wishes to hold'] the 
throne of Eurytus.' But Heracles simply 
laid Oechalia waste ; there was no ques- 
tion of his reigning there. — Wecklein in- 
geniously reads rdv ipydrr\v (for Etipvrov) 
twv8* : 'where Heracles said (to his war- 
riors) that the author of these wrongs was 
king.' 

886 f. ^KCt, Heracles : he is not, in- 
deed, yet at Trachis (and the words 
ddfxovs ihs rofoSc go with Trifxirojv); but, 



6o 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



cos rovcrSe m/intov ovk dtfypovrlora)?, ywai, 
ovo (o<tt€ oovkqv fir)0€ npocrooKa rode 9 
ov8* et/cos, elwep evredipiiamai Trodcp. 
eSofci/ ovv [Jlol 7T/0O5 <T€ StyXcScrat to 7rai>, 
hio"iroiv 3 o rov8e rvyxdvco jxadcov ndpa. 
/cat ravra 7roXXot 7r/>o9 ft€0"27 Tpaxwuav 
dyopa <rwe£)JKOvov (ocravrcos i/ioty 
coot* cfeXeyvcw ci 8c /jw) Xeyai <£iXa, 
ov^ rjoofiai, to o opuov egeiprf^ o/acos. 

AH. oljxoi raXatpa, 7rov ttot* €t/u 7rpdy/iaTo$ \ 
Tiv cicrSeScy/Ltai wt)\iovr\v vnocrTeyov 
\a6paiov ; & Svcmpos' dp di/civv/ios 
tt€<I>vk€p, aicTrep ovTrdyoov huofivuro ; 

AI\ yf Kapra \afi7rpd /cat k<lt *ovofia /cat <f>vcrw 
Trarpos fiev ovaa yiveaiv Ev/ovrov irork 



37° 



375 



380 



Wecklein writes m avvdopov 56/jlovs | is rovade iriuirei kovk. — rovtrSe] roO<r$e L. 
867 firidi] fidi 5i L. Erfurdt conj. fi-fyri. : Hartung ^ <rt>. — t65c L (with an 
erasure after : it was perhaps rdvde) ; and so most MSS. : rate B, with a few 
others. 808 ivredipfiavrai mss. Subkoff says : * In L prius v puncto nota- 

tum est*: but the supposed dot is merely the smooth breathing on €, placed (as 
often) a little too much to the right, so that it is over v. (Cp. on 463, 468.) 
The gloss iiuciKavTai is written above. iKreSipnavrat is the conject. of Dindorf. 
872 uxravrtas] Car atiruxr L. 878 afar* it-eXiyxcw] Touraier conj. ots tar* 

i\4yXW' 874 rb S' made from rod* in L. 878 dubfjwvro;] In L the 



after his distant wanderings, he may be 
said to 'have arrived/ since in his march 
from Oechalia he has already reached the 
point of Euboea nearest to his home (237). 
Heracles being the subject to fircfxrc and 
to ivrc0lp|&avT<n (368), there would be an 
exceptional harshness in making Lichas 
the subject to tjicci : nor would this suit 
the sense so well. 

86|&ovs <&s tovktSc: see n. on 0, T. 1481 
cut t&s d5e\<pds rdaSe rds ipuds X^pa? . The 
case for reading es is stronger here than 
there. Yet I refrain from altering, since 
the house so easily suggests the house- 
hold. 

888 ovS* cU6s: oudi here = 'nor,' 
rather than, 'not even.' — tvrc6lp|&avTai. 
This compound is not found elsewhere, 
while iKdep/jLatvw is frequent. But frOepfios 
was common, and is applied by Arist. 
to a 'fervid' temperament (Physiogn. 
2, p. &06 6 26: t>i&POiav...Zvd€p/j.ov: 3 
p. 808 a 37 ev<f>v€if Kal ZvSepuoi). Here 
«v-, suggesting the inward, hidden flame, 
seems better than the more prosaic 4k-. 
In fr. 430. 3 the corrupt eW dXXerou is 



corrected by Valckenaer (after Ruhnken) 
to €v6&\t€tcu, but by Ellendt to e«r0d\ir6- 
rcu: and the latter is confirmed by Bekker 
Anecd. p. 40. 20. 

871 1. irpAs |U<rQ Tpaxwfav dyopq.: 
fiiay here implies, 'open,' 'public,' as in 
&«£'...« yAoov (Ph. 609 n.) : w/wj, lit. 
'close to'; the AyyeXos had been one of 
those who stood in the outer part of the 
crowd, while inner circles were thronging 
round Lichas; he had thus been able to 
get away quickly (188 — 195). In 423 
the prep, is the vaguer 4v.— -dvop£, not 
'market-place,' but 'gathering' (the place 
was a \eituby, 188) ; a sense not rare even 
in Attic prose : cp. Xen. An. 5. 7. 3 <rw- 
ayayetv clvt&v dyopdv : Aeschin. or. 3 
§ 27 iyopdiv iroii]<rai ruv <pu\uv. 

Join <&<ravTttS l[u>C : cp. Her. 2. 67 ws 
3i a&rws rrjat Kiwi ol Ixvcvral O&ttovtcli. 

874 ri 8* 6pQ6v: cp. the words of the 
messenger to Eurydice in Ant. 1194^ ri 
ydp <T€ fiaXOdffffotfi* & £jv is forepoy \ 
\//€v<rrai tfxivotifieO' ; 6p6bv aXiJ^ct' dei. 

87ft f. irov...irpdYjtaTOs; At, 102 irov 
ffot rOxot ^<mjK€P ; ib.^i^hrf irpdyfiaros. 



TPAXINIAI 



61 



her to this house not in careless fashion, lady, nor like a slave ; — 
no, dream not of that, — it is not likely, if his heart is kindled 
with desire. 

I resolved, therefore, O Queen, to tell thee all that I had 
heard from yonder man. Many others were listening to it, as I 
was, in the public place where the Trachinians were assembled ; 
and they can convict him. If my words are unwelcome, I am 
grieved ; but nevertheless I have spoken out the truth. 

De. Ah me unhappy ! In what plight do I stand ? What 
secret bane have I received beneath my roof? Hapless that I 
am ! Is she nameless, then, as her convoy sware ? 

Me. Nay, illustrious by name as by birth ; she is the 

daughter of Eurytus, and was once 

mark of interrogation is due to an early corrector. 878 f/ Kapra Canter: 

^ Kal t& mss. and Aid. (^ Kal rdka/iirpa L). — 6po/xa Frohlich : 6/i/ml mss. The 
same emendation was made independently by Hartung and Wecklein (Ars Soph, 
em. p. 59), who give it in their texts. — In L ayy. stands before v. 380, and v. 379 
is given to Deianeira (as in B and T), but the mark f is prefixed to it. Cp. the 
schol. on 379 : tip&s rb rod dyyiXov vpoffunrop (pact. The Aldine gives v. 379 to 
Deianeira. 88O /Up] Reiske conj. yap. For /ikp otoa Wecklein conj. yey&<ra, 

comparing 0. T. 1168 iyyepty yeyibs. — yivcaip] In L the letter 7, which had been 
omitted, is written above. A late hand has written <r over the final p ; this v. I. y4p€<ris, 
Triclinian, appears in a few late mss. (as B and T). — Trork] Blaydes writes ciropa. 



— virooTTcyov with elaStSeyfxcu : cp. El. 
1386 pepaffip don 8<d/i&T(ap tiirdcrTeyot. 

877 f. (S 8v<rrqvos, sc. iytb: cp. 1143* 
1243. PA. 744 86<rT7)P0Sy t5 rdXos £yt6. — 
dvavvuos: acrrj/xos Kal dvayev^s (schol.). 
The reference to origin is brought out by 
ir&^vKcv. 

This question seems strange after the 
words ktcCvci t ovaicra irartpa rfjcSc in 
364, — which Deianeira can hardly be sup- 
posed to have forgotten. (See n. on 362 ff.) 
If those words be genuine, we might per- 
haps regard the question here as merely 
continuing her own bitter thought, — 
not as really asking for information: — 
* Wretched that I am ! Is this the name- 
less maiden of whom he spoke?' (Cp. 
the bitter self- communing of Oedipus, 
O. T. 822: op' tyvp ko.k6$; \ op* ofr/l was 
Apaypos;) It is not decisive against this 
view that the matter-of-fact dVyeXos takes 
the question literally. 

8iw|iWT0 (cp. 255 n.): Lichas had 
merely declared that he knew nothing 

(3I4—3I9)- , 
879 if icapra : these words begin the 

reply to a question in El. 312, Aesch. 

Suppl. 452 : they are the first words of a 

speaker also in At. 1359, El. 1279. 

The conject. #vopa for 6upa not only 

removes a difficulty, but is made almost 

certain by the question, dp* dvc&wuos 



it&^vkcv ; The words were easily confused : 
thus in At. 447 6/x/xa has been made in 
L from 6vofxa. By Svopa, as dist. from 
4>v<riv, is meant partly the nobleness of 
the name itself (akin to Iolaiis, etc.), partly 
her personal renown for beauty. On the 
other hand, tcaT* Supa, 'in regard to her 
appearance,' is a phrase for which there is 
no real parallel : it cannot be justified by 
the use of 6\f/is (II. 24. 632) in that sense. 
In At. 1004 8v<r$4arop 6/x/xa is not similar. 
— 4>v<riv, birth, as At. 1301 <pti<rei /ikv fy \ 
fiacrlXeia (and id. 1259). 

In some ancient texts this verse was 
given to Deianeira. Among recent edi- 
tors, Paley shares that view. But: (1) If 
Deianeira has already answered her own 
question, the Messenger's speech opens 
weakly with v. 380. (2) It agrees best 
with the practice of Sophocles to suppose 
that ij KapTa are a speaker's first words. 
— Some, indeed, of the mss. (as B, K, T), 
which give v. 379 to Deianeira, have fl in- 
stead of if, with the mark of interrogation 
after <fru<ri.v, and only a comma after 
SuSuwto. Thus D. asks, ' Is she obscure, 
or illustrious ? ' But this is weak. 

88O £ ira/rpAs \&v o&ra /r.r.X. The 
simplest account of the /Up is that T6X17 
hk koKov/Uptj ought to have followed, but, 
owing to the fact that her name is pri- 
marily in question, the second clause be- 



62 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



XO. 

AH. 

XO. 

AH. 
AR 
AH. 



*Io\ri VaXctro, rrjs c/ceu/o? ovSafia 
^SXaoras i(f)(ov€L hrjdev ovhkv l&Topaiv. 
okoivro p/q Ti wdvres oi /ca/cot, ra 8e 
kadpaV 05 acKtl firj irpiirovff atrip /ca/ca. 
tl "xjyr} iroeiv, yvvaiKts ; oJs iya Xoyois 
rots vvv 7rapov<riv i.KTreirhrjyp.ivif) Kvpco. 
irevdov /loXovcra ravSpos, cos ra^' ai> <ra<j)r} 
\4£euev, el viv rrpos (Slav Kplveiv dikoiq. 
aXX* clfLf /cat yap ov/c cwro yudp/q^ Xeycis. 
^/ji€t5 8e irpoapivcofiev ; 77 ti ^/m) 7rocu> ; 
fit/LtJ/ , 0)5 00 cu/17/D ov/c €[M(ov vir ayye\<ov 
aXX' avro/cX^ros 4k So/mov iropeverai. 



385 



390 



881 'jraXetro] KaXeiTo MSS. — ouda/A& Herm. : ov 5 a fiat L. 882 ^wvet] Hertel 
and Hense conj. icpupa. — ovSiv larop&p] Enger conj. ovd' &viffTopu>v. 888 L omits 
XO., as though this v. and the next belonged to the dtyyeXos. — m tC\ m rot T, K, 
Lc : prob. due to Triclinius. Nauck writes, with Frohlich, 6Xoirro irdvres oi kclkoI, 
fiaKurra te. 884 clvt$ H. Stephanus and Canter: airy mss. The schol.'s 

words, 6aoi...KaKoiipyovs \6yovs iauroU avvriOtaatv, suggest but do not prove that he 
read aim}. Nauck conj. iaSXtp. 886 To this verse L prefixes, not Aqt, but 



came *I6Xi| 'koXcCto. The trori belongs 
in sense to 'icaXffro, not to ov<ra: the 
imperf. refers to her former condition in 
her own home: cp. 301 rjaay. 

*I6\i\: ft6Xa on the vase from Caere 
mentioned above (265 f. n.). Cp. Hes. fr. 
45 (ap. schol. on 266 above), rods Si fied 1 
OTrXoT&rqv t4kcto %av$ty 'UXetap | 'Av- 
Ti6xf. Curtius (Etym. § 590) accepts the 
connection with top. Some mythologists 
regard Iole as *the violet dawn,' who is 
wedded to the rising sun (Hyllus) after 
his precursor (Heracles) has passed away 
in fiery glory (Paley, Introd. to Tr. 9 
p. 204). The poet, at least, is innocent 
of such symbolism. — rijs: 47 n. 

882 pXdcrras: the plur., as 0. T. 
717,(9. C.972. — ov8iv Urrop&v, compared 
with the words of Lichas himself (317- 
otfd' aviarbpow jiaicpdv), seems better taken 
as =' because he had not been inquiring* 
(6Vt ov5h lardpei), than, 'because he did 
not know' (cp. 0. T. 1484 f.). 

Many editors place a comma after 
tycSvci. This implies that SrjOcv could 
stand as the first word of a sentence or a 
clause. Now there are certainly instances 
in which the special point of the irony 
conveyed by SijOev lies in words which 
follow it: yet, even then, Srjdev is also 
retrospective. Aesch. P. V. 986 iicep- 



Tdfirjffas drjBw &s ircufl' 6vra fie: here d>s 
irouS 1 6vtcl is the point: but that is no 
reason why dijBev should not refer to the 
whole sentence: i.e., 'thou hast mocked 
me, forsooth, as though I were a child,' re- 
presents the sense no less well than, 'thou 
hast mocked me as if, forsooth, I were a 
child.' The same remark applies to Thuc. 
1. 127 rovro 8$ rb ayos ol AaxeSatfiSviOL 
£k£\€Vop iXativciv dijOev rots OeoU icpurrov 
Tifjuapodvres. Id. 4. 99 oW cub lairfrdovro 
Srjdev inrip rijs eicelvcw. This last example 
would really show tifjdev as the first word 
of a clause, ^"it were necessary to take it 
exclusively with {nrip rrjs tKeLvw. 'nor, 
again, were they (the Boeotians) going to 
make a truce about ground which, for- 
sooth, was Athenian. But the sense is 
rather: 'nor, again, were they going to 
make a truce, forsooth, [i.e., as the Athe- 
nian proposal implied,] about ground 
which was Athenian.' And so, here also, 
the irony of 8rj0cv affects the whole sen- 
tence, and not only the words ov&v 

UTTOfKOV. 

888 £ 6XotVTO k.t.X. : a forcible way 
of saying, 'Any kind of misdoing might 
be pardoned sooner than treachery of the 
kind which we see here.' Cp. 468 f., vol 
5* eyu) <ppd fa kclkov | irpbsdWw elvcu, k.t.X. 

The comment is aimed at Lichas in the 



TPAXINIAI 



63 



called Iole ; she of whose parentage Lichas could say nothing, 
because, forsooth, he had asked no questions. 

Ch. Accursed, above other evil-doers, be the man whom 
deeds of treachery dishonour ! 

De. Ah, maidens, what am I to do ? These latest tidings 
have bewildered me ! 

Ch. Go and inquire from Lichas ; perchance he will tell the 
truth, if thou constrain him to answer. 

De. Well, I will go ; thy counsel is not amiss. 

Me. And I, shall I wait here ? Or what is thy pleasure ? 

De. Remain ; — here he comes from the house of his own 
accord, without summons from me. 



merely a short line. 387 iretiOov MSS. : irvdov Nauck. 888 put Brunck: 

/up mss. — OiXois L, A, etc., and Aid. : BiXea r. 389 dirb r : diro L, A, etc., 

and Aid. : see comment. 390 L gives this v. to the Chorus : so, too, Turnebus, 
Brunck, Campbell. Hermann first gave it to the Messenger. The Aldine, with most 
mss., gives it, along with v. 389, to Deianeira. 391 f. L gives these two w. 

to Deianeira; and so Turnebus. The Aldine, with most MSS., gives them to the 
Chorus. — 88' dp*ip Herm. (88' w Vfy> Errardt) : dpf)p 88' Brunck : 88' dvfy MSS. 



first instance ; but its vague form seems 
purposed, so that the hearers may extend 
it, if they please, to Heracles. Deianeira 
herself is in doubt whether the dissimula- 
tion practised by Lichas was prompted 
by her lord (449) : Lichas explains that it 
was not so (479 f.). The schol. *s para- 
phrase shows that he wished to punctuate 
thus : 6\<HJT0, fxi} rt irdpres, ol kclkoI, etc. : 
'perish, not all men, but the evil; and 
(especially) he,* etc. 

tcL 8i: for the place of the art., cp. 
92 n. : for & as = dXXd, Ant. 85 n. — |&ij 
(generic) irp£irov6* avT<£ : the treachery is 
aggravated by the fact of the high trust 
reposed in those from whom it proceeds. 
Ph. 1227 tirpat-as fpyop woiov wp oti <rot 
irpevop; 

386 trociv: for the spelling, cp. Ph. 
120 n., and ib. p. 234. 

387 f. trcvOov : Nauck writes irvOov. 
But the change is as needless here as in 
O. T. 604. Where the sense is, * inquire,' 
the pres. is right : cp. O. C. 993 irorepa 
irvpddvoC av el \ iraHip a' 6 kcUpw. id. 
1 155 &* M&I c186t' avrbp fxrjdev <2p ffv itvp- 
ddvei. On the other hand in O. T. 332 f. 
ri ravr' | aXXarc i\eyx €ts » ov 7&P &* iriBoto 
pov, the aor. is required, as the sense is, 
• learn.' Cp. above, 66, 91; and below, 

0*091) = 6X7109} : El. 1223 Hixad el 
<ra<pr} X^yw. — irpds ptav, i.e., with strin- 
gent questioning (such as the AyyeXos him- 
self applies, 402 fif.). The phrase is rare, 



except where physical force is meant ; cp., 
however, O. C. 1185 oi ydp <re, Odpaei, 
irpbs (Map irapaairdffet \ yvu/Mrjs. — KpCvciv 
— dvaKplveiv : 195 n. 

889 ovk diro Yva>|it|$, not away from 
good judgment, — not otherwise tfian it 
prescribes: ovk Apcv arvpfoewt (schol.). 
Cp. ovk dirb Kcupov, ovk dirb rpdwov (n. on 
O.C. 900): Plat. Theaet. p. 179 c ovk 
dirb (tkottov etpTjKev. Others understand, 
'not contrary to my own judgment* (tovto 
Ka/Jbol apfoxei, schol.). //. 10. 324 vol 8' 
eyti) ov\ oXlos <tkott6s t<r<rofxai, ov8' dwb 
86lfts (* belying thy hope ') : id. 1. 561 dvb 
Ovfiov I fiaXKop ipLol !<recu. But here yvu- 
fjL-qs seems better taken generally. Dis- 
tinguish the sense in Eutn. 674 dirb yvu- 
fx-qs <p{pcw \ \fnj<pop (in accordance with 
one's opinion). 

The accent in L here, diro 71^175, 
represents the theory that this prep, should 
be paroxytone when it means 'at a dis- 
tance from,' as in the phrases cited above, 
and in dvb relxeos (II. 9. 353), dvb veto 
(id. 437), etc. But this was merely a 
refinement due to comparatively late 
grammarians: see Ellendt, Lex. Soph, 
p. 79 a: Matthiae Gr. § 572 n. b. 

391 ovk i\uuv far* dyyi\<av: though 
it would be easy to supply K\i)0eis from 
avTOKXijTOS (Ai. 289 axkryros ov8' inr' 
dyyeXtap I KXrjdels), it is needless to do so : 
cp. Eur. Andr. 561 ov yap fuas ae k\q86- 
pos irpoOv/da \ fierijXdop, dXXd /xvpiow vir' 
dyytXwp. 



6 4 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



395 



4QO 



AI. ii XPV> ywcu, fioXovra [i 'H/ocucXct Xeycu/; 

toafov, Co? epnovros, a>s opa?, 6/jiov. 
AH. cos €/c Tafias crw XP° V V ftpa&tL pokav 

cicrcreis, 7T/oa> ?)fias # /cdw€G>o"a<r0(H Xayovs. 
AI. aXX s ei ti ^/ojj^cts i<TToptiv, napei/i eyri. 
AH. 17 /cal to marov rns akrfOeias vefiels; 
AI. torco fieyas Zevs, cov y' a*/ efciScos /cv/oco. 
AH. rts 77 yvn) &7T* €orii> rjv rjiceis aycov ; 
AI. Ev/Joiis* tSi/ 8' ef3ka<TT€V ovk eyta \4ytiv. 
AT. ovros, fi\4<f) cSSe. 777009 rt^' ivviirtiv So/cei?; 

AI. (TV 8' €19 Tl 8)7 fl€ TOVT ip<0TTJ<rOLS €^€IS ; 

Ar. Tokfir)<rov €i7T€u>, ei <f>povel$, o a laropco. 

898 HpaicXei] L has et in an erasure (from 171?). 894 u>s 6p$s] Wakefield and 
Wunder: efoopfa MSS. — Herwerden and Hense reject this v. 896 raxclas] rpaxcLas 
Aid. — ato XP& V V] <rwxp6 y(aL L. 398 K&wedxraadcu Herm. : koX vecbaavdcu mss.: 

dvavedxraaOai Canter: K&vaveuxraaScu Wunder (with synizesis of ew). Blaydes conj. 
K&vaKoivovadai, referring to the schol. ; whose phrase, however, irplv tjjjuv k cavo- 
rt povs dvaKoivdxraa-dou \6yovs, confirms the (amended) vulgate. 897 and 899 
are given to the Messenger in L, but rightly to Lichas in A and other mss., and 
in the Aldine. 898 v€fj.€ts Nauck (schol. on 399, 8iriyjj<rofiai): viyueis MSS. 



894 &% 6p<£s. I receive ^this slight 
and easy correction of cl<rop£s, holding 
that the latter does not admit of any 
sound defence. Various explanations of 
it have been attempted. (1) Seidler: 
cUrop$s governs the gen. No one would 
now maintain this : the alleged instances 
are irrelevant (Ar. Ran. 815 irapLd-Q with 
a gen. absol. : Xen. M. 1. 1. 11 otidels Se 
ic&ic ore Sowpdrow obbbt d<re/3£s...o#re 
irp&TTovros eldey, etc., where the verb 
governs the ace, and the gen. is posses- 
sive). (2) Hermann: the constr. is, 
<fc ('since 1 ), gpirovros £|M>v, clo-op£s (rov- 
to, tpirovrd fie). But ws must go with 
the gen. absol. (3) Nauck : <£s Jlpirovros 
ipov, (ovtus) cUrop$s (£fj£ tpneovTa). But 
(a) this implies a harsh asyndeton (dida^ov 
— daopys) : and (b) the constr. is not justi- 
fied by At. 281 (as (35' ix6vrwv twv8' ivL- 

ffTaadai <re XP*I ( C P* <^**» IX 79 n 0« (4) 
Matthiae: there is a confusion between 
clo-op$s «fe SpirovTOs Iww, and cJs (since) 
elaopq.i tpvovra ifii. (5) Dindorf: it<ro- 
p<£s is parenthetic. This is the best plea : 
but it does not suit the idiom of tragedy. 
The parenthetic bpqs (interrogative) does 
not support it. 

As regards «s &p£s, Blaydes well points 
out that a double <&s occurs elsewhere: 
1 241 rdx\ <•>* toiKas, (as v off eh <pavcts : 



Ant. 735 6pq.s t&8' (as etpTjKas (as ayav 
vtos; El. 1 34 1 177761X0$, cJs toutey, ws 
TeOvrjK&ra. 

896 £ Ik Ta\c£as: cp. 727, and n. 
on Ant. 994. — <rdv Yp6vq>...ppaSci: O.C. 
1602 TaxeT...<rinf XP° V V (n.). — wplv tjjias 
KdwcoSoxurOat X6yovs. The compound 
verb is confirmed, as against the koX vc&- 
<ra<r$ at of the mss. (cr. n.), by the schol. 's 
paraphrase, &vaKaivlo~ao-dai [this schol. 
has no lemma] ; and more esp. by Eus- 
tath., p. 811, 20 (on vetoTo fiaBel-qs, II. 10. 
353) » veavj ov XPV™ "**?' 'H<rt65y iv ry, 
Oipeos 8$ P€(afi4vrj oinc dTraHjaeL (Op. 462), 
4£ o5 Kal irapd, 2o0o/c\e< dvavewffaffSai 
\6yovs, rb dvaKivrjacu. On the other hand, 
the MS. kclL is clearly sound : irplv kclL here 
= * before even*; see on Ant. 280. For 
the apocope of the prep, in Kdweuaaadat, 
see on 335 d/xfxeivaff\ The synizesis of 
ew, assumed by those who write icdvavew- 
crao-dcu, would be very harsh. I doubt 
whether Eustathius was right in his theory 
— suggested by veav — that dvaveowrOai 
X070UJ was a metaphor from ploughing. 
Had it been so, it ought to have implied, 
'going again over old ground,' like dva- 
iroXeii' imi (PA. 1238 n.). Here the sense 
is simply, 'to renew converse.' Cp. 
Polyb. 5. 36 del rbv \6yov dvtveovro. 

898 i{ Kal : 246. — rb moT^v rijs dXi|- 



TPAXINIAI 



65 



Enter LlCHAS. 

Li. Lady, what message shall I bear to Heracles? Give 
me thy commands, for, as thou seest, I am going. 

De. How hastily thou art rushing away, when thy visit had 
been so long delayed, — before we have had time for further talk. 

Li. Nay, if there be aught that thou would'st ask, I am at 
thy service. 

De. Wilt thou indeed give me the honest truth ? 

Yes, be great Zeus my witness, — in anything that I 



Li. 
know. 
De. 
Li. 
Me. 



Who is the woman, then, whom thou hast brought ? 
She is Euboean ; but of what birth, I cannot say. 
Sirrah, look at me : — to . whom art thou speaking, 
think'st thou ? 

Li. And thou — what dost thou mean by such a question ? 
Me. Deign to answer me, if thou comprehendest. 

401 — 404 Nauck arranges the four verses thus : — AI. 403 (with fywnfcrew'), AH. 404, 
AI. 401, Ar. 402. Reiske thus: — AH. 404 (next after 400) : AI. 401, 403 : AH. 402. 
402 — 433 Throughout this passage L either omits to indicate the persons, or 
gives them wrongly. (1) The following vv. have no note of the person, but only a 
short line, prefixed to them : — 400, 401, 404, 405, 410, 412, 415, 416, 419, 421, 427. 
(2) The following vv. are wrongly assigned. To Deianeira (instead of the Messen- 
ger) : — 402, 408 f. (as far as (rqin, 413, 417 f., 423 f., 431 — 433. To the Messenger 
(instead of Lichas) : — 403, 409 (from SUata), 414, 418 (from <frrifd), 425 f. — In the 
Aldine text of vv. 402 — 433 the lines which belong to Lichas are rightly given to him : 
but Deianeira is substituted for the Messenger all through the dialogue. 403 epu- 
•n/tf-as] L has ipuyHjaaa ' £x €l<r : which has generally been reported as ipurHfaaa* tx €l * 
(the Aldine reading, first corrected by Tyrwhitt). The latter may be what the scribe 
meant, since the preceding verse (402) is in L wrongly given to Deianeira. But he 
might also have written just thus in copying ifxar/jaacr fxetc. What is taken for an 
apostrophe after <r might equally well be the breathing on e, placed, as often, a little 
to the left. 404 6 <r'j &r L. 



Ocfc&s, the faithfulness of the truth, = 
the honest truth. — vcpcts, as in vifxav 
fidip&p tivl, because she claims a true 
account as due to her: 436 f. ^..AkkK^- 
ypys \6yop. Cp. the pass, in Her. 9. 7 
rb flip dir' ii/xicjp ovtu) falfibrfkov piyuerai 
ivl roifs "JbWrjpas : so honestly do we dis- 
charge our duty towards the Greeks. 

Even without the hint in the schol. 
(cr. n.), it would have been clear that 
vcpcts must be read here. vi\ui<s has been 
explained as follows: — (1) Wunder: *Do 
you give the pledge of veracity?' — *.*., 
'Are you prepared to swear that you will 
speak the truth?* (2) Linwood, 'colis, 
observas'z *.*., 'Do you respect fidelity 
to the truth?' (3) Campbell takes p4/jl€is 
as 'possess,' 'wield,' 'use'; rendering, 
'And dost thou maintain the faithful 
spirit of truth?' 

J. S. V. 



401 — 404 As to Nauck's change in 
the order of these verses (cr. n.), it is 
enough to observe that (1) Lichas could 
not reply to the question of his Mairoira 
with such a rebuff as <r0 8' ds rL 8*j pc 
k.t.X. (2) It is out of accord with 
Deianeira's courteous dignity that she 
should address Lichas with such words as 
T6\|U)<rov clirttv, cl <|>f>ovft$ k.t.X. 

402 ofrros, pX6f>' cuSc: the dyyeXos 
roughly bespeaks attention for his own 
question; &d€=5cvpo (O. T. 7 n.). Cp. 
O. T. 1 121 ovtos <r6, irpiffpv, 6e0p6 fwi 
(pcopet pXiirttiv : At. 1047 ovtos, <ri ipuvio. 

403 <ni 8' : a reproof of the meddling 
stranger. Cp. Isae. or. 8 § 24 <rv 8t tLs 
et; crol 5i tI irpoo"^K€t 0&tt€w; oi> ytypihaKU 

404 T4\|M|<rov, an ironical rejoinder : 
' bring yourself to do it,' — 'have the good- 

s 



66 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



AI. 7T/0OS ttjv KpaTOV&av Arjdveipav, Olvecos 4°5 

Koprjv, SdfMaprd ff 'H/oa/cXcow, el firj Kvpco 
kevaawv jiarcua, hearroTiv re rf}v ifirjv. 

AI\ rovr avr evpQ&v, tovto <tov /ladeiv. Xeyci9 
hiairowav ewou vrjvhe. cnqv ; AI. 81/cata yap. 

AI\ ri BrJTa ; troiav aftot? Sowcu 81/071/, 410 

^z> evpedys €9 tt^Sc /lh) 8i/caio9 aJj/ ; 

AI. 7T(3s /lit) Succuos ; ri irore 7roi/aXa9 €^€15 ; 

Ar. ovhiv <rv [khnoi Kapra tovto Spcov Kvpels. 

AI. cFirei/u* /icopos 8* r} wdXai kXvcov aida/. 

Ar. ov, irpiv y av eiirys loTopovp.€vo$ fSpayy. 415 

AI. Xey', €i ri XPV^ € ^' K< * L 7^P °^ wyy^os cT. 

Ar. rrjv aivfidXcoTov, rjv 67rc/Lw/fas €9 80/1,01/9, 

KaroLcrua Srjirov ; AI. <^/u* 7r/>09 ti 8 s IcrTopeis ; 

Ar. ovkow av Tavrrfv, yv vv* dyvoias d/)?9, 

'IoXty*/ l^a<r/c€9 Ev/ovtov xnropdv ayeiv; 420 

AI. 7roi(H9 ci/ dvdpriiroLO'i, ; ri? Trodev fJLoXtaV 

Col /iapTVp7](T€L TaVT C/iOV kXv€W * 77(1/9(1 J 

Ar. 7roXXoi<r«/ aor&v h> p.€<rg T/oa^i^tcuv 

dyopa 770X1/9 <roi/ ravra y* €UT77Kov<r > 0^X09. 

4O0 f. d&fjmprd 0\.. deairoTUf re] For 0' . . . re, Blaydes writes $\ . . 5i, — AetWwv] \e\jauv 
L, with <r written above. 408 atfr'] aCr' L, as in ^4«/. 462 ; meant in both cases, 
probably, for avrb (cp. Ant. 408 Seiv' for Sewd). 412 n-ouclXas] In L the first hand 
wrote Troud\a<T e*xet<r : S has added ' not after, but just over, the first <r, assuming, 
doubtless, that vv. 410 f. belonged to Deianeira, though in L no note of the person 
is prefixed to v. 410 (see on 402 — 433). voucCKKaa Aldine (cp. n. on 402 — 433, 
ad Jin.). Tyrwhitt first gave woucCKas. 414 ^ Elmsley and Dindorf : ?p mss. 

418 KaTour$a frfyrov; AI. 4>rjfd'] The conject. K&Toi<r$a 5^r'; — oH (prj/u seems to have 
been due to Turnebus : Brunck rejected it in his first ed. (1786, 4to, vol. I. p. 234), 
concluding thus, 'Nulla igitur caussa est cur Parisini editoris conjectura probetur, 



ness to do it.' (Not, 'dare.') Cp. O. C. 
184, Ph. 82, 481. — ct ^povcts, 'if thou 
comprehendest* (the question). Not, * if 
thou art sane' — which would be too strong 
here. — toropw with double ace, like 
ipwrio : Eur. Ph. 621 rl /*' laropeit rdfle; 

406 £ If SctpopTa were not followed 
by 8«nr6nv, the change of 0' to 8' made 
by Blaydes would be probable : cp. 0. C 
1 2 1 7 n. But, where three relationships of 
the same persons are mentioned, there is 
no reason for preferring W... SI to tc.tc. 
— Xcv<r<rc»v |uuuu&(adv., cp. O.T. 8830.), 
suffering a delusion of the eyes. Cp. 
863: Hor. C. 3. 27. 39 {an me) Ludit 
imago I Vana? 

409 S£kou&: for the plur., cp. 64. — 
The division of the verse between two 



speakers (dvriXa^) gives vivacity: cp. 
418, 876. 

411 SIkcuos: cp. 348. 

412 troucCXas (I) : cp. 1121 : for ttoikI- 
\os with ref. to subtlety, see on O. T. 130 
i) woiKiXydbs ZspLyi-. 

416 f. UrTOpov|Mvos = ipurrcbfxevos, a 
comparatively rare use of this passive ; so 
Her. 1. 24 kkrjOtvTas laropieadai et rt \£- 
yotev. — otf <riyr]Xis ft : as Creon calls the 
<t>6\a£ a \d\rj/xa, Ant. 320. Possibly an 
echo of Eur. Suppl. 567 \4y\ rf ri fiovXei • 
koX yhp oif <rtyrj\bs et: where the phrase 
alludes to the rhetoric of the herald 
Copreus. 

418 KaToio-0a, i.e., thou knowest 
whom I mean: O. T. 1048 S<rns KdroiSe 
rbv porijp* ov ivviirei. The conject., 



TPAXINIAI 



67 



Li. To the royal Deianeira, unless mine eyes deceive me, — 
daughter of Oeneus, wife of Heracles, and my queen. 

Me. The very word that I wished to hear from thee : — thou 
sayest that she is thy queen ? 

Li. Yes, as in duty bound. 

Me. Well, then, what art thou prepared to suffer, if found 
guilty of failing in that duty ? 

Li. Failing in duty ? What dark saying is this ? 

Me. 'Tis none ; the darkest words are thine own. 

Li. I will go, — I was foolish to hear thee so long. 

Me. No, not till thou hast answered a brief question. 

Li. Ask what thoy wilt ; thou art not taciturn. 

Me. That captive, whom thou hast brought home — thou 
knowest whom I mean ? 

Li. Yes ; but why dost thou ask ? 

Me. Well, saidst thou not that thy prisoner — she, on whom 
thy gaze now turns so vacantly — was lolh, daughter of Eurytus ? 

Li. Said it to whom ? Who and where is the man that 
will be thy witness to hearing this from me ? 

Me. To many of our own folk thou saidst it : in the public 
gathering of Trachinians, a great crowd heard thus much from 
thee. 

Karoicrda $777-'; 01? 4>r)fu. y But be afterwards adopted it ; and it is now commonly ascribed 
to him. 419 rjv inr* dyvoias 6p<j.t mss.: in L a letter has been erased after ay volaa. 
421 -rroiois iv] voLoutiv K, and so Blaydes reads. 422 irdpa Bothe: irapwv 

MSS. 423 iroWolfftv] Wakefield conj. iroWois h. 424 raOrd 7' 

€IoJ}kov<t' A : raOr' eUHiKova* L : for the loss of 7c, cp. 491, Ant. 648, 1241. 



Karoicrda SfjT*;— 0$ 4>iim>1, assumed that 
Karoicrda = ytypdxriceif ('knowest who she 
is 1 ). 

419 -f\v far' 6/yvo£as 6p£s. If these 
words are sound, they mean, 'on whom 
you look with (affected) ignorance.' There 
is little force in the objection that Iole is 
not actually present : the Messenger is 
calling up the recent scene (314 — 319), 
which is so fresh in their minds. The 
real question is, — could 6ir* dyvoias be 
thus used, — as = 'with' (not l Jrotn') 
'ignorance'? Elsewhere irirb denotes 
some external accompaniment of action, 
as ( i ) sound, vtto avptyycw : or silence, far' 
etf^Liov poijs (El. 630): (2) lights inro 
Xafivddcov : (3) a pressure from without, 
as bird fmariytap. There is perhaps no 
instance in which it refers distinctly to the 
mental or moral circumstances (as dis- 
tinct from motives) of the agent. In 
Eur. Hipp. 1299 ifir 9 efaXelas Okvy means, 
'amid men's praises': even in Hec. 351, 
4$pt<p$r}v iXirldwp kqXQp ^to, Polyxena 



alludes not merely to the hopes in her 
own breast, but to the fair auguries of 
those who watched her youth. Possibly 
the use of far' dyvoias in this verse may 
have been felt to convey a certain irony 
which excused it; as if it implied, 'with a 
look of ignorance assumed for the occa- 
sion,' — the deceiver's outward equipment 
for his part. 

On the whole, I do not feel sure that 
there is a corruption. If there is, it pro- 
bably lies deep. Some conjectures are 
noticed in the Appendix. 

421 £ rfeiro'bcvi&oXciv: Od. 1.170 Tb 
t60cp et? dvSp&v ; Eur. El, 779 rives \ w6- 
0€v irop€ve<rd '; — irdpa is much better here 
than ira/xfr, a corruption which may have 
been induced by /mo\ojv above. In 431, 
on the other hand, the emphasis of jrapcJ>v 
is fitting. 

428 f. iroXXotciv aor&v answers 
troCois iv dvOpcfarourt ; The conject. iroX- 
Xots iv dartav is admissible (O.T. 178 n.), 
but unnecessary. — oyopf : 372 n. — ravrd 

5—2 



68 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



AI. 



VOX' 



k\v€lv y €<j>a(TK0V. ravro 8' ov)(l yiyverai 
80/070W elireiv Ka^aKpifStoaai \6yov. 

AT. iroiav 80K770W ; ovk i7T(6[ioTos Xeycov 

Sd/iapT €<£ao7C€S 'H/oa/cXci Tavrrjv dyeiv ; 

AI. eye* Sd/iapra ; 7T/oos Oeaiv, tfrpdaov, fyikrj 
Q€<nroLva, rovSe ris wot early 6 feVos. 

Ar. 09 (tov wapcov yJKovaev cJs Tavr^s woda 
7roXt5 $afjL€LT) wdaa, kov\ 77 AvSia 
Trepaeiev avnjv, aXX* 6 rfjaS' epcos <f>aveis. 

AI. avdpamos, (3 8d<nrou/, dwoo"rqT<o' to yap 
voaovmi Xr/pelv dpSpos ov^t <r(6<f>povos. 

AH, prf, wpos <re tov /car* aKpov OItoiov vdwos 
Atos KaTaarTpdirrovTOS, c/c/cXct/^9 Xoyov. 
ov yap yvvaucl rovs Xoyovs cpet? /ca/qn, 
ovo ^rt5 ov Karoioe Tavupwwcov, <m 
^atpeiv tt€<I>vk€v ov)(l rots aureus aei. 



425 



430 



435 



440 



426 pa/. k\ij€iv y 1 L, with most MSS.: pa/. irXitetp 5' B: pa/. icXtfetp K. Dindorf 
deletes vol. 431 fl<r <rou L : 5s (rou r. — iJKOvrev] iJKOffev L. 432 koi5x 

ri A, etc.: aco^x* L. 433 (pay e is] Musgrave conj. <r<paXels: Wecklein and 



Y* : Iole's name and birth : yt hints that 
more is in reserve. 

426 If the MS. vol be genuine here, 
it stands, of course, extra metrum^ as in 
Eur. /. T. 742 vat, \ ireUna <r<f> € k.t.X, 
There, too, it has good MS. authority, but 
is omitted by Dindorf. Here, perhaps, 
it might indicate a moment of embarrass- 
ment on the part of the herald, who now 
sees that he is detected. The y* after 
kXvciv makes vat unnecessary, but proves 
nothing against it. 

Tcrird : other places where tragic metre 
proves this form are O. T. 734; fr. 771 oil 
yap ti povXijs rairrb ical 5p6pov riXot : Eur. 
Med. 564 it rairro 6dr)v. But metre 
proves rainrov in five places of Soph. 
(O. T. 325: O. C. 612, 1419: Ph. 546, 
1256), as in Aesch. Eum. 625, Eur. Or. 
1280, etc. Aristophanes uses both forms 
(Nub. 663 raind, Eq. 319 rairov, etc.). 

420 The antithesis is between the 
whole phrases, 86ki)(tiv being the im- 
portant word in the first, and i£aicpip&orai 
in the second. e£a*/>. Xhyov means here, 
'to render a statement precise? by bring- 
ing definite evidence in support of it. 

427 irofav Wkijouv; This idiom, so 



common in colloquial Attic (Ar. Ach. 
61 f., etc.), is alien from tragedy; but 
Schneidewin and others quote Eur. He- 
len. 566 EA. w x/^wos iXO&v ctjs d&fjiap- 
rot it X^pas. I ME. "tolas dd/xapTos ; 
('how? 'wife'V). 

429 f. kya Sapapra ; Another col- 
loquialism : cp. Ar. Lys. 529 f. iiravop- 
Sdxratfiev av v/xas. | — vfieis i)fxas ; deivdv 
ye Xiyeis kov rXrirbv i/xoiye. — tov8« rl* 
k.t.X.: Ph. 444 rovrov citarO* el $G>v tcvpeT; 

431 The emphatic <rov seems better 
here than <rov. It may be noted that, 
instead of ^kowcv, we should usu. have 
ifKoinra: see on 0. C 6. Shilleto (ap. 
Pretor here) was disposed, on this ground, 
to think that Vv. 431 — 433 should be 
given to Deianeira : but they are not in 
her spirit. 

432 £ ^ AvSCa (sc. ywfi)=v Avd-f) 
(70), Omphale. The adj. Atjdtos (fre- 
quent in poetry) is used by Soph, in fr. 
738 AvSLa XLBos. And as in fr. 49 he has 
AvSrjs (for AvSLas) KepiclSos, so here he 
admits the converse licence. Bothe and 
others take ^ AvSCct as 'Lydia,' — a bold 
equiv. for ravl Avdois Xarpedfiara (356). 
This is tenable, but seems less natural. — 



TPAXINIAI 



69 



Li. Ay — said they heard; but 'tis one thing to report a 
fancy, and another to make the story good. 

Me. A fancy ! Didst thou not say on thine oath that thou 
wast bringing her as a bride for Heracles ? 

Li. I ? bringing a bride ? — In the name of the gods, dear 
mistress, tell me who this stranger may be ? 

Me. One who heard from thine own lips that the conquest 
of the whole city was due to love for this girl: the Lydian 
woman was not its destroyer, but the passion which this maid 
had kindled. 

Li. Lady, let this fellow withdraw: to prate with the brain- 
sick befits not a sane man. 

De. Nay, I implore thee by Zeus whose lightnings go forth 
over the high glens of Oeta, do not cheat me of the truth ! For 
she to whom thou wilt speak is not ungenerous, nor hath she 
yet to learn that the human heart is inconstant to its joys. 

Frohlich, fxbvos. 434 avdpwiros Brunck : avSpwiros MSS. 486 vogovvtl 

Xrjpeir MSS.: H. Stephanus conj. vocovv rt Xrjpeiv ('to talk crazy nonsense'): 
Heath, vwfovptcl Xripetv : Heimsoeth, yocouvr* A^yxecr {freyKcur Hense) : Nauck, 
voaovvTL irpo<rix ctv ' Blaydes writes Xripetv vogovvtos. 430 irpds <re Hermann : 

jrpbcr <re L, with most mss. : wpbs ov A and Aid. — vdiros] Blaydes writes irdyov. 
440 TctyvKtv MSS. : ir€<p(fKa<T i Nauck. — rots clAtoU] made from toi airrota in L. 



6 ttjo*8' £p«0$ ^ovcCs, the love for her, as 
it was manifested, — <pavd$ implying that 
this manifestation was sudden and vio- 
lent, — like a fire blazing forth: cp. 
Aesch. Pers. 353 ty&v p^v, « S&nroiva, 
rod vavrbs kclkov \ (pa vets aXdorup rj *a- 
k6s Sal/Jiwv icodtv. — For this third clause, 
reiterating the sense of the first (<&s tcu5- 
ttjs iroOcp k.t.X.), see on Ant. 465 — 468. 

434 f. diroo-nJTtt : cp. El. 912 rrjoS 1 
diroffTTJvaL oriyqi : Thuc. 7. 28 otootjj- 
vou ix 2tifcX/aj. Here a prose-writer 
would have said rather /unurHfrto. — vo- 
<rovvTi Xijpctv: the dat. is bold, but does 
not warrant suspicion ; it follows the an- 
alogy, partly of 8iaX4yco0ai run, but 
more especially of ipiXoveucew run (Plat. 
Legg. 731 a), ffTOffi&frw rufl (id. Rep. 
556 e) : the notion is, 'to hold a silly 
controversy with a madman.' Cp. the 
schol., ov yap (piXoveacfyroj jrpbs avrbv. 
(For other examples of bold datives, cp. 
Ant. 1232 n.) 

430 £ irpos art tov . . . Aids : O. C. 
250 n. — vctiros: the tirf/ioro* irayos of 
Oeta (1191), as conceived in this play, is 
well-wooded (1195 f.). It was sacred to 
Zeus (200 n.). In an oracle of the Clarian 
Apollo, ap. Euseb. Praep. Ev. 5. 214, it 
symbolises the blest place which is reached 
by the rugged path of virtue: forty h 



Tprjxtvos aty ktjitos 'H/xx/cX^tos, | irdvT* 
?XW fldXXoiTa, irafft dpevSfieros iravrj- 
fxa56v, I odd* dXtfovrcu, pipptOe 5' vd&reow 
dtrjv€K4s. — KarairrpdirTovTos : cp. Ph. 729 
BeUfi irvpl irafuparjs, Ofras vvip 6\Buiv (n.). 

{kkX^qs Xovov, 'steal the story 
away,' t.e. t 'keep back from me that 
which ought to be told.' Cp. Plat. Rep. 
449 C 8oK€is...€t6os SXov ov rb iXaxurrov 
iKKXiwrew rod X6yov, tva /m)) 5i€X6ys: 
'you seem to be cheating us out of a 
whole chapter which is a very important 
N part of the story' (Jowett). — Not, ' falsify 
your story.' — Distinguish the use of ix- 
icXtirreiv as = i£avaTa* in Ph. 55. 

438 ft Deianeira argues : — (1) 438 
— 448 : he need not fear that she will 
feel rancour against Heracles or Iole: 
(2) 449 — 454: falsehood would be dis- 
graceful for him, — and, if his motive were 
kind, useless : (3) 455 f. : detection would 
be certain: (4) 457 fF.: he need not be 
afraid of paining her. (5) In w. 461 — 
467 she returns to the first topic. 

Koxxj, here opp. to XPW^V : one who 
is capable of rancour. (Not, ' cowardly.') 
— TdvOpofarov : human nature generally; 
not TcwSp&p : the latter would be at once 
less delicate and less pathetic. — irtyviccv : 
Nauck's irt^vKao*' is neither better nor 
worse than the vulgate. If ire^tkcw' had 



70 



Z0<t>0KAE0YZ 



Epcon p*4v vw ootis avravioraTai 
7rvKT7js 07T(os €s ^€t/oas, ov /caXoJ? fypovti* 
ovros ya/o a/>x €l Ka * 0€(5i> 07T6>s dikei, 
KOLfiov ye" 7T(3s 8' ov varcpas otas y' ifMOv; 

COOT €1 Tt T(0[JL<p T OLVOpi TQO€ TJ) VO<T<p 

rj t^Sc ry yvvauci, rj) /xeratTta 

toO p/rjheu aicrypov fnyS* €fiol /ca/cov twos. 

OVK €OT(, Tal)T , • aXX' €1 /A€l> €K K€lVOV fXdOtoV 

i/rcvSei, [idffrio'iv ov KaXrjv itcfiavOdveis* 
€i o avros avrov 6>0€ 7ratocvcts, orai> 
dikys yevicrdai yprfOTOS, 6</>0TJo'eL /caxos. 
aXX* €t7T€ 7rai/ rakrjdes* oJs iXevdepco 
i/rcvSci /caXcior^at kt)/o TrpotrtcrTiv ov Kakrj. 
oircos 8c X^crcts, ovSc rovro yiywai* 



445 



450 



455 



1 /&& i»w] /*«> j>0v L, with an erasure of two letters before w. Stobaeus, who 
quotes w. 441 — 443, has yukv yow (F/or. 63. 24, p. 388). 444 Wunder and Nauck 
bracket this v. — kcL/jlou ye' irwj 5' ov] Kafxov ye* nw5' oiJ* L. — xbripo-s ctfas 7' iftov] 
Blaydes writes x^P** y 1 °*«* ^M™. **°" This v. was omitted by the first 

hand in L, and added in the margin by S. Cp. 536. — rctyty r' dvdpiL] tuh/aw rdvdpl 



been traditional, doubtless some one 
would have conjectured vtyvicev. — \aC- 
pciv . . . tois avrots, to delight in the 
same things : fierapoX)) vdvriav yXvicti. — 
Wunder and others understand: *joy is 
not always given by nature to the same 
persons.' 

441 f. "Ep«m [Uv vw, like 0. T. 31 
$€oi<n fUv vw : so in Ionic prose, as Her. 

1. 145 ovtos fiev vw ravra brpyrffe. — 
vravCcrTaTai : like the athlete who rises, 
when called by the herald, and presents 
himself for the contest: Her. 8. 59 iv 
rotffi dyCjcn ol vpoe^avurrdfievoi (i.e. , before 
they are thus summoned) /tairlfoprou. So 
Plut. SulL 7 (with ref. to a contest for 
the consulship) avravlcraro 6' avr$ Ma- 
pios. — is \etpas, with dm-avlffrarcu : a 
terse way of saying, 'so as to come to 
close quarters': 0. C. 835 rdx* els /9a- 

aavov el x € P& y ( n «) 5 #• 975 & X&P** f\ m 
0ov. Plut. Thes, 5 dyx^fMxoi Kal fJLdXurra 
6)1 vdvTwv els x e *P as udeiadai (to push 
forward to close quarters) rots ivavrlots 
fxefxaOrjKdres. 

iHhctt)s 5ir«s. No one can parry the 
adroit and rapid blows of Eros. His 
antagonist fares like the barbarian op- 
posed to the skilled pugilist (Dem. or. 4 
§ 40), — 6 wkriyels del ttjs T\rnr\s ^xercu, 



k&v eWiptaae iraTa£|/$, iiceicre' eltriv al x&p**' 
TrpopoKXecrdai 6 1 ij p\4ireiv ivavrlov otir* 
oldev oHt > i04\ei. Schneidewin cp. Ana- 
creon fr. 63. 3 ore^opov* fret/cov, <bs 8ij | 
irpdj "Epon-o irwcTaMfw: but the resem- 
blance is only verbal; the reveller does 
not wish to resist Love, but to make trial 
of his might. 

ov KaXttS <(>povci: cp. Eur. fr. 271 
"Epurra 5' 6<rrts fiij Bebv Kplvei fUyav \ koX 
tQv dvdvrcjv SaifUvtov xnre'pTaTOV, \ j\ 
CTKaids 6<mv, rj koKQv dveipos <2t> | ouk otde 
rbv n&yiffrov dvdpdnrois 6eov, 

448 dpx <l KC ^ fa&v: so of KijirpiSy 
fr. 856. 13 rlv' ov vdXalovff 1 es rpls ejc/3d\- 
Xei 0eQv; id, 15 Aids rvpavve? vKevfidvcjv. 

444 Kd|iov yt: instead of saying koX 
pporcav, she touchingly refers to her own 
experience : she, certainly, (ye,) can attest 
the Love-god's power. — irws 8' ov clearly 
goes with what follows; it would be weak 
as a parenthesis (irws 5' otf;).— otqis y* 
tysov, by assimilation to trtpas, instead 
of old 7' eV$ : Thuc. 7. 21 vpbs &v6pas 
To\firjpovs otovs kclI 'Adrjvcdovs. The ye 
means, *a poor mortal like myself.' It 
should not be transposed and placed 
after xdr^pas (* and another too*). 

Wunder and Nauck reject this beauti- 
ful verse, because : (1) by kcl/mov ye Deia- 



TPAXINIAI 



7i 



They are not wise, then, who stand forth to buffet against Love; 
for Love rules the gods as he will, and me; and why not another 
woman, such as I am ? So I am mad indeed, if I blame my 
husband, because that distemper hath seized him ; or this woman, 
his partner in a thing which is no shame to them, and no wrong 
to me. Impossible ! No ; if he taught thee to speak falsely, 
'tis not a noble lesson that thou art learning ; or if thou art thine 
own teacher in this, thou wilt be found cruel when it is thy wish 
to prove kind. Nay, tell me the whole truth. To a free-born 
man, the name of liar cleaves as a deadly brand. If thy hope is 

to escape detection, that, too, is vain ; 

L. For r', Schaefer conj. 7': Blaydes writes jcefry tov dpi. 447 furatrlq,] 

fier 9 alrtai L, with w written over the second a by a late hand, fxerairiy r. 
448 ifioi] ifxou K. 440 oMen (not ofaevri) L. 461 avrbv A, Aid. : 

afrrov L. 468 ira? TakrjBds] tt&vt' dXqOitr L. 466 Xrjaeis A : Xij<ri7<r L. 



neira implies that she is stronger than 
the gods ; and also that she has been un- 
true to her husband: (2) she cannot as- 
sume that Iole returns the passion of He- 
racles ; nor does Iole's feeling come into 
account here. 

446 £ Ttojup t dvSpl : for re irregu- 
larly followed by yf (44.7), cp. Plat. Ion 
535 D fls ap...jc\a% t' ev ducrlcus Kaliop- 
tcus, (XT)5kv diroXuXeKws to&tcjv, rj <po(3r}' 
tcu. — tjjSc tq v6<np, the violent passion 
of love: cp. 544: this was prob. the 
sense in fir. 615 (from the Phaedra), vo- 
aovs 5' dvayKT) tAs dc^Xdrous (ptpeiv. But 
in 491 the meaning is different. — pcp/ir- 
tos: for the active sense, cp. 0. T. 
969 n. 

447 £ tov |Mf|8fev aUrxpov, that which 
is in no way of a shameful kind (generic 
/Mr)) : cp. Ant. 494 r&v wtev dpOQs . . . 
T€xv(tifi4vtav : Ph, 409 nrfikv SIkcuov (n.). — 
|Mf|o 4|M>1 kcucov Ttvos. As we could say, 
rb fit] i/J<ol KaKov n ('what is not any ill 
to me'), so here it seems simplest to 
carry on the tov : though it is not neces- 
sary to do so. 

This is a remarkable passage, and it is 
of some moment to understand it rightly. 
The meaning is not merely that Iole's 
relation to Heracles was excused by the 
omnipotence of Eros. Concubinage (iraX- 
XclkLcl) was not merely tolerated by 
Athenian opinion, but, in some measure, 
protected bylaw (see e.g., Lys. or. 1 § 31 : 
Isae. or. 8 § 39). Its relation to the life 
of the family is illustrated by the Andro- 
mache of Euripides; for though Andro- 
mache is Trojan, and Hermione Spartan, 
the sentiments are Athenian. A wife 



(yafxerfi yvrfj) who tolerates a vaWaicff 
is there represented as proving her good- 
ness of heart (dpeHj, 226), and her wise 
moderation (938 — 942); she ought to be 
consoled by her higher place, and by the 
advantage which her children will have 
over the vbOw.. 

But is Deianeira in earnest here ; or is 
she feigning acquiescence, to reassure 
Lichas? Presently she tells the Chorus 
that she cannot endure to share her home 
with Iole (539 — 546). Probably Sopho- 
cles meant her to be sincere in both 
C laces. The faith in her own power to 
ear the trial is natural at this moment of 
excitement and suspense. Not less so is 
the reaction, when she knows the worst, 
and has had time to think. 

448 £ ovk fori ravT** dXX* k.t.X. : 
i.e., 'it is impossible that I should have 
bitter feelings towards Heracles or Iole 
(and so the danger which you may fear is 
imaginary); but you, on the other hand, 
if you are withholding the truth, are doing 
wrong.' — )ia0^v...4k|uivOc£vcis: cp. 3361; 

461 £ avroV = aeavrdv : O. C. 929 
a&rxtfms it6\ip | rJjv ai/rds avrov. — Stov 
6&ns jc.r.X. : the form is general, but the 
reference is to this particular case : when 
you wish to prove kind (by sparing pain), 
you will be found the reverse (cp. 458). 
— For d*^0if<rci, cp. Ant. 700. 

464 iai)p, a deadly thing (Ph. 42, 
1166) : irpoo'OTTiv, said of a quality or a 
repute which attaches to a man: At. 1079 
teos y&p <p irpbatarw al<rx^ u V & fywD: cp. 
id. 521. 

466 Situs & Xijofts k.t.X.: and as 
for the hope of your escaping detection, 



72 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



7toXXoI yap ofs et/OTj/ca?, ot <f>pdo m ov<r e/xot. 
/cci /uici> 8c8ot/cas, ov /caXaJ? rap/Sets, iirel 
to fill) Trvdia'dai, tovto ll dXyvveiev dv 
to o €iO€*>ai tc 0€u/oi>; ov^t x aT€ /° as 
7rXcco"Tas a^p els 'H/oa/cX-iJs eyrjLie 8t] ; 
kov7t<s) tis avTciv €K y ifiov \6yov KOLKOV 

9 / 9 )M * Ci Vfc 9 9&9 * » 

rjveyKCLT ovo ovetoos' r)0€ r ovo av ei 
Koipr evraKelr) Tfi> faXelv, iirei cr<f>' eyco 
a>KTt,pa Si) /xaXtcrra irpoafiXfyao'', oti 
to /caXXos avT^s tov j8ioi> StcoXcorci/, 
/cal yiji/ irarpqiav ov-% eKovcra SvcrLiopos 

€7T€pcr€ Kd8ov\a)CT€V. dKXd TCLVTa LL€V 

peiTO) kclt ovpov col 8* eyco (frpd^co KOLKOV 
7rpos aKKov etvat, npos o €ll axjjevoetv aet. 
XO. *7ndov Xeyovcrjj ^prjcrTa, kov /xe/xi//€t XP° V V 
yvvaiia tjJSc, /ca7r* cjllov KTirjaet )(dpiv. 



460 



465 



470 



467 Kel] k* el L. 460 cu^p els] Schol. tw^j avdf5/)ous trapOivovs : i.e., 

a z>. /. was avrjpeis, explained as 'husbandless ones,' = irapdtvovs. Bergk strangely 
approves this, citing Etym. M. avypets, avavtipovs, 1) XVP * % irapdfrovs, wj £i<prjp€is. 
Aesch. fr. 214 used avypris as^dvdp&drjs (Hesych.). 468 ivraKetrj MSS. Subkoff 

says : * Punctum super v positum in L': but the supposed dot is the smooth breathing 
of e, as in the case of bTtdippuavrai (368 cr. n.). Tournier and Blaydes conj. iicraKebi. 



not even that comes to pass (as a result of 
reticence). Cp. O. T. 1058 ovk av ytvovro 
Tod$* f or cut... ] ...ov <pavQ tovjxov y4vos. 
Instead of saying, ov6* ad tovto yiyverat, 
6iru)s Arrets, the speaker puts 6ir«»s 84 
Xijc-cis first, to mark the fresh hypothesis. 

467 £ S$oucas...rapPcfe: for the sub- 
stituted synonym, cp. 347 f.: 0. T. 54 
dXX' etrrep a/>£eis Tijade 717s, wrircp Kpareh 
(n.). — toOto, emphatic: cp. PA. 912 n. 

460 irXcCoTas dVijp cts: cp. 0. C. 
563 n. — ivrjfM does not necessarily denote 
wedlock: Eur. Tro. 44 (of Cassandra) 
ya/xei piaUos ffKdriov 'Ayafiifivcav \i\os. — 
Sij=iJ5?7: O.T. g6Sn. 

The legendary loves of Heracles were 
as numerous as the local myths which 
claimed Heracleid descent for clans or 
houses. Thus his bride Megara connected 
him with Thebes; Astydameia, with 
Thessalv ; Astyoche, with Epeirus ; 
Epicaste, with Elis; Parthenope, with 
Arcadia; Chalciope, with Cos; the Thes- 
piades, with Sardinia; and so forth. The 
number of his sons finally grew to about 
seventy, whose mothers are enumerated 
by Apollodorus. (2. 7. 8). 



462 £ ^vfyKar': so Plat. Legg* 762 A 
(quoted by Campbell) reus p&v dwireicus 
virelKovTes 6vd5rj QeptvduxTav h vday t$ 
7r6Xei: *>., 'have reproaches for their re- 
ward.' (For the normal use, cp. Phaedr. 
245 B <p€p4a0uf ra viKrj-Hfpia.) The irony 
of (ptpeadai dveldrj is less open than in 
such phrases as irkvQt\ KaprovaOai or 
ddxpva Kcpdalveiv: we might rather com- 
pare our own phrase, 'to come ^"second- 
best' (instead of victorious'). 

rj8f Ti, ov8* c1...4vtcuccCt), (A^yjccut') &v 
{Sveidos). For the ellipse of the optat, 
cp. El. 364 Trji <rrjs 5' ouk ep£> Tifirjs tv- 
Xe:v, I ovr dv <rv, <ruxf>pwv 7' ou<ro (sc. 
ipfas): Ph. 115 n. Though ow8* ('not 
even') goes closely with cl, yet av is 
placed between them: cp. O. C. 272 ovd' 
av <55' eyiyvofirfv ica/cos. 

IvTaKcCt) T<j> <|>iXciv ; the subject to the 
verb is surely Iole. To make Heracles 
the subject is not impossible (Greek 
could be bold in such transitions), — 
but it would be excessively harsh. Deia- 
neira has already implied that she be- 
lieved Iole to be enamoured of Heracles 
(444). Such a belief would mitigate, 



TPAXINIAI 



73 



there are many to whom thou hast spoken, who will tell me. 

And if thou art afraid, thy fear is mistaken. Not to learn 
the truth, — that, indeed, would pain me ; but to know it — what 
is there terrible in that ? Hath not Heracles wedded others ere- 
now, — ay, more than living man, — and no one of them hath had 
harsh word or taunt from me; nor shall this girl, though her 
whole being should be absorbed in her passion ; for indeed I felt 
a profound pity when I beheld her, because her beauty hath 
wrecked her life, and she, hapless one, all innocent, hath brought 
her fatherland to ruin and to bondage. 

Well, those things must go with wind and stream. — To thee 
I say, — deceive whom thou wilt, but ever speak the truth to me. 

Ch. Hearken to her good counsel, and hereafter thou shalt 
have no cause to complain of this lady ; our thanks, too, will be 
thine. 

— T<p <piXeiv] Before ry, to has been erased in L. 464 (pKTipa] iSiKreipai L. 

468 fid™ mss. Subkoff says: * /klrcj prima littera puncto notata in L': but this 
'dot' is the rough breathing on j>, Nauck reads trw (as Blaydes also conjectures), 
thinking that /Wtw arose from a mis-spelling, EITft. 470 iriSov Dindorf : ireldov 

mss. — Xeyovarji made from X4yov<ri in L. 471 rjde, #coir'] In L there has been an 
erasure at e, and k' has been added by S. 



rather than increase, the wife's pain. The 
opposite supposition would be still more 
humiliating; for it would imply more per- 
sistent ardour on the part of Heracles. 
And it is pathetically natural that Deia- 
neira should assume Iole's passion as a 
matter of course. 

tvTOKtlr] admits of two explanations : I 
prefer the first, (i) * Though she be 
utterly absorbed in her love': lit., melted 
into it, — with her whole soul irrevocably 
steeped in it. The metaphor is from 
pouring molten wax or metal into a 
mould, to which it cleaves. Extant 
examples of evHjKeffBou show only the 
converse way of speaking, as if here we 
had to (piXeiv ivroKclrj avry: EL 131 1 
fiiaos re ykp vaXatav €vt4ttik4 fioi : fr. 
856. 7 eVnJjcercu yb.p (fyw) v\evfi6v<av 
6<rois kvi I ^vxf)» But cp. Ant. 131 1 <nry- 
K^Kpafxai dvq.: Eur. Suppl. 1029 yafitras \ 
...vwrrrixOels dXoxv ('husband made one 
with wife'): Plut. Mor. p. 342 C reus 
eXiriffiv T]5r)...€/xir€<pvKU}s ('absorbed in* 
his hopes). (2) The other possible sense 
is, 'be melted,' 'languish/ with love ; t£ 
4>iXciv being then instrum. dat. This is, 
however, a weaker meaning, and less 
appropriate. For : (a) it would imply an 
unsatisfied longing; and (b) Deianeira's 
thought is rather this: — 'I will not be 
harsh to her, even though she be resolved 
never to renounce his love.' 



The conject. iKTeuccfri is no improve- 
ment: it would mean 'waste away': Eur. 
Or, 860 e^eT-rjKOfMfjv 7601s. In Lycophron 
498 {dp^pourtp) itcraKeiffa is a v. /. for ev- 
TaK€i<ra. 

464 <pKTipa: for the spelling, cp. 
0. T. i3n. 8iJ here emphasises the whole 
phrase y/cTtpa.../idWra: we cannot hold 
(with Blaydes) that fy /«£\i<rra is for /«£- 
Xiora 5iJ, any more than that drj iroAV 
(153) is for iroXXd 5^. 

468 t. falra kclt' ovpov, go down the 
stream before the wind. Nothing is gained 
by changing /fefrw to tr» (Aesch. Theb, 
690 f. fata Kwr* ofipop . . . I . . . tS.p r6 
Aatov yfros). For ovpov, c p. 815. She 
means, 'it is idle to dwell upon what 
cannot be undone.' — kokoV = Hmorov, 
\f/evdrj (347). — irpos dXXov jc.t.X.: i.e., 'if 
thou must use deceit, use it towards any- 
one rather than me': cp. Ph. 11 19 <m/- 
yepbir #x c I S^avorfiop dpay iw' AXXois (n.). 
The parataxis makes the precept kclkov | 
irpos &Wov ctvai absolute in form, 
though it is only relative in sense: cp. 
383 f. : Isocr. or. 6 § 54 itwj ofa al- 

GXpbv % ...Tty fl&P ^ptSfTTIJP ...fltffT+IP 

vevoirfK^vat Tpoiral(ap,...inrkp te tt)s 
TraTpLdos.../xr)fe /dew n&xnp <fxdye<r$cu pc- 

fjaXV/^ov* i 

470 £ inOov XryoiSo-Q : cp. El. 1 207 
ttiOov XiyovTi, Koirx, buaprfiaei tori. The 
aor. imper. = 'obey her,' — 'do the thing 



74 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



AI. aXX', <3 <f)i\r) hio'Troiv, iireC <re fiavdavo} 
dvqrfjv <f>povov<rav dvrjTa kovk ayvtojxova, 
ttolv col (fypdcra) rd\r)0es ovSe Kpifyofjiai. 
ioTiv ydp ovras a>crirep ovtos hn/iiru. 475 

TOUTrjS 6 §611/09 tjLL€/0OS 7TO0* 'H/Da/cXty 

8irj\0€ f kclI rrjah* ovve)£ rj iro\v<j>0opos 

Kadfipedrj Trarp&os OiyaXia ho pi 

kclI ravra, Sec yap /cat to 7r/)os kcIvov Xeycw/, 

OVT CMfC KpVTTTZlV OVT dm\pV7\dT\ 7TOt4 } 480 

aXX' avros, <o Becrirowa, Zeifiaivmv to gov 

[irj (rripvov dkyvvoifii toutSc tocs Xoyots, 

rjfiapTov, €t Ti TipS* apLapriav *>€/z€i9. 

iirel ye pfa/ 8rq Tram' 9 hricrTaxrai \oyov, 

KeCvov T€ /ecu ot)i> i£ Itrov koivtjv ^(dpiv 485 

Kal arepye ttjv yvvaXica Kal /3ov\ov Xoyovs 

ous etnas is Trjvft ifiire8a>s elprfKevai. 

ok Ta\\ 9 €/c€ti/os Tram' 9 dpioTevav vcooci/ 

tov T^oro epcoTos €is atravu TJCCTtaV €(j>V. 

472 (re fiavBdvu)] <r' iKfiavdawu T. 478 dv^rd /covic aTvcfytoi'a] Ovip-a' k'oOk 

dyvdifiova' L, with gl. davverov over the last word. 476 £ 'Hpa/cX^ A, and 

Aid. : ijpaKXei L. — SiiJXflc mss. : Nauck conj. 'HpaicXet — elo-rjXde, and so Blaydes 



which she urges': while irctOov would 
mean rather, *be persuaded': cp. O. C, 
1181 n. Here the context seems slightly 
in favour of inOou, though the pres. is 
also quite admissible. — ywaiKl tjjSc: 
this simple dat. of the pers. with fxifxepo- 
fiai, though not very rare, is less frequent 
than either (1) /xtfjapofxaL tip a, El. 383 f., 
or (2) fUfupofxcU tlvI TV. 

472 f. dXV, «Nav, then': Ph. 524 — 
Ovtjnfjv $povov<rav wijTd: Eur. fr. 796 
wairep St Bvnyrbv koX rb cOtyH i\p.Q>v t<pv, \ 
oflrw vpoa'/jKei fiyfe rty bpyty e^etv | add- 
varov, Sorts crwppoveiv ivlffrarat. Arist. 
RheU 2. 21 § 6 quotes from an unknown 
poet, dBdvarov dpyfy /x^ (ptiXacrae Svrp-ds 
(Sv : also (perh. from Epicharmus, as 
Bentley thought), Bvard XP*I "&* Ovarbv, 
ovk dddvara rbv dvarbv <f>poveiv. Cp. Eth. 
Nic. 10. 7 § 8 otf xph ^ /card rods irapai- 
vovptcls dvOpt&iriva cppoveiv &v $ pa- 
ir ov 6vra o^Se dvt\rb. rbv 0prfr6v f d\X' 
£<f>' 6<rov hoixerai. ddavaTlfav. — aYV«o- 
|iova seems best taken as ace. neut. plur. 
It is true that dyv&fxuv is usu. said of 
persons: but (a) analogous compounds 



are often neut., as At. 1236 /ceV/wyas... 
{nrfy<f>pova, Aesch. Cho. 88 vm eti<ppov' 
d-iru ; and (b) in later Greek, at least, 
we find (e.g.) Lucian Abdic. 24 dyvw/xov 
iroicis : Diod. 1 3. 23 oi) yap owarbv. . . 
irpdt-cwTas Seivd vaBetv e&yvufxova (to re- 
ceive considerate treatment). If avvw- 
uova were ace. fern, sing., ofoav could 
be understood. For dyvibpuav, * incon- 
siderate,' 'not making fair allowance,' 
cp. 0. C. 86 n.: and below, 1266. 

474 Kp<tyo|Uu : midd., ( keep my 
knowledge to myself': but it is not prac- 
tically different from Kp6\f/ta here. A 
midd. force is better marked in At. 647 
<p\j€L r' &drj\a Kal <f>avivra KpOtrrerai (hides 
in itself), and id. 246 Kdpa...Kpv*pdp.cvov. 
The only other examples of the simple 
midd. icptiirrofjuu are late, though the 
midd. diro/cptfrro/MU and iTciKp&irrofiai 
were frequent. 

476 ioTiv ydp oCr»s: this is not the 
ydp which merely prefaces a statement 
(O. T. 1*1*1 n ') : rather it refers to v. 474: 
'the truthj—ybr it has still to be told by 
me.' 



TPAXINIAI 



75 



Li. Nay, then, dear mistress, — since I see that thou thinkest 
as mortals should think, and canst allow for weakness, — I will 
tell thee the whole truth, and hide it not Yes, it is even as yon 
man saith. This girl inspired that overmastering love which 
long ago smote through the soul of Heracles ; for this girl's sake 
the desolate Oechalia, her home, was made the prey of his spear. 
And he, — it is but just to him to say so, — never denied this, — 
never told me to conceal it. But I, lady, fearing to wound thy 
heart by such tidings, have sinned, — if thou count this in any 
sort a sin. 

Now, however, that thou knowest the whole story, for both 
your sakes, — for his, and not less for thine own, — bear with the 
woman, and be content that the words which thou hast spoken 
regarding her should bind thee still. For he, whose strength is 
victorious in all else, hath been utterly vanquished by his passion 
for this girl. 



reads. — otivcx' MSS. : etvcx' Nauck. 478 6opl MSS. : 66pet Dindorf. 484 ivet 
ye ftev 5rj] Blaydes writes airewr' facts 6fy 485 xty*- v made from x&PW m L. 

487 ifiire'5(o$ MSS. : ifxirtdovs Nauck. 488 f. Dindorf suspects these two vv. : 

Bergk would place them after 478. 



476 ft ravnp 6 Sfivds fpcpos : the 

article is explained by the preceding 
verse: — 'It is as he says: she inspired 
that strong passion (of which he has 
spoken, 431 f.).' This is a compressed 
way of making two admissions, — Move 
was the real motive, and she was the 
object of that love.' — Some commenta- 
tors hold that 6 Scivds here means sim- 
ply, '•very' (or l mast i ) * potent.' The 
evidence for this supposed use of the 
article is examined in the Appendix. 

WO0': referring to a time before the 
death of Iphitus : cp. 359. — SujXOc : cp. 
Eur. SuppL 288 KapJk yap tiTjXek rt ('a 
pang shot through my heart also'). — 
«rij<ro' after ravnjs : Ant. 296 n. — 4[ iro- 
Xv^6opos: the adj., though proleptic, 
takes the art. : cp. O. C. 1088 rto etfa- 
ypov reXetwcrcu \&xov (n.). — irarp$os: a 
somewhat rare fem., used either (1) for 
metre's sake, as here, and Eur. SuppL 
1 146 Mica I irarpyos: or (2) for euphony, 
as Aesch. Ag. 210 irarpyovs x^pa** Eur. 
Her. 810 Tt/JLds irar/x^ovs. Cp. 533 : 
0. C. 751 n. 

470 Kal t6 irpds kcCvov, what is 
on his side (in his favour) too : O. T. 
1434 irpds <rov ydp oW ifiov (ppdcrw 
(n.). 

488 ct n njv8* dpapr., instead of et 



ti t6S j afi&pr. : O. C. 88 rairn\v (instead 
of toDt') £Xe£« iravXav, n. — Wfms=vo/if- 
fcts, O. C. 879 n. 

484 f. *y€ pcv St) : as El. 1243 Spa ye 
pJkv dij k.t.X. Blaydes remarks that 
these particles do not elsewhere follow 
km\, and therefore alters the text (cr. n.). 
But their combination with iird here is 
quite correct: * since, however \ you do 
know all,' etc. Just so they follow a 
participle in Eur. Helen. 1259 616 o&$ ye 
pjkv Sij (i.e., when you do give anything) 
dvo-yevls firjdh 6l6ov. — kcCvov tc Kal o-qv 
k.t.X.: Eur. Ph. 762 trod re Hjv r' ifirjv 
Xdpiv. 

486 f. vripye: cp. Eur. Andr. 213, 
where Andromache is giving Hermione 
the same kind of advice ; — xpb yty y v " 
vatica, Kotv kclk<£ vbaei So6y t \ {rripyetv, 
a/uWav t' otf/c faetp (ppov^/xaTOS. — Xtfyovs 
oOs ctiras Is njv8', alluding to the assur- 
ance given in 462 ff. : for Is, ' with regard 
to,' cp. Ph. 1053. The reference is not 
to Deianeira's reception of Iole in 3 10 — 
334. — IpirlSas, unalterably, — i. e. y so 
that the promise shall be kept: cp. 827: 
Ph. 1 197 UfBl t6V ifiiredov. The conjec- 
ture Ipirffiovs is plausible, but not neces- 
sary. 

488 f. Either rtfXX' or \9polW ought 
logically to be absent. 



7 6 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



AH. aXX' co§€ /cat <f>povov/jL€v coarc rat/ra 8pav 9 490 

KovTOi v6(rov y hraKTOv ifjapov/JLtda, 
deolai Svcfia^ovKrc?. aXX* etaco crreyrfs 
^(opcj/xev, (os \6y<ov r €7rtoToXds ^c/j^s, 
a t* aWt Scopcov 8oipa XPV TrpocrapiMocrai, 
/cat ravr aygs' Kevov yap ov 8t/cata a*€ 495 

^(opeiv, Trpocrtkdovff coSc gtvj> 7roXX<S otoXgj. 

o-rp. XO. jLteya ri crOivos a Kvirpis itctfyepercu i/t/cas act. 

2 /cat ra ju,cj> 0ec3i/ 

3 TrapefSaVy /cat circus 'Kpovlhav dirdTao'ev ov Xeya), 500 

4 OUO€ TOI> €VV\T)(OV "klhaV, 

5 ^ Iloo'ctSacuz'a TivaKTopa yaCas' 



401 p&roj' 7' ivaicTov r : j^Sco? ivcucrbv L (cp. 424). Nauck writes vb<n\p? iiratcrbv. — 
i£apovpeda T, Vat., V 2 : i^aupovfieSa L, A, with most mss., and Aid. 404 a r' 

wri] ar 1 avrt L. 405 /ce^] kcivov L, with 6 written over et by a late hand : 
Kcivbv A and Aid. 497— 6O0 L divides the vv. thus : — fiiya — | Kvrpur — | koX 



4 OO Kal emphasises ^povovjuv (' I do 

think thus'): cp. 314, 600. 

v<5<rov y enuicr6v t£apov|M0a, lit., 
' take up (the burden of) a trouble which 
I should bring upon myself? — viz., the 
anguish of a vain fight against all-con- 
quering "Epws. The schol. rightly ex- 
plains tircucTov by abOaiperov : as does 
the schol. on Eur. Ph. 343 yafuav iiraic- 
rbv &ra». This view is confirmed by the 
presence of y€, meaning, * at any rate I 
shall not add to my own woes.' For a 
parallel use of iirdyeadtu, cp. Lys. or. 4 
§19 iroXi) fielfw <rvfi<t>oph,v ifiavrcp...£Tra- 
yayiaBcu: Dem. or. 19 § 259 aid at per ov 
avTois iirayovTcu 5ov\ttav. For 4£apoi>- 
ficOa cp. Od. 10. 84 2v6a k dvtrvos dv)]p 
doiovs i^paro fxtcrdovs ('take up,' i.e., 
'win'). The simple atpo/xai is often so 
used, with ref. either to 'winning' a 
prize, or 'taking up' a burden (0. T. 
1225 apeiffde irivBos, Ant, 907 r\pbyci\v 
irbvov). This aXpopuu can be replaced by 
the rarer i£alpotMt just as cptpofxai, in a 
like sense (462 n.), by the rarer iic<f>tpo- 
fxai : EL 60 KaJ-€v£yKwp.cu jcX&s. 

Others understand: — (1) 'I shall not 
heighten the trouble already brought upon 
me by others' (viz., the introduction of 
Iole into the house, 376). But this sense 
for 4$apovpc6a is strange : and yc is then 
weak; hence Nauck reads v6onr||Jt\ (2) 
• I shall not try to shift that trouble from 



myself \ i.e., 'I shall not try to put away 
the grief of these tidings by vain com- 
plaints against the gods.' This last ver- 
sion seems impossible. 

Ocofcri 8v<r|U&xovvTCS : Ant. 11060^7- 
*ctf 5' oirxl bvo'fiaxnr^ov. The compound 
means, 'to wage an up-hill fight : cp. 
bvoroKetVj dvedavaretv. For the masc. 
plur., used by a woman with ref. to her- 
self, cp. El. 399, Eur. Hec. 511. 

408 \6y<av r': the elision gives a 
quasi-caesura : cp. Ph. 101 n. — \6ynv 
. . .tirurroXcta = ' mandates consisting m 
words' (defining gen.), i.e. t her (verbal) 
messages to Heracles, as distinguished 
from the 6&pa. Sophocles, like Aesch., 
uses ^itwtoXiJ only in the general sense 
of 'mandate' {O. C. 160 1, Ai. 781): Eur. 
uses it also with ref. to a written letter 
(/. A. in etc.). 

404 ft. irpo<raf>|i6<rcu, lit., 'adjust'; 
i.e. t 'give in fitting recompense.' But 
Deianeira's choice of the word has been 
influenced by her secret thought, — already 
turned towards the philtre which she 
would apply to Heracles : cp. 687 tws vtv 
aprlxpHTTov apfxtxraifjl irov. And at the 
same time the word is unconsciously omi- 
nous (cp. 767 irpwntT6<r<reTcu). 

This is the first mention of the fateful 
gift. An unobtrusive significance is 
given to it by two traits of expression. 
(1) 6&pa is drawn into the relative clause 



TPAXINIAI 



77 



De. Indeed, mine own thoughts move me to act thus. 
Trust me, I will not add a new affliction to my burdens by 
waging a fruitless fight against the gods. — 

But let us go into the house, that thou mayest receive my 
messages ; and, since gifts should be meetly recompensed with 
gifts, — that thou mayest take these also. It is not right that 
thou shouldest go back with empty hands, after coming with 
such a goodly train. 

Ch. Great and mighty is the victory which the Cyprian Strophe, 
queen ever bears away. I stay not now to speak of the gods ; 
I spare to tell how she beguiled the son of Cronus, and Hades, 
the lord of darkness, or Poseidon, shaker of the earth. 

ra fikv — I iraptfiav — | Kpovlbav — | ovbe rbv — | t\ — | dXX' iirl — | dfuptyvoi — | ira/A- 
vXrjicra — i | %rj\6ov — dywvwv. 601 "AiScw] dtdav L. 602 Iloacibdwa r : 

TroaeidQva L. 



(0. C. 907 n.), and resumed, with a light 
emphasis, in ko.1 tout': cp. Ph. 1247 & 7' 
IXa/Ses jSouXcus ifuus, \ irdXiv fxedeivai tclv- 
to. (2) A pause follows the second foot 
of the verse (0717s). Cp. 27 n. 

&yn$ is not meant to be in contrast 
with 4^PT1S (493) : it is here a mere syno- 
nym for it (cp. 457). <p4peiv is used with 
ref. to the robe in 602, 622, 758, 774. 
Cp. 0. C. 354 pavreV ayowra iravTa 
{ — (f>ipovaa). On the other hand in 183 
dyovr' dirapxas, and 751 ay up rpoiraio 
jt.r.X., an attendant train is implied. — 
Sticcua: cp. 409. — (58c is explained by 
<n)v ir. <rr6X<j) : it should not be taken 
with iroXXy, nor as = bevpo (0. T. 7). 

407 — 68O First ffraaifiov. Strophe 
(497 — 506) = antistrophe (507 — 516) : 
epode 517 — 530. For the metres see 
Metrical Analysis. 

In the scene which has just ended, 
testimony has been borne to the omni- 
potence of Love (441 if.). The Tra- 
chinian maidens set out from this theme. 
Thence they pass to another, which the 
same scene might well suggest. Deia- 
neira, the much-tried wife, has now a 
rival in the affections of her lord. The 
Chorus recall a far-off day, when, in her 
youthful beauty, she was the prize for 
whom Heracles strove with Acheloiis. 

407 |x£ya Tt <r0cvos • . . vtocas=M€7a- 
<r$evij nva pIktjv : the victory which she 
carries off is the glorious proof of her 
might. Cp. 0. C. 1088 cBkvei 'rmiceUp. — 
iK^pcrai : see on 491. — Others explain: 
(1) * carries a great strength out of vic- 



tory' — i.e., wins with much to spare: 
(2) * advances in mighty conquering 
force' (cogn. ace). 

408 tt. Oc»v, a monosyll.: cp. 183. — 
iroplfSav: for the aor., cp. Ph. 1289 dirc6- 
fuxr 1 (n.). It is better not to dwell on 
stories which ascribe weakness to the 
gods : Pind. 0. 1. 35 £<rrt 5' dvbpl <f>dfxcv 
1olk6s dfKpl daifxdvuv /caXd : id. 9. 40 eirel 
rb ye Xoiboprjtrai Oeotis \ tx&P& <ro<pla. 

KpovCSav : Zeus is jcot' ii-oxfy so called, 
though his two brothers had the same 
father. Cp. the Homeric hymn to A- 
phrodite (4. 38), koU re rod (Zeus), cfrre 
0Aot, WKivas <j>pevas £i-aira<t>ov<ra, | ^171- 
5lu)s criW/u£e KaraOvrfrjifft ywcuj-tv, | "H- 
frrjs iK\e\a0ov<ra.—ov X£y»: implying reli- 
gious ev<p7]pda : cp. EL 1467 el a ftreort 
v4fie<ris f ov X£yw. 

601 tAv fvwxov * At8av : 0. C. 1559 
ivvvxltav dW£. Cp. //. 15. 187 rpeh ydp 
t' iic Kpbvov elyukv dbeXcpeol, ovs t4kc 
'Pefy, I Zeds kclI iyd>, rplraros 6' 'Attqs 
ivipourtv dvdvvuv. The allusion is to 
Pluto carrying off Persephone. 

602 Iloo-ciSdava, the regular Ho- 
meric form: L, which has vwreidwra here, 
conversely gives vwreibawUf (where IIo- 
<reidwvL(fi is most probable) in O. C. 1494. 
Poseidon was as little true to Amphitrite 
as Zeus to Hera : Propert. 2. 26. 46 Nep' 
tunus fratri par in amore lovi. Thus 
Tyro (the subject of a play by Sophocles) 
bore Pelias and Neleus to the sea-god. 
At Aegina the cult of Poseidon was com- 
bined with that of Aphrodite (Plut. 
Quaest. Gr. 44 : Athen. xin. p. 590 f). 



78 



IO<t>OKAEOYZ 



dvr. 



6 aA.A €7rt rai/o ap aKoiriv 

7 rtres dfi(f>LyvoL Karifiav irpo ydfuov, 505 

8 ru>€s ira/jLirXrjKTa irayKoviTa r i£rj\0ov ae0\* dydbvav ; 

6 fiev rjv 7roTafiov cr0a/os, v^LKepco rerpaopov 

2 (fydcrfAa Tavpov, 

3 'AvcXgJos a7r* Ou>iaSai/ # d §€ Bafc^tas a7ro 510 

4 rj\6e irakivrova ©17)80,9 

5 rd^a Kal \6y)(as ponakov T€ TLvdaaaiv, 

604 rfres a/u^tyvot] rfrej, omitted in the mss., was added by Hermann. — yapcw, 
rives] ydfjiuv rivka L. 506 irayKOvird r' i£r}\$op] Blaydes writes rayicbpiT 1 

iir€£rj\0ov.—FoY 4&)\0ov, Wakefield conj. i^rjvov: Nauck, itfvvaav (with o0X'). 



— TivaKTOpa yaCas = iwoalyaiov, ivwrl- 
xBova : Zfo/w. hymn, 22. 2 70/175 Kivrp-iipa 
Kal drpvyiroto $a\da<rris. 

6O8 ff. 4irl TavS' . . . dhcoinv, to win 
Deianeira as bride (predicate) : for the 
prep., cp. Ph. 591 4*1 tovtov... \ ...tXI- 
ovaiv: Xen. Cyr. 1. 2. 9 dra*... £$%... 
&ri ^pay. — djuj^yuot : the prep, ex- 
presses the idea, 'two'; the second part 
of the compound suggests that of ' stal- 
wart,' * vigorous.' Thus the epithet is of 
the same class as diaroXoi (O. C. 1055), 
said of two persons who are travelling. 
It seems more likely that Sophocles here 
used dfupLyvos with an original boldness, 
than that he was directly thinking of the 
Homeric fryxcfftv d/xcpiyvouriv (II. 13. 
147) : where the adj. has been explained 
as (a) ' having a yviov, a limb (of iron), 
at each end,' — the \6yxn, and the <ravpw- 
ri\p : or (b) ' having a \&yxv curved (71/) 
on both sides': but Leaf ad loc. suggests 
(c) 'bending to either side,' 'elastic.' 
The primary notion of yvtov is, ' a flex- 
ible limb.' 

Other explanations of djuptyvoi here 
are these: — (1) 'With massive limbs,' — 
dfxcpl being intensive. (2) 'Dexterous 
combatants': cp. dfx<pi54£io$. (3) ' Of 
dissimilar forms,' — i.e., man and bull. 

Kar£f3av, in certatnen descenderunt. — 
Xen. An. 4. 8. 27 Jiywlfovro 54 ircudes 
k.t.\....koI koK^i $4a 4y4vero' voWolyap 
KaTtpTjaav. — -nrpi *yd|M»v, 'for it,' i.e., to 
win it ( = \nr4p) : not, ' before it.' In irp6, 
just as in 'for,' the two notions are 
closely linked. Cp. 0. T. 134 irpd rov 
$av6vros (on his behalf): El. 495 vpb 
rwvde (on this account). 

6O6 £ irrf|Mr\T|Kra : schol. vXrryQv 
jxetrrd: cp. 50 vavd&Kpvr'. (It is over- 



refining to explain it as referring to the 
various kinds of blow, 517 f.) — irayK6vvr& 
r': the dust raised by the combat is the 
proverbial symbol of violent effort: nei- 
ther can win oxovtrl. Cp. Ov. Am. 1. 
15. 4 Praemia militiae pulverulenta 
sequi. Ovid may have had vayKdvtra in 
mind when he described Heracles and 
Acheloiis as throwing handfuls of dust at 
each other {Met. 9. 35 f.): file cavis 
hausto spargit me pulvere palmis, \ Inque 
vicem fulvae iactu flavescit arenae. For 
the accumulated compounds of iras, cp. 
660 f.— ^X0ov &6X': 159 n.— dcOXa 
( = d*0\ovs) dv»va>v: cp. PA. 507 tiwrol- 
<rr<ov irbvuv \ aB\' (n.). 

607 £ troTttjiov o4fros : cp. 38 : II. 
13. 248 <r$4vos ^dofievrjos. — rerpaopov = 
TerpaffKeXovs (schol.): lit., ' erect upon 
four legs': elsewhere always epithet of 
four horses yoked abreast, or of the cha- 
riot drawn by them. — <^Co-|ta ravpov, a 
periphrasis expressing his dread aspect : 
cp. 0. C. 1568 <rufi& t j I dviKdrov kvv6$: 
Verg. Aen. 6. 289 et forma tricorporis 
umbrae (Geryon). 

Acheloiis fights, then, as the ivapyijs 
ravpos, — not merely as the dvdpeiy K&ret 
Pofarfxppos (12). Sophocles is here fol- 
lowing the traditional version. The Ho- 
meric Scamander, in conflict with A- 
chilles, roars ' like a bull' (/ut€/iu/cwj ijvTe 
Tavpos, II. 21. 237). ivrevdev dpfMTjBe'vres 
(says the schol. there) rbv 'AxeXyov 4ratj- 
pwffav ' HpcucXei dyuvipb/jLepov. The tau- 
rine form was given to Acheloiis, in that 
combat, by Archilochus (schol. #.), by 
Pindar (schol. //. 21. 194), and by the 
logographer Pherecydes (Apollod. 2. 6. 
5): perhaps, too, by Panyasis, the au- 
thor of an epic 'HpdjrXcta. An engraved 



TPAXINIAI 



79 



But, when this bride was to be won, who were the valiant 
rivals that entered the contest for her hand ? Who went forth 
to the ordeal of battle, to the fierce blows and the blinding dust ? 

One was a mighty river-god, the dread form of a horned and Anti- 
four-legged bull, Acheloiis, from Oeniadae : the other came from stro P he - 
Theb&, dear to Bacchus, with curved bow, and spears, and 

brandished club, 

607 T€Tpa6pov mss. : and so Eustathius in two places (p. 1313* 6, p. 1734. 10), 
though in a third (p. 573. 27) rerpdopov, as Brunck writes. 50© 'AxeXyos] 

a'xeXwtotr L (not dxcXuioa). 610 Bancxlas Brunck : BaKx^ias MSS. and Aid. — 

diro made from diro in L. Cp. 539, 557. 512 \oyx&s] Blaydes writes \6yxp-v* 



gem in the British Museum (King, An- 
tique Gems n. pi. 34, fig. 3) shows Ache- 
loiis as a bull, preparing to butt at Hera- 
cles. The gem is older than the time of 
Sophocles, and may, as Mr A. S. Murray 
thinks, have followed the rendering of 
this subject on the still more archaic 
throne of Apollo at Amyclae (Paus. 3. 
18. 5). Cp.' n. on 520. This fight was 
a favourite theme in art : for the litera- 
ture, see Roscher, Lex. p. 9. 

Ovid (Met. 9. 1 — 100) departs from the 
old Greek version: his Acheloiis begins 
the fight in quasi-human form, — then 
turns into a serpent (63), — and then, as a 
last resource, into a bull (80). 

609 air* OUaaSav: a town in Acar- 
nania, on the west bank of the Acheloiis. 
It was about ten miles from the mouth 
of that river, which is described by Thuc. 
(2. 102) as h OdXcuraav . . i£icls ira/>' 01- 
vt&das Kod rV voXlp avrois TrepiXifJwdQuv, 
Marshes, due partly to the lake Melite, 
insulated the hill on which the town 
stood, and made the site a strong one. 
The name was familiar to Athenians in 
the poet's time. Oeniadae was long a 
centre of anti- Athenian influence in west- 
ern Greece. It was unsuccessfully be- 
sieged by Pericles (Th. 1. in, 454 B.C.); 
but, under pressure from the other Acar- 
nanian towns, was received into the A- 
thenian alliance by Demosthenes in 424 
B.C. (Th. 4. 77). The site (now Tri- 
cardo) was first identified by Leake. 

Oeniadae was some twelve miles w. s. 
w. of Pleuron. As Heracles arrives from 
his famous home to the east, so it is fit- 
ting that the river-god should come from 
the western town which was a chief seat 
of his worship. The head of the Ache- 
loiis appears on coins of Oeniadae. 

6 10 Bcucxfas: Ant. 1122 Ba*xcO, 



Baxxai' I 6 ixarpbrrokw O^/Sap | vaieruv 
(n.). Heracles was born at Thebes 
(116 n.). — dird: L's accent, diro, repre- 
sents the doctrine of some grammarians 
that the accent of the prep, suffered ana- 
strophe when it stood between adj. and 
subst. (or subst. and adj.): see Ellendt 
Lex. p. 78 b. There is more reason for 
this When the subst. precedes ; e. g.<, 
EdvSov diro dtp^evros (II. 2. 877) is more 
natural than Baxxlas dvo &Jj(3as. Mo- 
dern editors differ: nor is their practice 
always consistent. But in all such cases 
it seems better to regard adj. and subst. 
as forming a single expression, and there- 
fore to keep the normal accent. 

611 £ iraAIvTova, 'back-bent,' is a 
general epithet, referring to the shape of 
the bow ; not to its being * drawn back ' 
in shooting, nor to its ( springing back ' 
after the shot. It seems properly to 
have denoted a bow of which the curva- 
ture was in a direction contrary to that 
in which the archer bent the bow when 
drawing it. See Appendix. 

X<S*yx a «) two spears, in Homeric 
fashion : cp. //. 3. 17 f., where Paris is 
armed with tcdfiirvXa r6£a, #<£os, and fltfo 
dovpe. (Not, 'pointed arrows,' as Paley 
renders.) — £6iraXov, the club, made from 
a wild-olive tree which Heracles had 
plucked up by the roots on Mount Heli- 
con : cp. Theocr. 25. 206 ff., where he 
carries this pdtcrpov in his right hand, 
and his bow in the left : A poll. Rh. 2. 
34 KaXatipoird re Tprjxeicw J ...dpeiTpetptos 
kotLvoio. — Tivd<r<r«v would suit Xoyx a s 

ill. 12. 298 5\jo dovpe rwdaffutv) as well as 
xSiraXov, but not r6{a, for which a word 
such as txuv or vwfiQv must be supplied : 
cp. n. on 353. — The picture is not dis- 
tinct; his right hand must wield the 
club; his left may hold either bow or 



8o 



ZO0OKAEOYI 



€7T. 



6 7rats Atos* 6t tot doXkels 

7 Laav cs /xecov UfxevoL \c)(4q)v 

8 juoi/a 8* cvXckt/oos a/ /ze'cna Kv7T/ois paf&hovoyLei £w- 

ovcra. 5 * ^ 

tot' 771^ X € /°° s > ^ ^* to£(ov irdrayos, 

TovpeUav r dvdfiuySa Kspdrw 

rjv 8* afK^i7rXc/croi /cX(/x,a/c€9, 5 2 ° 

^ 8e ixer(07T(ov oXoara 

7rXi7y/xaTa /cat otoi/os dyL^>olv. 

a o €V0J7Tt9 appa 

TTjXavyci 7rap* ox^w 



I7OTO, top 01/ irpocrfi€vovcr OLKOlTaV. 



525 



614 l^uei/ot] Uficvoi L. 517 — 68O L divides the w. thus: — t6t* — | rbl-w — 

rav-\peliav — | 1jv bi dfJupltrXeKToi | jcXl/MUC6<r — | irXrjyfiaTa — | A3' — | TrjKavyei — | 
^<rro — I £y&) — | rb b' — | i\eewbv — | Kavb — | p4paK€v—4pijpLa. 618 f. ravpelcw] 



spears, — the other weapon being slung 
about him. As to the archer type of 
Heracles, here partly blended with the 
hoplite, cp. Ph. 727 n. 

618 £ ctoXXets here simply =6/ao0: 
Hermann compares Mosch. 2. 48 Soiol 
6' taravav inf/ov iir* 6<pp6os alytaXoio \ <pGo- 
res io\\-/]8r)v. — fcrav (epic = i4<rav) Is 
\U<rov : so Theocr. 22. 183 (of a fight) 6 
5' els n&rov i}\v$€ AiryiceiJs. — Xcxfov : the 
plur., as Ant. 630 dtrdras Xexto?, O. T. 
821 X^xi7...tou davbvros. 

616 £ |i6va 8': whereas in an ordi- 
nary dydtu there were several /xipbovxoi. 
— ctfXcKTpos : in Ant. 795 the epithet of 
a bride : here, of the goddess who gives 
fair brides to men. — kv p4<r<p here refers 
to the umpire as an impartial judge 
between two competitors. — £aP&ov6|i€t 
(=tppafi5ov6}j.€i). The officials who 
maintained order in the contests at the 
great festivals were called fxtfidouxoi : 
Thuc. 5. 50 iv t$ dy&vt. faro ruv /SajSSotf- 
X<uv vXqyb.* fKafiev. The term included 
the notion of 'umpire': Plat. Prot. 338 A 
frel$e<rd4 pun frafibovxov koX irriffrd- 
T-qy Kod vp'Oravt.v i\4<rdai, to vpuv <pv~ 
Xa£et rb pArpiov fxiJKos tQv \6ytav £kclt£' 
pov. The verb frapbovopeiv occurs only 
here, and frafibovbtios itself is post- 
classical : but cp. Hesych. (s. v. pdpdoi), 
K<d b ppafievriis t>ap6ov6/jLOS. 

Aphrodite is here the only person near 
the two combatants ((worn): Deia- 



neira views the fight from afar. But the 
scene was not always so conceived. 
Thus the Megarian $rj<ravp6s at Olympia 
contained a group of figures in gilt cedar- 
wood, of which Paiis. (6. 19. 12) says : 
Zei>s bt ivraJuBa ical i) Arjiavetpa xal 'Ax*- 
\tpoi Kal 'HpcucXqs i<rTiv"AprfS re r<£ 'Axc- 
\u)(p fioT)du>v. 

517 r6r ^v X € P^ k.t.\. In this 
compressed description of the fight, the 
two combatants figure alternately. (1) 
Heracles deals blows with his fists (\ep<J$ 
iroTO70j), — then retires a little, and 
sends a shaft from his twanging bow 
(t6£«v ir&rayos). (2) Achelous charges, 
and the hero's club rattles on his horns 
(KCprfrttv vdrayos). (3) Then Heracles, 
turning to the wrestler s arts, endeavours 
to grapple with Achelous, to spring upon 
his back (ct|i4>CirXcKToi icX£|uucfs). (4) 
The tauriform god butts at his adversary 
(jienfrrwv irXtj-yjiaTa). And the account 
fitly closes with the words, crbvos dji- 
+otv. 

For ijv (/ikv)...ty 81, cp. Ant. 806 n. 

618 dvau.iy§a=di>apU£, suggesting the 
confusion of sounds. The form is a rare 
one : but Nicander has dp.piybrrpf {Alex. 
570, Ther. 912). Cp. 839 dpi,pnya. 

KcpcCrcov. A prominent mention is 
given to the horns, since the story was 
that Heracles broke off one of them. Cp. 
Ovid M. 9. 85 rigidum fera cUxtera 
cornu I Dum Und y infregit, truncaque a 



TPAXINIAI 



81 



the son of Zeus : who then met in combat, fain to win a bride : 
and the Cyprian goddess of nuptial joy was there with them, 
sole umpire of their strife. 

Then was there clatter of fists and clang of bow, and the Epode. 
noise of a bull's horns therewith ; then were there close-locked 
grapplings, and deadly blows from the forehead, and loud deep 
cries from both. 

Meanwhile, she, in her delicate beauty, sat on the side of 
a hill that could be seen afar, awaiting the husband that should 
be hers. 

In L the letters rav end a verse, and after v a letter has been erased : but the next 
v. begins with pelwv (not etw). — Keparw] Wunder alters this to /iercfrrup : and in 
521 f., instead of 1jv 8e /xerAiruv dXberra | irX^7/iOTo, writes ty 8' 6X6erra \ irXlyfiara. 
Wecklein adopts these changes. 6SO ijp 5'] rjv & L. 



fronte revellit. Achelous ransomed it by 
giving his conqueror the horn of Amal- 
theia, or cornucopia (Apollod. 2. 7. 5). 
This gift, which Heracles transferred as 
the bride-price to Oeneus, was explained 
as a symbol of the increased fertility gained 
by works which altered the course of the 
Achelous (Strabo ro, p. 458). 

6 SO $v with plur. subj.: the so-called 
schema Pindaricum : Hes. Theog. 825 ty 
iicarbv KecpaXal (cp. ib. 321): Pind. fr. 
75* 15 Tbr* (36XkcT<u rfrr 9 eV' d/xfipdrav 
X$6v' iparal \ tojv <p6pai : Eur. Ion 1 146 
iirfjv 5' v<pavral ypdfx/xaaiv Totald' v<paL. 
In this const r., the sing, verb always pre- 
cedes the plur. subject. 'As the sing, is 
the general and the plur. the particular, 
we have not so much a want of concord 
as an afterthought' (Gildersleeve, Introd. 
to Pindar, p. lxxxviii.). The genuine 
examples in Pindar are not numerous. 

dpqrfirXfKTOi K\t|uuccs. Ancient wri- 
ters mention the jcX?/mi£ as a wrestling 
trick, but do not explain it (Hesych. s. v. 
K\ifj,dK€s : Pollux 3. 1 55). The schol. here 
had evidently no clear notion of it : kXI- 
/j.a,K€$' al ivavap&aeis (a literal para- 
phrase) irapb. rb dvoj re jcal /carw airroi)? 
<rTp4<f>eo$ai h tj /t&xv* Hermann ex- 
plains it thus; — the wrestler turns his 
adversary round, seizes him from behind, 
and springs on his back, so as to force 
him down. He relies on Ov. Met. 9. 
50 — 54, where Heracles shakes off the 
embrace of Achelous, and then, with a 
strong push from his hand, protinus aver- 
tit, tergoque onerosus inhaesit. This may 
be the icXifJial- : but it is uncertain. The 
Achelous of Ovid, it should be remem- 

J. S. V. 



bered, is at that moment the horned man, 
not yet the bull (cp. n. on 507 (.). 

At any rate KXifuuclfp was a familiar 
term in Greek wrestling : cp. Plato comi- 
cus Hp4<rpeis fr. 2 xal/Kts, oZjuat, furarrerred' 
eras aifTbv diaKXtfiaictffas re (explained 
by Hesych. as dtavaXalaas). For a like 
use of wrestling terms, cp. Ar. Eq. 262 f. 
— One of the subjects on the archaic 
throne of Apollo at Amyclae was ij vpbs 
'AxeXyov 'HpcucXeoi/s ir dXq (Paus. 3. 18. 5). 

631 1 |urwiro»v...ir\TJY|iaTa, blows 
from the forehead ; the bull is now but- 
ting (KvpLrrw) at Heracles, — as shown 
on the gem mentioned above (507 f., n.). 
Schol.: ol yb.p ravpoi rois tctpaai kclI fierd- 
irois fjL&xovTcu. — ortfvos, in the strenuous 
effort. Cp. Cic. Tusc. 2. 23. 56 (quoted by 
Billerbeck and others) pugiles etiam cum 
feriunt adversarium in iactandis cestibus 
inge mis cunt, — not from pain or fear, he 
adds, but because the very utterance 
helps to brace up the nerves (omne corpus 
intenditur). 

624 £ rqXavyft, 'seen afar,' 'distant': 
Theog. 550 drrb r^Xairy&w <f>aw6fxevos <r#co- 
vifjs : Ar. Nub. 281 rqXe<t>av€Ts ffKoirids : 
cp. n;Xwir6s (n. on Ph. 216). — Others 
take it actively, 'seeing (= giving a view) 
from afar' (cp. TriXecidnros). Diod. 1. 
50 has this use: rijs xc6pas atfrotf <rw6p- 
yo6<rr)s rrpbs rb TrjXavy4<rTepov bpav. But 
it seems less probable here. — &xty : 
Nonnus 43* 13 (quoted by Schneidewin) 
makes Deianeira watch the fight from 
the bank of a river. Did he, then, take 
&xBt# here as =6x^17? (Cp. Ant. 11 32 
n.)~-rdv 8v, emphatic (cp. 266) : the hus- 
band who was to be hers. 



82 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



•f*eyco 8c [mrrjpf jxkv ota <f>pdC<o 
to 8* afic/>ii/€Utt;Toi> ojXfxa vvfx<f>as 
ikewov a/x/xeWf 
/ca7ro fiarpos d<j>ap ySeySa/cev, 
coot€ 7ro/ms iprjfia. 



530 



AH. ^flOS, <f>C\ai, KOLT ollCOV 6 fcVOS 0/OO€l 

rats atvfiaXcorcus iraurXv cos err* cfoSco, 

rrjiios vvpaios ykdov cos vfias \ddp<f. } 

tol fiev (fypdaovcra -^epalv dTtyvr)<jdpx\v, . 

rd 8' ota irdoyto (ruyKaToucTiovfievr). 535 

Kopyjv yap, oT/zat 8' ovKer, dXX* i.t.^vyiiiirqv, 

7ra/)€tcro€0€yfia6, <j)6pTov cootc vavrtKos, 

XtofirjTOV €/X7T0\7J/Xa TIJS €fl^S c/>/)€J>OS. 
627 r6 5' dfjLtfwfelKrjTOP r : t66" a.fx<piviicqTOv L. 628 fXeivbv Porson : IXeetPOi' MSS. 



626 t^yci 8fc lulnipt piy ota <t>pd£<D. 
The words £y<J> di /Aanpp (if no others) 
are unquestionably corrupt. They have 
been explained to mean: — 'I speak as a 
mother* (or 'her mother') 'might speak': 
i.e., with all a mother's tender sympathy. 
If anything could increase the strangeness 
of such language, it would be the fact 
that the young maidens of Trachis are 
speaking of one who is old enough to be 
their mother. Or : (2) * I tell the story as 
her mother told it,' — a way of explaining 
how they can describe what they had 
not seen. This needs no refutation. 

The true key to this passage depends 
on observing the sequence of topics. (1) 
In 5 1 7 — 522, t&t* rjp x e p6s. . .crbvos afufKHv, 
we have a brief picture of the fight. (2) 
Then vv. 523 — 525, d d' €&&iri$...aKolTav t 
mark Deianeira's suspense. (3) Next comes 
the obscure parenthesis, £yw dt...<f>pd£h). 
(4) And then we return, at v. 527, to 
Deianeira's suspense, — not, however, in a 
form which adds anything new to w. 523 
— 5251 but in one which merely repeats 
their substance: — rd 5' dfA<pweUcriTov...dfi- 
/Uret. 

Now, to justify such a repetition, it is 
manifest that (2) and (4) should be sepa- 
rated, not by a mere parenthesis, such as 
(3) now is, but by some further allusion 
to the fight. This inference is strength- 
ened by the phrase, to d' d/KptvelicqTov 
6fMfia vt(jL<t>a$, which gains point if a re- 
ference to the v€ikos has immediately 
preceded. 



I believe that tyd has come from crywv, 
under the influence of <t>pd&o>. The sense 
of the verse was, 'And the strife goes on 
raging, as I describe' (referring to w. 
517 — 522). MATHP may well be a cor- 
ruption of MAPrAI, a loss of P having 
been followed by a change of V to T. 
This may have happened after dywv 
had become £yu> with help, perhaps, 
from a reminiscence of EL 233 dXX' ofo 
ttivolq. 7' crfdw, I fxdTTjp uxrel ns ir«rrd. 
Cp. Hesychius fiapyq: fiapyalvci, vfipifa, 
ivdowif, /xaLverai. Eur. H. F. 1005 6s viv 
(pbvov fiapyuvros Atx*. I would read, 
then, d*y«iv Si |iApva jUv, ota <f>pd|>. 
The next words, to o dii^ivciKt|Tov 
/c.r.X., then fitly turn from the stubborn 
fight to her continuing suspense. — For 
other views, see Appendix. 

627 £ 6|i|ia, in periphrasis, is some- 
times little more than 'form,' (Eur. Ion 
1 261 w Tavp6fU)p<p0P BfJL/JM Krf<fn<rov ira- 
rpos :) but here it refers specially to her 
anxious gaze: cp. Ai. 130. ir€<p6^rjpxu \ 
VTypTjs ws 6fx/*a ireXelas. Since the words 
£|&pa yvp^as form one notion, the adj. is 
in the nom. : Ant. 794. — iXcivov d|t|Uvci : 
awaits (the result) with a piteous look: 
cp. Ph. 1 130 fj vov iXewdv 6pq,s. 

620 icdiro' jtarpos dtyap fttfkuccv. 
Sophocles does not tell us whether Hera- 
cles took his bride away from her fa- 
ther's home immediately after the fight. 
According to the common account He- 
racles and Deianeira remained with Oe- 
neus for a considerable time after their 



TPAXINIAI 



83 



[So the battle rages], as I have told ; but the fair bride who is 
the prize of the strife abides the end in piteous anguish. And 
suddenly she is parted from her mother, as when a heifer is 
taken from its dam. 

De. Dear friends, while our visitor is saying his farewell 
to the captive girls in the house, I have stolen forth to you, — 
partly to tell you what these hands have devised, and partly to 
crave your sympathy with my sorrow. 

A maiden, — or, methinks, no longer a maiden, but a mistress, 
— hath found her way into my house, as a freight comes to 
a mariner, — a merchandise to make shipwreck of my peace. 

<6SO wore A : uxrircp L. Nauck would delete the word : Hense would change it to 
vbpata. 681 Bpoct made from 0p6et in L. 684 <f>pfoov<ra r: (ppafrwa L. 

686 This v. was omitted by the first hand in L, and added in the margin by S. 



marriage, while the hero did various ex- 
ploits. (Apollod. 2. 7. 6: Diod. 4. 36, 
who speaks of three years. ) Then, hav- 
ing accidentally slain a youth in the 
house of Oeneus, Heracles departed with 
his wife and infant son (Hyllus) to Tra- 
chis. — dtyap is not necessarily inconsist- 
ent with that version : it means merely 
that the result of the fight at once trans- 
ferred Deianeira from the care of her 
mother to that of a husband. 

680 fore is preferable to &nrcp (cr. 
11.) in the first foot of the glyconic verse : 
for this use of it, cp. 112, 367, 537, 699, 
703, 768, 1071. — iropns Ipm&a: Schnei- 
dewin compares Anacreon fr. 52 otd re 
vefipbit veodijkta \ ya\a$tjv6v y dor' ir CXy 
K€pot<r<rr)S I diroXeupdels oird firjrpbs iirro^- 
Or/. The image is especially suitable to 
one who was destined to have no secure 
or permanent home. 

681 — 683 Second lireurodtop. Deia- 
neira confides to the Chorus her plan for 
regaining her husband's love: she will 
send him a robe, secretly anointed with 
a philtre. — Lichas enters (598) ; he re- 
ceives the robe from her, and departs 
bearing it to Heracles. 

681 tL ijjios (155 n.) : this is the only 
Attic instance of the epic tt}|m>s. — 6 {/- 
vos, merely as a guest from a distance ; 
Lichas was no stranger to her (cp. 232, 
310). — Opoct seems to imply that their 
voices could be heard within, and that 
therefore she felt safe from sudden inter- 
ruption. — rats alxp. iraurlv : who charge 
him with messages to their kinsfolk and 
friends among the Oechalian captives 



with Heracles : these maidens were l£cU- 
peroi (245). — c&s tor i£6S<t> : for w$ denot- 
ing the intention, cp. PA. 58 n. — Ovpatos 
fern., as El. 313 Bvpauov olyytiv. cp. 478 
irarpffos, and 0. C. 751. 

684 £ ra piv (adv.) refers to the reci- 
tal which begins at v. 555 : rd 8', to 
vv. 536 flf. — \*pcr\v is slightly emphasised 
by its place (cp. 0. T. 139 iKeivov 6 ktcl- 
pd>v) ; her sense of wrong (oZa irdtrxw) has 
prompted action. — <nryKaTOiicriov)UvT) : 
some take the midd. as meaning, 'to 
seek pity for myself from you. ' Rather it 
means simply, 4 to bewail (my woes) 
along with you' (i.e., in your presence). 
So Her. 2. 121 mroK\a6<ra»ra ij kcltouc- 
Ttffdfievov : 3. 156 KcrrotKT^ero, <£&$.. . 
irewovdhai k.t.\. The midd. oIktI^oimh 
is used by Aesch. {Suppl. 1032), by Eur. 
(/. T. 486), and even in prose (Thuc. 2. 

5i). 

686 ic6f»|v, as Theocr. 27. 65 reic&av 

rpo06s, ovk£t(, Kiopa : but it is also said of 
a young wife (//. 6. 247 etc.). — llcvyul- 
vi|v: see 1226. Deianeira' s first belief 
(309) has been changed by learning the 
vehemence of her lord*s new passion 
(359 f-- 488 f.). Cp. 0. T. 825 y&- 
Hois... I ...fvyijvat. 

687 f. iropcio'SfficYiMU k.t.\. Among 
the captives whom she has received into 
her house, there is one who is to be her 
rival. This suggests the comparison with 
the master of a trading vessel, who, along 
with the rest of his cargo, ships some 
merchandise which is destined to prove 
his ruin. The parallelism between +6p- 
rov and Xvptirov 4fnr6\rjpia marks that 

6—2 



8 4 



ZO<t>OKAEOYI 



Kai wv ov 



)(kaLvr)s v7rayKaXtcrfia. rotaS' "Hpa/cX^s, 
o 7TIOT0S ijfui/ Kayados KaXovfia/os,- 
oIkovql dvT€Tr€fi\lj€ tov fiaKpov ypovov.— 
eya> ok dvfiova'dai fieu ovk hricrrayju 
vo&ovvti Keivo) 7roXXa rwSc ry voao)* 
to o av qvvouctw tjjo ofiov tis ai/ ywty 
hvvauro, KOivtovovaa rtov avrciv ydfitav) 
opal yap rifHrfv rrjv fiev epnovcrav irpocra), 
ttjv 8c <j>0Cvovcrav &v d^apTrdt^iv <f>ike£ 
6(f)0a\fx6<; dv0os 9 tSw 8' uTre/cr/oeTrci 7ro8a. 
rdvT ovv ^o/Sov/jlcu, fiiy 7rocrts /x,ci> 'H/oajcX^s 
cfios KaX^rat, r^s vecoTepas 8* ai^j/o. 



540 



545 



550 



680 oforeu] Blaydes conj. ofltra. — virb] tiiro (from uiro) L: cp. 510 ohro, and com- 
ment, there. 541 After vurrbs four or five letters have been erased in L. 
542 avriTrefiype] avrtirefxipev L. 547 — 54© rijv fih . . . t^v di] Musgrave 
conj. rfi fib> . . . Ttf tk : Nauck, rrjs fih . . . tt}s 6i. — Cw dcpapwafav /c.r.X.] Nauck 
formerly conj. rijs yAv aprafav <pi\e7 \ rb jcdWos &vrjp. — 6<pBa\fx6s] Meineke conj. 



the <p6pros, too, is disastrous: but the 
-way in which it is so is left indefinite. 
There is no explicit reference to over- 
loading. — For iropcio'S&ryiuu cp. Arist. 
De part. anim. I (p. 662 a 9) avayKalov 
..iirapturbix^cdat. rb irypbv afia rjj rpo<t>% 
( = ' to receive incidentally ') . So, here, the 
vapd seems to mean strictly, 'have re- 
ceived as an incident of receiving the 
others' (Iole having come in among them); 
cp. vapavoKKOvat. etc. The objection 
to taking the prep, as = 'surreptitiously' 
(=\adpatov in 377) is that Deianeira was 
the victim, not agent, of the fraud. 

\wPt)t£v in active sense, as Ph. 607 Xw- 
/Sifrr' ivy, words of contumely. — i|Mr4\T)- 
|ia, a thing gained by traffic ; here, an 
'acquisition* (in an ironical sense). — ttjs 
ipTJs <(>p€v6s with Xwp-qrdv : cp. the gen. 
after \vfiarH)pios, 6\t6ptos, etc. It might . 
also depend on the phrase \u(3rjTbv ifivo- 
\r)na as=/9Xd/fy. Others understand : 'a 
disastrous merchandise, (bought by) my 
loyalty to Heracles' (ttjs ipi}s <ppevis as 
gen. of price). 

580 £ 84' o&nu, both of us: 0. T. 
1505 6\(b\afiev W 6vre (n.). — pids vwo 
XAa£vi)S : Eur. fr. 606 6rav 5' &ir' dvdpbs 
xKaxvav etiyevovs irArflS : Theocr. 18. 19 
Zcwos rot. dvy&rrip inrb to> fdav yx* 7 " 
■xXcuvav (shared the bed of Menelaus). 
For faro with gen. in this sense, cp. 
Ant. 65 n. — vira^KdXwrjia: Ant. 650 n. 



Mr A. S. Murray has shown me a 
curious illustration of this passage. A 
vase of the 6th cent. B.C., now in the 
British Museum, depicts two women un- 
der the same "x\a?va % — a symbolical repre- 
sentation, perhaps, of a common griei. 

541 6...ijp.tv KaXo vjMvos = 3 v ijfieU... 
ixaXodfiep : though in 0. T. 8 6 vo.<tl 
K\€tvbs...Ka\otifi€vos the dat goes with 
the adj. — wmtt^s jc.t.X. : cp. 0. T. 385 
Kp4uv b wkttos, Ant. 31 rw dyadbv Kp4~ 
ovtcl. 

54S olKodpui, sc. dupa: tov |UtKpov 
\p6vov (gen. of price), for the long time 
during which she has been his true wife. 
Cp. Eur. H. F. 1 37 1 (Heracles bewail- 
ing Megara) ck t' o&x bfiolcjs, w ri.\aiv\ 
dirwXecra, | uxnrep <ri> rd/xd \iKTp* Icyfe? 
a<T<pa\Qst I fiaKp&s diavrXodff' iv dbfioii 
olKOvplas. 

548 f. ovk tir£<rTa|iai, am incapable 
of it : cp. 582 : Ant. 686 n. — r(jo€ Tfl 
voV<p, a very rare substitute for the cogn. 
accus. It is justified by the fact that vo- 
o€u> is a word of such wide meaning; 
while T$8e ry v6c(p here signifies, ipun-i. 
So in Aesch. P. V. 384, rjde rj v6<r<p 
vwretv, the dat. really means, 'to be dis- 
tempered in this special way* (viz., by 
good sei^e). 

545 rb 8' av (woiKctv : the inf. with 
art., placed at the beginning, gives an 
indignant tone: 'but as to living...' etc. 



TPAXINIAI 



85 



And now we twain are to share the same marriage-bed, the same 
embrace. Such is the reward that Heracles hath sent me, — he 
whom I called true and loyal,- 1 — for guarding his home through 
all that weary time. I have no thought of anger against him, 
often as he is vexed with this distemper. But then to live with 
her, sharing the same union — what woman could endure it ? For 
I see that the flower of her age is blossoming, while mine is 
fading ; and the eyes of men love to cull the bloom of youth, 
but they turn aside from the old. This, then, is my fear, — 
lest Heracles, in name my spouse, should be the younger's mate. 

6 OaXafxos : Hense, 0wj 06X\ov : Blaydes writes »as OaXepbv. — tup $'] Nauck and 
Hense conj. rip 8\ Wecklein writes r6re 3\ — inrtKTpiirei L : viteKTptortur A, with 
most mss., and Aid. 661 KaXijrcu A, and Aid.: xaXetrcu L: the later MSS. 

are divided. — dvyp] £. Mehler conj. <fp* $ (suggested by Eldike's impossible or {) : 
Hense, e/>$, which Nauck adopts. 



Cp. Ant. 78 rb ft | (Slq. voKituw Spar 

647 — 649 The text of this passage 
is, I believe, sound, though the diction 
is bold, and somewhat careless. The 
one ijpr) (Iole's) is growing to the per- 
fect flower, while the other (Deianeira's) 
is declining. (Cp. Ar. Lys. 596 ttjs ft 
yvvaucbs afjuKpbs & Koup6s.) In what fol- 
lows, these points may be noted. 

(1) «$v, fern., refers to the two phases of 
TJprj just mentioned. The gen. is partitive: 
* of (out of) these i}£cu, the eye delights 
in the dvOot* Here dvdos is a shorter 
way of expressing r^v dvdov<rav, — the ijpij 
which is in its early bloom. <Jv could not, 
surely, refer to r^v iUv tprowrcur wptow 
only, as if it meant rCtv vtuv ywaucup 
(schol.) : it must refer to r^v ft <pdivov<rav 
also. Nor, again, could uv stand for <av 
rijs nh. 

(2) t»v 8* forcicrplirci iroSa. Here tuv 
5' ought in strictness to have been rijs 5', 
sc. rrfi <t>0tvov<TT}s ijpTjs. But, in the poet's 
thought* tup 8' means, ' the other kind? — 
i.e., the women who represent the <pBl- 
vovaa Tjprj. The subject to bTeicrptiret, is 
not 6<pOa\ti6s, but the man implied by it (6 
6puh>). The eye, as being here the guide 
of the choice, might, indeed, be said to 
'turn the foot aside,' in the sense of caus- 
ing that movement; but this would be 
awkward. For the transition of thought 
from 6<p0a\fj6s to the person, cp. Eur. 
Med, 1244 (quoted by Wecklein), &y\ u 
rdXawa x e *P ^nfc Xa/ft ££0of, | Xa/T, 
Zpire rpds paXfftda XvTijpdv filov. 

(3) ctyapirdlciv, said of the eye, means, 
to seize eagerly upon the beautiful sight 



(cp. Hor. Sat. 2. 5. 53 Sic tatnen ut limis 
rapias etc.). So we can speak of ' snatch- 
ing' a glance, or of the eyes 'drinking in* 
beauty. There is no allusion to the idea 
expressed by Aesch. Suppl. 663 r$w V 
&y0os dSpexTov ioru. 

(4) ttydaXjufc: the swift and ardent 
glance of the lover is often mentioned in 
Greek poetry: see esp. fr. 431 roidvV iv 
6\f/ei \iyya BrjpaTrjplay \ ipuros, ojjrpo.-w^v 
tw* dfJLfidruvj #x«. Aesch. Suppl. 1003 
kcU irapdtvuv x^ l ^ ffUf ^vfi6p<pots Itti | was 
tis irapeXOup 6fJLfJLaros 0e\KT^piov | to- 
tev/j.' (wefArf/ev, IfUpov pucu/acpos. 

66O f. tout' o$v, for this reason, 
then: the pron. is adverbial: cp. Aesch. 
Pers. 159 raura Mi Xitovv' Ucdpta xp^ffto- 
aroXfjLOvs dofjiovs : Ar. Vesp. 1 358 ravr' ot/p 
ire pi fxov didouce fj.ii dtcupdapu. This seems 
better than to govern tclvt' by <po(iovfxou. 
— ir&ns was in Attic mainly a poetical 
word; but Arist. uses it, as Pol. 7. 16. 
18 Stop $ kcU Trpoaayopevdij irons : where, 
as here, it denotes the recognised or legal 
status. — koXjjtcu is right here, because 
there is a real anxiety: KaXrfrai (which 
would be rat, like xaXe? in El. 971,) 
would imply too much certainty. The 
subjunctive is similarly preferable to the 
indie, in Ph. 30 (icvpjj) and id. 494 (fie- 
P^ico). KaXnrai suits woe it ('bear the 
name of husband'); cp. 149: but dvyp, 
denoting here a clandestine relationship, 
requires 27 to be supplied. Cp. 561. 

dvijp : i.e. , paramour. Cp. the sarcasm 
of the comic poet Pherecrates (fr. incert. 
5) on Alcibiades : — oj)k <3k dpty yap [i.e. t 
iri p4os up] 'AXict/Stddip, cus 8ok€l, \ arijp 
diraauv twv ywaiKvv iort vvv. 



86 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



aXK* ov ydip, c3(T7r€/o €t7roi/, opyaiveiv kolXov 

yvvatKa vovv e^ovcrav $ 8* e^co, <f)ikcu, 

\vrfjpuov ^\<t)(fyriixa, tq8' vfiiv <f>pdcr<D. 

iju jLioi 7ra\aio*> Scopov apya'iov wore 

(typos, \e/3r)Ti xaXicea) Ketcpviipevov, 

o 7rats €T ov<ra rov Za<rv(rr4pvov irapa 

Nccrcrov <f>divovros €K <fx>v<ov av^ikop/qv, 

09 toz> /Sadvppovv Trorafiov Evrjvov /Sporov? 

fiL(rdov Vo/0€V€ ytp<Tiv y ovre 7rofi7rxfioi9 

Kdwats ip€<r<ra)v ovre Xalfao'iv veois. 



555 



560 



668 tyco] F. A. Paley conj. tx €l * taking Xijnijfxa as nom. and Xw^ptov as ace, * a 
remedy* (journ. Phil. vol. v. p. 89, 1874). 664 Xuxfnjfjui is my conj. for \farrjfui. 
Hermann writes K^Xrjfxa: Wecklein, xXtf^/ua (*• '•> the robe); he formerly conj. 
x607jfjui (Ars Soph. em. p. 73) : Campbell conj. vbitfia : Blaydes (inter alia) 
a-ripyrifia, or rix v W a '• out in his text he adopts the conj. of E. Ziel \De asyndeto 
ap. Soph., p. 7), \vrijpt6v n vrjpovijt (omitting t# 8'). 666 dpxalov] Hense conj. 

SlXkoUov : Wakefield, AypLov : Jacobs (A nth. Pal. vol. ill. p. 848), &xpelov. 667 ir* 



668 f. The mss. have tf s * <X W 
Xvnjpiov Xvirnjia. For the adj., cp. £1. 
635 Xvrrjplovt f etfx&s...8ei/«£Ttti' : #. 1490 
iw av Ka/ctDv /jApop yhoiTO r(av xdXat 
XvHjptov: fr. 687 rb p&Otieiv wvffAOinjs Xu- 
Hjpiov. Clearly, then, Xvnfjpiov is sound : 
and it must mean, as everywhere else, 
*giving deliverance.' The corrupt word 
is Xfarjua: it has displaced some word 
of whicn Xvrfipiov could be the epithet. 
I believe that Sophocles wrote X«£fo|M&, 
*a means of relief.* Hesychius shows 
that this noun was not only current, but 
tolerably familiar; for he has XQxpap' \&~ 
<p7)fm, — using it to explain the rarer form. 
The corruption into Xfrwyna probably arose 
through a marginal gloss, Xtfinys, on Xu- 
Hipiov. 

Deianeira is here speaking of an expe- 
dient which gives her some hope, indeed, 
but no assured confidence (590 f.). This 
exactly suits the usage of Xuxfxiv and its 
derivatives, which denote the alleviation 
of evil, — not its complete removal. Cp. 
At. 61 iwetd^i tov8* ^Xc&0iy<reK xbvov. Thuc. 
6. 12 Airb vbuov fxeydXrjs ko\ iroXifiov ppaxt 
ti XcXuffaafJLev. Plat. Legg. 854 C *&v fiiv 
<rot dpuvTt raxrra Xoxpq. ti rb vbtrrifM. Thuc. 
uses XJxprjiTtSy 'abatement' (4. 81 rod 
woXifiov). Deianeira, in bethinking her 
of the philtre, has found that which holds 
out a promise of deliverance, and as- 
suages, though it does not cure, her 
pain, — a Xvrrjptov Xftxprjfxa. 

The attempted versions of \vHjpiw 



Xfarrjfia have been these: — (1) With a 
comma after rjd': 'a thing to grieve 
this girl, for my deliverance : — a gram- 
matically sound phrase, but wholly un- 
suited to Deianeira, whose aim is to be 
more loved than Iole (584 ff.), — but not to 
pain her. (2) Taking Xvtt)(kov as =\vt6v: 
'how I find that my pain is remediable/ 
This is impossible. (3) Governing XiJ- 
Ttjfia hy Xxrrijpwin 'how I have a thing 
to remedy my pain.' Also impossible. 

Paley, changing t\» to t\*i, renders, 
'in what way my grief has a remedy — 
making Xirn/jptov a subst. This is clearly 
untenable. He cites Pind. P. 5. 106 
rb kclXXIvikov Xvrqpiov iawavav \ fiiXot 
Xapiev: but there Xvrypiov is a second 
epithet of /xfXos. Nor is the case helped 
by Hesychius, Xvrffpiw <f>vXaicrripiov. — 
tq8* vuXv $pdo-<* : the words mean strictly 
that the story will follow the course — 
i.e., will exhibit the line of thought — by 
which the remedy has been found. 

666 f. ijv |toi: the imperf., because 
she has now used it. — itotI belongs in 
sense to S&pov, as though we had ibbdij 
wort. If the comma after Oijptfs were 
omitted, and rjv joined with K€Kpv/Mfi4vov 
(as=lx&pvirro), then vork would go with 
the verb : but KCKpvfifiivov seems to be 
an afterthought. — iraXai&y, because she 
has had it long; dpxalov, because he 
lived long ago. This emphasis on the 
past is natural in one who is looking 
back sadly to the days of her youth, and 



TPAXINIAI 



87 



But, as I said, anger ill beseems a woman of understanding. 
I will tell you, friends, the way by which I hope to find deliver- 
ance and relief. I had a gift, given to me long ago by a monster 
of olden time, and stored in an urn of bronze ; a gift which, while 
yet a girl, I took up from the shaggy-breasted Nessus, — from 
his life-blood, as he lay dying ; Nessus, who used to carry men 
in his arms for hire across the deep waters of the Evenus, using 
no oar to waft them, nor sail of ship. 

made from fri in L. — irapa] wdpa Mss. 668 N4<r<rov r, and Aid. : viaov L, 

as in 840, and 1141 {vtvoa). — <pov(av Bergk: <f>6vwv mss. 669 Efaprov L, the 

second accent from a later hand. 66O Wdpeve] v6pevc L. 601 \ai- 

<p€<riv r : \al<t>ai<nv L. 



speaking to young maidens for whom 
Nessus is only a legendary name. — 6rjyp<Ss : 
so //. 1. 268 (pTjfxrlv dpeaKtpouri. They 
are called Kivravpw. in //. 11. 832, as in 
the Odyssey (21. 295). Cp. below, 680. 
— XifhJTt: properly a deep basin; also 
a kind of kettle used in cooking: but the 
poets can use the word to describe a 
cinerary urn (as El. 1401). Here it 
means some kind of urn or jar. 

667 £ SaawWpvov : shagginess is a 
regular attribute of the Centaurs in Greek 
poetry and art : cp. 837 : //. 2. 743 <pijpas 
...XaxvfevTas: Horn, hymn 3. 224 k4v- 
ravpov \a<rtavx€va. In Ov. Met. 12. 284 
Cometes is the name of a Centaur. 

irapd Nforcov, because it was his dwpov 
(555) : he invited her to take it, and told 
her how to use it : 4k ^ov&v, gathered up 
from his wounds, as he lay dying. <po- 
vuiv, Bergk's correction of 06vwv, seems 
right. The plur. <povoi elsewhere (1) 
denotes separate acts of slaughter, 0. C. 
1234: or (2) is a tragic expression for one 
such act (like d&varot) : as El. 1 1 rarpbs 
iic (povwv : ib. 779 <povov$ varfxpovs. But 
here we expect rather a word which shall 
directly suggest the wounds: cp. 573 
a<paycov. And <fx>v<2v can do so, since the 
phrase h (popous so often refers to carnage 
in battle. The schol. has $6v»v in the 
lemma, but explains by at/uaros, and 
quotes //. 10. 521 {&y8pas r' fanralpwrai) 
iv ipyaXtyci fovycnv. Cp. Ant. 696 e*» 
ipopcus I TexT-wr' (n.). If metre had al- 
lowed iK <p6vov, there would then have 
been no reason for change. 

The name N&rtros symbolises the roar 
of the angry torrent : the Sanskrit is 
nod, loud sound, whence nadd-s, Mel- 
lower* (bull), or river: nad-f, flood : Cur- 
tius Etym. § 287 b. Hence the Thracian 
river N^otos (also ISfoffot, Hes. Th, 



341), and the Arcadian Nlfta, described 
by Strabo as fedfxa Xafipdp iK rod Av- 
koUou KdTuov (8, p. 348). Among the 
Centaurs whom Heracles met at Mount 
Pholoe were Ach/tow and "Ofxados, — names 
likewise denoting noise; and it is note- 
worthy that Homados, like Nessus, was 
a ravisher: £v 'A/wca&p Hjv Etfpwl&K 
&5€\<pty 'AXkvovqv piaff&fievos drgpidij 
(Diod. 4. 12). 

669 fL t6v pa9^ppow....E<hnvov. 
The Evenus (Fidhari) nses on the high 
western slopes of Oeta; in its lower 
course, it passes through Aetolia, and en- 
ters the Corinthian Gulf at a point about 
12 miles w. of Antirrhion. Calydon was 
on its w. bank; Pleuron, some 10 or 12 
miles to the w. It is 'one of the fiercest 
and most treacherous torrents in Greece ' 
(Tozer, Geo, of Greece, p. 96). Cp. Ov. 
Met. 9. 104 Venerat Event rapidas love 
natus ad undas. The older name of the 
river, Avic6p/Mt (Strabo 7. 327), expressed 
the 'wolf-like 1 rush of its waters. 

The association of Nessus with the 
Evenus well illustrates the significance of 
the Centaur as a personification of a ra- 
vaging torrent (Cp. Mr Sidney Colvin in 
Journ. of Hellen. Stud. vol. 1. p. 160: 
also Mure, Tour in Greece, I. 170.) In 
Ov. Met. 2. 638 a daughter of the Centaur 
Cheiron is called Ocyroe ('Qicvpfo?), because 
born ' Fluminis in rapidi ripis.' 

xorajiov...ppOTovs../ir6pcu« : for the 
double ace., cp. Eur. Ale. 442 ywcuic' 
dpLorav I XlpjKw 'Axepovrlap irop€v<ras 
iX&rq, SiK unrip. Here the second ace. de- 
notes the space traversed ; it would more 
usually denote the place to which, as in 
Eur. Tro. 1085 £fj.Z...<TK&<t>os \ ...To/*iVet | 
..."Apyos. — For the prodelision of the 
augment in 'iropeve, cp. 0. C. 1602 raxe? 
'jrbpevaw : Ph. 360 iwel 'tidtepvaa. — |u<r- 



88 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



05 Kafid, tov irarpqiov yviica <tt6\ov 

£vv 'Hpaickei to wpairov evvis eaffOfjuriv, 

<f)€p<ov in co/iot9, rjviK rj ftecrco ffopa), 

\fjavei /A<zrauu9 xtp<riv 4k 8* rjva eyaJ* 5^5 

yco Ztjvos eudvs 7rai9 iffiorptyas \tpoiv 

r)K€v KOfiTjrrjv tov €9 8c nXevfiovas 

arripvtov 8i€ppoL£r)<r€v. iK.QvQ<TKtov 8* d ^p 

TOCOVTOV €T7T€* 7TCU yipOVTOS Olv€(0$, 

Tocdi/S* oinjo'ei tcdv ifiaiv, idv ffiOy, 57° 

ffopdfiwiv 9 odovve^ voTarqv a* eneiiiff* eyri* 
lav yap dii<f>L0peffTov alfia t<ov ificov 
<r<f>ay<!)v h/eytcg -^epdv, j} fiekayxokovs 

602 rbv xarpfov tylica vrtikov] So L, with most MSS. : tQv irarfxjxav ijvUa <tt6\wv 
A, and Aid. 604 77 Dindorf : fjv L, with most mss., and Aid. (but iv A). 

Cobet conj. if V. 607 irXeiJuovas] So L (though with v written over X by the 

first hand), A, Aid. : wvetifiovas r. 670 vlOjj] rvdiji L, with marg. schol. yp. 

ttl+ (the other letters are erased), irtidy was the prevalent reading : but A has 



0oO: ace. to Apollodorus (2. 7. 6) Nessus 
pretended divine authority for levying 
this toll, — X&ytav rapa OeCov r^v TopOfictav 
€l\ri<t>tvax $t& diKaio<njvriv. — iro|&irC|iois : 
cp. Eur. /. A. 1 3 io vauv... \ ...tXarav 
irofj.iraLav. — oUtc XaC<pco*iv vfws might be 
an instrum. dat. construed directly with 
V6peve: but it is perhaps truer to say 
that the notion of vifivtav is evolved from 
the preceding clause. Cp. 511 {rwdff- 

ffitiv). 

602 £ t<5v irarpfov. . .orrfXov, * by my 

father's sending/ cogn. ace. to io*ir6\i.r\v : 
cp. 159 dy<2vas l%ubr (n.). The peculi- 
arity is that ct6Xos here = T^i^ty, corre- 
sponding to the sense of the act. ar AXw : 
whereas it usu. means ' expedition,' 'jour- 
ney, ' from midd. <rrAXo/uu. It may be 
noted, however, that the boldness is 
softened by the fact that <rr6\os sometimes 
meant a journey with ref. to its purpose, 
*a mission 9 1 0. C. 358 n. Certainly 
irarpfos <rr6\os would ordinarily mean, 'a 
journey of my father's,' or* 'an expedi- 
tion despatched by' him; yet the sense 
required here seems possible for poetry. 
The phrase cannot well mean, (1) 'the 
journey prescribed for me by my father' ; 
nor (2) 'under my father's escort? — as if 
Oeneus had accompanied them for some 
distance. 

The soundness of the words is confirm- 
ed by their dramatic fitness. There is a 
tacit contrast in her thoughts between 



herself and the new paramour; she thinks 
of the long-past day when her father gave 
her to her husband, and sent her forth 
with him. The words also accord with 
that tone of passivity in which she has 
already spoken of her marriage (6 — 27). 
She welcomed Heracles as a deliverer, 
and has learned to love him ; but she had 
no voice in the bestowal of her hand. — 
Cp. fr. 521 (the young girl is happy at 
home* but the bride is sent forth by her 
parents to a doubtful fate) : at v4ai y&v iv 
TaTpbs I tj&kttov, olfuu, fopw avdp&irtav 
plov I ... I 5to.i> P is fipTjv i&KUfied' tfjuppo- 
*es, I <b dotted' l£w. — See Appendix. 

eCvis = edviru, as in Eur. Or. 929 etc. 

604 f. <^pwv !ir* <S|tois. Nessus is 
here imagined as a Centaur of the older 
form known to Greek art, — viz., a com- 
plete man, with the barrel and hinder 
parts of a horse attached to the middle of 
his back. A Centaur on the \apva£ of 
Cypselus at Olympia is described by Paus. 
(5. 19. 7) as 01) toi>j iravras txxov toScls, 
robs & ifAwpoffOev clvtwv tx wv avdp6s. This 
form may be called the andro-centaur. 
The more familiar hippo-centaur — a com- 
plete horse, only with a human chest and 
head substituted for the equine neck and 
head — was of later origin. In Journ. 
HeUen. Stud. 1. 130 Mr Sidney Colvin 
gives a wood-cut of an early gem (in the 
British Museum), representing an andro- 
centaur carrying off a woman, who is 



TPAXINIAI 



89 



I, too, was carried on his shoulders, — when, by my father's 
sending, I first went forth with Heracles as his wife ; and when 
I was in mid-stream, he touched me with wanton hands. I 
shrieked; the son of Zeus turned quickly round, and shot a 
feathered arrow ; it whizzed through his breast to the lungs ; 
and, in his mortal faintness, thus much the Centaur spake : — 

' Child of aged Oeneus, thou shalt have at least this profit 
of my ferrying, — if thou wilt hearken, — because thou wast the 
last whom I conveyed. If thou gatherest with thy hands 
the blood clotted round my wound, at the place where the 

ind% and so Aid. : TrlOy, the ed. of Colinaeus (Par. 1518). 671 vard-rrjv <r'] 

0-* is omitted by L, A, etc., and by Aid. ; but is present in T (having been restored 
perh. by Triclinius), and in some other mss. of the 14th or 15th cent, (as Vat., 
B, Lc, Harl.). 678 f. ivtyKjj] Blaydes conj. iviyKj/t. — ne\ayxfcovs..Mt 

mss. : Madvig conj. fAe\dyxo\os...lbs (suggested first by Dobree, who, however, 
preferred the vulgate): Wunder, /Ae\ayx6\ov...lov. 



grasped in his right arm. Similar sub- 
jects occur on coins of Eastern Mace- 
donia. Violence of this kind was part of 
the 00/tnf (1096) ascribed to the savage 
Centaurs, and appears in numerous le- 
gends (y. If. S., i.e., p. 140). 

^: cp. O. T. 1123 n. The third per- 
son, ijv, would be less fitting: she speaks 
of her own helplessness at the moment. 
— \U<r y ir6p<p: for the dat., cp. 172: El. 
313 vw 5' dypoicn nryx^t. — paratcus, 
implying rash folly (Ant. 1339 n, )> nere 
= * wanton.* The schol. wrongly took it 
to mean that the attempt was baffled by 
Heracles. — 4k 8* flito' ty& : Sophocles has 
avoided the error of Archilochus, who had 
described Deianeira as making a prolix 
appeal to her husband (wpbs rbv 'HpaxXfo 
fra\f/<p8oQff<uf : Dion Chrysost. or. 60). 

666 ft farurrptyas, intrans., as in 
Her. 2. 103 iTurrpixbat dwUru rjic: Ar. 
Vesp. 422 iirbrrp€<t>€ ) Sevpo. The poet, 
though he has called the river paMppovv 
(559), seems to imagine Heracles as wad- 
ing across it, in front of Nessus. If 
Heracles had been carried over first, he 
would naturally have been facing the 
river. Ovid makes him swim across, and 
shoot the Centaur from the bank (Met. 9. 
no ff.). 

Kopfnjv: Ph. 711 n. According to 
Dion (or. 60), Sophocles was criticised on 
the ground that the hero's act might have 
been fatal to Deianeira; Nessus might 
have dropped her in the river. It would 
be enough to suppose that Heracles could 
not pause to think; but the context also 
suggests, as we have seen, that he was 
near enough to rescue her at need. 



irX4W|tova$=7r»'«//io#'as (rt xw). Cur- 
tins (Etym. § 370) explains the change of 
v to X by * the rarity of the sound-group 
pn and the frequency of pi'; comparing 
the kindred words for 'lungs,* Lat. pul- 
me Church-Slavonic plusta, Lithuanian 
plaiiczei. The form with X is attested as 
Attic by schol. Ar. Pax 1069, Eustath. 
p. 483. 8. In 1054, as here, L gives the 
A form, though with v written above by 
the first hand : but in 1054 TvcvfAovuv. 

4k0vjjo-k«)v, as the faintness of ap- 
proaching death began to come over him. 
The regular sense of iicOvyffKeiv is 'to 
swoon away ' : cp. Arist. Nisi. Anim. 3. 
l 9 (P* 5 21 a II ) d(pi€fM4vov (aXfiaTos) Zi-w 
ir\elovos fih tKdvy<ncov<ri. t voXKov 5* 
dtyaK dirodvQ<TKov<TLV. So Plat. Legg. 
959 A distinguishes a person in a swoon, 
rbv iKTeOvewra, from rbv 6vrua reOvijKora. 

669 ft For too-oOtov, referring to 
what follows, and associated with roffovde, 
cp. Ai. 679 ff.isTO<r6v&'. ..roaav$\ — T<xr6v8* 
is explained by &v ydp etc. — t»v 4|m»v... 
iropOu&v: vop0fi6t usu. means (1) a ferry, 
or (2) the act of crossing water ; here the 
second sense passes into that of nopBfxeLa, 
4 my services as ferryman * : for the plur., 
cp. 628. 

672ft: Wv YcLp...^8pa$. The gen. 
t»v 4|m»v o^ayttv depends on the prep, 
in d\L$(Qp*irrov t 'coagulated around the 
wound.* tvfyKfl x*pvrlv: for the midd., 
cp. 558 dyetXl/xrjv (n.). The phrase seems 
to imply a careful collecting of the blood 
with a cloth, fl pcAa'yxoXovs k.t.X. : 'at 
the part (of the wound) where the mon- 
strous hydra has tinged the arrow with 
black gall* : i.e., 'where the hydra's gall, 



90 ZO0OKAEOYZ 

i/Saxjfev 101/9 Opefifia Aepvaias uSpas, 

carat <f>pev6$ am touto icrjkrjTripiov 575 

7779 *H/oa/cX€ta9, cSotc fir/riv elctSaiv 

OTeptjei yvvaiica k&vos ami <rov irkiov. 

tovt iworj<ra<r, <o <f)i\au t So/xois yap rjv 

KeCvov davovros eyKeKXyfidvoi/ /caXcos, 

X^Tciva rovh* efioAJja, 7rpo<rfiakov<f oaa 580 

£a>v AC€t^o9 €t7r€* /cat irerrtipavrai raSe. 

/ca/cas Sc To\fta9 ft^r* imoTaCfLrjv eycJ 

ftijT* iKfiddoiiiL, T<X9 T€ ToXjLta5cra9 OTVyO). 

<£iXt/>oi9 8* cav 7ra)9 tt;v8* virepfiaXcbfjLeda 

676 f. wore fwJrtK'] Subkoff conj. wot* £r' otfriK' (so, too, Hense, but with arc) : 
Shilleto and Pretor, oMi pLiJTiy' . . . <rrfy£tf. In L crip^u has been made from 
<TT4ptv). cripl-ai A, and Aid. 678 So/iou] Wecklein reads fi^xois, thinking 

that the vulg. arose from fiots. 679 iyK€K\y[xfrov Dindorf: iyK€K\eifM- 

lUvov L : iyK€K\etfffUvov A, and Aid. 681 iceivos] iiceivos r, whence 

Blaydes conj. £(av eftr' iiceivoi. — xareipatrrcu] werclpaTtu r. Blaydes writes rerei- 



with which the arrow is tinged, can be 
traced,* — -.by a darker tint in that portion 
of the blood with which it has mixed. 
When the arrow was withdrawn from 
the wound, there would be a gush of 
blood, but some parts of the blood would 
have been more affected by the venom 
than others; and Nessus wishes her to 
take the most envenomed parts. The 
stress is on |u\ayx6\ovs, and the whole 
phrase is a compressed way of saying, ■$ 
fii\as x^ * IotI?, $ lobs vdpa tfiaij/ev (cp. 
0. T. 1 45 1 n.). For the proleptic adj., 
cp. Ant, 475 dirrbv^.TcpiaKeKrj: for the 
plur. lovs (referring to the single arrow of 
567), Ai, 231 £l$€<rw t El. 196 yevijiov. 
The double barb makes such a plur. intel- 
ligible. Heracles cannot have shot twice. 
— 0pl|&|ia...{fSpas: cp. 508 n.: so 0p4fA/m 
refers to a monster in 1003 and 1099. 
For the periphrasis, cp. Plat. Legg* 790 
D tol yeoyevij vaL8<av Bp4/Miara. — Acp- 
vcUas: dwelling in the marsh of Lerna, 
on the Argolic coast, s. of Argos. Apol- 
lod. 2. 5. 2 rb 8k aufia rrjs D8pat kva- 

Others explain thus : — * If thou gather 
the blood from my wound, clotted around 
(the arrow), at the place where the hydra 
has tinged it,' etc., *.;., at the arrow's head. 
This is quite possible, but is open to objec- 
tions. (1) The language in 557 f. (xapd 
Nl<r<rov...lir <f>opwv) implies that she ob- 
tained the blood directly from the body, 
not from the arrow-head. (2) The phrase 



JWyKfl xqxrlv here favours the same view. 

If we adopted the conjecture pcXdy- 
\oXos...Us, the latter word would mean 
'venom,' and Oplpf&ct 'issue' (cp. 834 
trp€<pe 5' al6\os 8p&Kw): the object of 
(pcujrcv would be airrds (the wound). 
The objection is that the wily monster 
does not wish to draw Deianeira's atten- 
tion to the venom; — as he would then do 
very pointedly. He is content to speak 
of the dark colour (p.e\ay xoXovs). 

Ovid describes the incident thus : — The 
arrow is withdrawn, and the blood flows 
from the wound, mixtus Lernaei tabe ve- 
neni: Nessus then presents Deianeira with 
a garment steeped in the blood (velamina 
tincta cruore): Met, 9. i2ofF. 

670 £ wore |ujnv* cunSciv crrlpfci. 
After ware, the negative of the in fin. is 
prf, but of the indie, oit. Here the M 
must be due to the final sense: i.e. t the 
notion of result is merged in that of aim ; 
as if it were 5tws /u.77. I have not found 
any real parallel. Dem. or. 19 § 218 
writes, Toaa&njs &vav8plas...6no\oy€iT€ 
ctrai ficarol, (3<rre fiyr' iv r% x^pQ to- 
XefiLwv 6vto)v firjr' iic OaK&rrrjt voXiovp- 
KoOfxevoi . . . ctra rip> €lprp>rjv iwotfoavOe. 
But there the fxtj seems clearly 'generic': 
i.e.y the sense is : ' you are so weak as to 
have made peace at a time when there 
was no enemy in the country, ' etc. [Prof. 
Goodwin, Moods and Tenses, new ed., 
§ 606, suggests that iTotricaode virtually 
depends on an el further back, and that 



TPAXINIAI 



9* 



Hydra, Lerna's monstrous growth, hath tinged the arrow with 
black gall, — this shall be to thee a charm for the soul of 
Heracles, so that he shall never look upon any woman to love 
her more than thee/ 

I bethought me of this, my friends — for, after his death, I 
had kept it carefully locked up in a secret place ; and I have 
anointed this robe, doing everything to it as he enjoined while 
he lived. The work is finished. May deeds of wicked daring be 
ever far from my thoughts, and from my knowledge, — as I abhor 
the women who attempt them ! But if in any wise I may 

prevail against this girl by love-spells 

pdcBta. 682 — 687 Wecklein inserts w. 584 f. (0lXr/>oif...'Hpajc\6t) imme- 

diately after 581, placing only a comma after xercipavraL rdde, and deleting 5' after 
(piXrpots. Wunder, followed by Nauck, brackets v. 585. Dindorf suspects all the 
four vv., 584 — 587. 



the force of wore is lost. This would be 
conceivable if the fuf came after iiroirf- 
aacrde : but it immediately follows wore.] 
— The opposite anomaly occurs in El. 
780 f. wot o0re. . . I ... ffTcydfew . 

dvr\ o-ov, instead of the gen. after the 
comparat. : Ant. 182 n. 

678 £ ivvoijo-cur' : Sophocles prefers 
the act. voice of this compound: Ph. 
1440 n.— S6|tois, simply 'in the house': 
tyKCKXflii&ov adds the notion expressed 
in 686 by iv fivxois atpfrtv. 

680 \irava r6vB* : a handmaid 
carries the casket (622) containing the 
robe. — ip<u|ra. The notion of a <pl\rpov 
in the form of an unguent was a familiar 
one : thus in Eur. Hipp. 516 Phaedra asks 
the Nurse, vbrtpa hi xP lffTOV $ ^orbv rb 
(pdpfxaKov ; 

irpoo'PaXovo' , 'with application of 
everything that he directed,' — i.e., ap- 
plying the philtre to the robe with 
attention to all the prescribed details. 
From w. 680—687 it appears that Nes- 
sus had said more than she repeats in 
572 — 577. He gave Oea-fiol (682), pre- 
cise instructions. — This is better than to 
understand, 'with all the additions that 
he enjoined' (schol. Kal &Wa tip 4 <rvfx- 
fu^aaa) : though it may be supposed that 
the coagulated blood, before being ap- 
plied to a large surface, was diluted with 
water. (Schneidewin explains the word 
by Apollod. 2. 7. 6 rbv re ybvov 6v diprjKC 
/card rijs 717s Kal rb...alfJLa avfifd£ai.) — 
Not, ' with observance o/b\\ that he said ' : 
as if ȣ (or vow) were understood. See 
on 844 TpocrtpaX*. 

681 xiircCpavrai (3rd sing.), from the 



epic Tetpalvu: Od. 12. 37 raOra yukv ofrria 
wdvTa TretrelpavTai : Pind. /. 7. 24 dlicaf 
ivetpaive. The Attic form vevipamai 
occurs in Plat. Rep. 502 E. The words 
have a tragic significance. Her remedial 
measures are now complete. 

682 £ Kcucds 8* ToXfias. She wishes 
to assure them that she intends no harm 
to Heracles, and has. no reason to fear 
evil. The results of so-called 'love- 
charms' were often disastrous. Anti- 
phon's first oration is against a woman 
charged with the wilful murder of her 
husband by causing a love-potion to be 
administered to him: she pleaded, ofa 
tvl 0avdT<p..M86vai t dXX' irrl QlXrpots 
(§ 9). Arist. Magn. Mor. 1. 16 (p. 1 188 
b 31) notices a case in which a woman 
was tried under like circumstances by the 
Areiopagus, but acquitted, because there 
was no proof of vpbvoia. Plut Mor. 
139 A compares lovers won by such means 
to fish captured by baits which spoil 
them; od <pl\rpa rwd koX yoTjTclas iwt- 
rexvdofxeyai rots dvtipdcri, Kal x eL P°^t ievaL 
5id ydovfjs airrofo, ifurXrjicTots Kal dvov}- 
tois koI di€<f>Oap/xtvots crvfx^tov<ri. Alci- 
phron 1. 37 dfx<f>tpd\\€ii> (to have dubious 
effects) elude rd <pi\rpa> Kal diroaK^irTew 
e/s 6\e(fpo». 

jjtiJT tiri* a TaC|U}v..., |mjt* 4ic|ia6oi|u: an 
emphatic way of protesting how utterly 
foreign such thoughts are to her nature : 
— 'may I never be capable of them 
(543 n -)t or be led to learn anything 
about them.'— <rnry»: for the indie, co- 
ordinated with the opt., cp. 143 n. 

684 IE. ^CXrpots 8' lav ir»s. The 
use of idv tcik is the same here as when 



92 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



xo. 

AH. 
XO. 
AH. 



AI. 



AH. 



rfjv nouSa Kal Oiktcrpoiai T019 i<l> 'Hpa/cXcc, 

f L€ / jW ?X < * K, ? T(U Tovpyov, €t tl p,fj So/caJ 
irpdo'O'eiv fidraiov el 8c p,rj, 7T€7ravcroftat. 
aU* €t Tt9 €ot! maris €Z> T019 8/>a>fi6>oi9, 
So/ccis Trap* 77/x«/ ov /SefiovXtvo'dcu kcucoS?. 

OVTGJ9 €^€1 y* ^ 7TIOT19, <U9 TO ft€V Sott€lI' 

ei>€OTi, 7T€tpa 8* ov TTOocrcufttX^cra 7ra>. 

OAA €10€1>(U xpi} OpOKTaV 0)9 OVO €1 OOK619 

cv€ii>, e^ot9 a*> ywSfia, firj TreipcjfjLevrj. 
a\V ovtCk €wroft€o , ^a* twSc yap /JXcVa) 
uvpaiov Tjorj* oia ra^ov9 o cA€vcr€Tat. 
fiovov nap* vfxcov €u c7Tcyot/^€^ , • a>9 ck6t(j) 
kov aiaypd Trpaacrys, ovttot al<r)(yvy 7re<rel. 
tl yprj iroelv; (rqfiaLve, t4kvov Ou>ca>9, 
a>9 icfikv rjhrj t$ fia/cpai XP° V< ? /3/>a8ets. 
aW avra 817 cot ravra Kal irpd<r<r<o f At^a, 



585 



590 



595 



600 



686 rots] rottrd' T. 687 reraisa-o^ioi] ireiraiJ<reTai A, and Aid. 688 et 

rtf r : r}rur L. 691 tw] tov r. 692 odd' e/ oWetf] otf oo/teicr L : the 

letters 5' el have been inserted above the line by a later hand. 698 yvu>/ia] 



it serves for the elliptical expression of a 
hope or aim (0. C. 1769 Qripas 0" rffiat\ 
. . .wi/Hf/ov, idv xws I 5taKU)\vcru)/x€v lovra 
<povov. But |U|M|X<ivt)Tai Tovp-yov, since 
it follows the clause with idv reus, is not 
really analogous to the verb which usually 
precedes such a clause ; as Tifiyf/op in O. C. 
1770. The constr. is not, ft^ii.rfxdvrjfrax 
rotipyop, idv irws vveppaXd/MeOa, 'the deed 
has been devised, in the hope that/ etc. 
Rather the sense is : * But as to the pos- 
sibility of prevailing by love-charms, — 
the means for that attempt have been 
devised.' ftefirjxdvrjrcu roHpyov is an ab- 
rupt substitute for tovto weipaaOcu /Sot/- 
\o/xai or the like, and is prompted by 
her nervous sense that she has taken a 
bold step. The peculiar form of the 
sentence arises from the wish to empha- 
sise <t>l\rpoLs as opposed to kok&ls r6\/xas. 
virfppaXw|ic0a : the midd., in this sense, 
is more freq. than the act. ; but the dat. 
usu. denotes the point of excellence (Ar. 
Eq. 409 00 rot fi' {HrcppakciaO' dvaitiela), 
and not, as here, the means. — t^v iratSa, 
— strong in the charms of youth (547). — 
O&KTpouri, a reiteration that the means 
are to be gentle: cp. Eur. Hipp. 509 eVm*» 
/car' (Xkovs <p[\rpa jxoi deXtcrrjpia | tpurros. 
— Tofe ty' HpcucXct, aimed at him, as 



the person whose love was to be won: 
cp. Apollod. 2. 7. 6 el 0i\oi 4>l\rpo» 
rpbs 'HpajcXla exew. 

ct ti \ki\: tl (adv.) = 'perchance* : cp. 
712: 0. T. 969: 0. C. 1450. — pdraiov, 
culpably rash (cp. n. on 565). — tl Si urj: 
'otherwise/ after a negative : cp. Ar. Vesp. 
434 M Ate077<r0e firfdevl' \ el di m, V xiZcut 
irax^oLn ovStv d/Monjo'ere. So Thuc 1. 
28, Plat. Phaed. 63 D, etc. This rather 
clumsy formula was recommended by 
brevity: i.e., in Ar. /. c, the alternative 
was el 5e pedrfffevBc, as here el 8i 8ok&. — 
irfira6<ro|Mu: Ant, pi n. 

688 £ irtoTis, in an objective sense, 
a ground of confidence, a warranty: cp. 
623 : EL 887 tLv\ (a rd\ouv\ l8ov<ra irl<r- 
tlv ; — Sokcis irap* ijjJitv : Eur. Med. 762 
yevvatot &v/iP> I A£y«v, vap* i/xol 8e86icrjff(u. 

690 f. The whole phrase ofrras fxci 
is slightly emphasised by 7c, and limits 
the affirmative implied by the art. before 
irbrns : * The present state of the warranty 
(given by tA Sp&fxeva) is this, 1 etc. It 
seems needless to suppose that the literal 
sense of trlaris here is different from that 
in 588. — cfe=c*jT€, answering to ofrrus: 
cp. Her. 2. 135 ovtu Mj ti k\eu^ iytveTO 
iSs Kal ol vdrrcs...Tb ofoofux. i&fxadov. 
(When ibs stands for wore, it is more often 



TPAXINIAI 



93 



and charms used on Heracles, the means to that end are 
ready ; — unless, indeed, I seem to be acting rashly : if so, I will 
desist forthwith. 

Ch. Nay, if these measures give any ground of confidence, 
we think that thy design is not amiss. 

De. Well, the ground stands thus, — there is a fair promise ; 
but I have not yet essayed the proof. 

Ch. Nay, knowledge must come through action ; thou canst 
have no test which is not fanciful, save by trial. 

De. Well, we shall know presently : — for there I see the 
man already at the doors; and he will soon be going. — Only may 
my secret be well kept by you! While thy deeds are hidden, 
even though they be not seemly, thou wilt never be brought to 
shame. 

Enter LlCHAS. 

Li. What are thy commands ? Give me my charge, daughter 
of Oeneus ; for already I have tarried over long. 

De. Indeed, I have just been seeing to this for thee, Lichas, 

yvu/xd L (u from <£). In marg., yp. (Lyvtapia : and, from a later hand, rb yv&fm. 
696 rrap* ipLwv] Trap 1 v/juv B, Lc. <rreyol/x60'] Blaydes writes <rr€yu>/icO\ 697 al- 
<ryftv\} T«rei] aUrxj&vriirearjt L. 



with the infin.) It is possible, but less 
fitting, to take wy as = * since,' introducing 
the explanation (like yap). — rb |UvSoKctv 
is 'the expecting' to succeed (rather than 
'the seeming likely' to do so). 

irttpa 8* otf irpo<r»|iC\i)<ra, have not 
come to close quarters with an experiment, 
— have not actually essayed it : cp. Plat. 
Tim. 88 c yvfu>a<rrtKJj irpo<rofu\ovvTa : 
Thuc. 6. 70 rots . . . iX&xurra iroX^uy u)/u~ 
X 77*60-4, opp. to roh...ifnr€ipoT4pou, 

692 f. Spucrav : the partic. expresses 
the leading idea (' if thou wouldest know, 
thou must act*)', cp. 0. C. 1038 n. — 
Yvwpa, a means of judging, a test : Her. 
7. 52 "Ibiraf...TCi;y exo/iev yvCapja fUytarov. 
(In poetry the word sometimes means 
merely 'judgment,' ' opinion ' : Aesch. A?. 
1352, Eur. Her. 407.) — The Chorus do 
not say that she ought to make the ex- 
periment ; but only that, until she does so, 
she can have no certainty. 

694 £ etXX' avrCic' : for the repetition 
of dXXd (after 592), cp. Ph. 645, 647. — 
4\cWercu, will depart (to Heracles) ; and 
so the result will soon be known. For 
this sense of the verb, cp. Ph. 48 n. : for 
the form, 0. C. 1 206 n. 

696 f. \16vov, mode: cp. 1109: Ph. 
528. — irap* vp3v, from your side, on your 
part: the gen. is probably right, though 



the v. /. irap' vjriv is specious. Silence 
is their contribution to her plan. Cp. El. 
469 <nyy\ Trap' vfxdv wpbs Oe&v brrw, <pt\ai. 
— <TTcyo£|Jif0', have my action kept secret. 
Cp.fr. 61 4 irtiyyvwc K&vdffxevOe criyuxrai' 
rb yap \ ywat£U> atVxpov otiw yvvatfca 5ei 
vriynv (so I amend airv ywatxl : cp. Ant. 
85 Kpv(py 5t Kevde, ffdv 5' atfrws iyu>). — 
Blaydes may be right in reading <rrry»- 
|AfO (cp. 0. T. 49 n.). But the opt. is 
defensible, as expressing an ardent hope, 
rather than a mere injunction ('Heaven 
grant that ye keep my secret ! '). 

aUrx^vx) ireorft : the dat. is one of man- 
ner (cp. 0. T. 51 &<r4>a\clQ...av6p8<o<rov f 
n.), not of cause, as El. 429 afiovKla ire- 
<F€iv. Thus the phrase =Tc<re? afoxpbv 
TTu/fxa (Ant. 1045). The simple irecrci 
could not stand for vepiwcact ('fall into 
shame '). 

699 t<J> pAKpf XP^*^' ^y reason of the 
long time (spent at Trachis). He was 
ready to depart when he entered at v. 393 : 
but Deianeira, after learning all, brought 
him back into the house (492). 

OOOff. avTd...Tavra: the commands 
for which he asks (598). Instead of say- 
ing, ' I have been preparing this robe, in 
order that you may take it,' she says: 'I 
have been busied about the charge to be 
given to you, — so that you may take this 



94 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



ecus crv rai9 e<r(odev rjyopS £4vai<z, 
07ra)9 ^€p^9 fioc to^Sc *TOLvai}<f)rj Trerrkov, 

ScipTjfl iK€LV(p TavZpl TYJS ipfjs X C /°^ 5 W 
StSoV? Sc T0J>8€ <f>pd£' 07TCU9 ft1jS€t9 ffpOTciv 

K€tvov wdpoidev a/x<£i8vo"€T(u x/ 00 ^' 
ft^S* o\jf€Tai viv /xTjre <f>eyyo$ ijXiov 

ftl^ C/0KO9 U/OOJ/ ft^T* i<f>€OTL0V (T€Xa9, 

7r/o«/ /c€u>os avroj/ <f>avep6<; ifji<f)av(o<; ot<x0€19 

BeC£g deola-LV rjp*tpa> Tavpo<r<f>dya). 

ovtcj yap rfvyixrjv, el nor avrov €9 Softov9 

(ttcXci^ xyruivi tgJSc, kox (fxtveiv deols 
dvrrjpa kolivo) kolivov iv Treir\(oyLari. 
Kal raivS' a7rotcr€t9 cn^ft', o K€u>09 €Vfta^C9 
cr<^payi8o9 €jp*€i t$8* # €7roz> iiadrjaerai. 



605 



610 



615 



0O2 f. Paley suspects these two vv. — rwfle ravaV<fn) Wunder: top & 7' tini^nj L, with 
•d» written over eb by S. Schol. yp, dv<prj dvrl rod \eirrov<prj. The other MSS., too, 
have rovSe 7' (or top 7') €vv<pi}. 6O6 d^0t5tf<reTcu] Blaydes reads &p<pi01j- 

fferat. 607 ty/ros tcpo?] Wecklein, with M. Schmidt, writes Upbv tpicovs. 

6O8 <pavep6s i/Mpav&s L, A, and most MSS. {<pavepb<r made from (pavepCxr in L) : 
<pavepbv ifjupavijs T (Triclinius). Brunck reads (pavepbs efM<pavij: Wakefield prefers 



robe.* — For Kal before irpcunrai, cp.3 14. — 
iJYOfxo: the only part of the epic dyopdo- 
fuu found in Trag. : Her. 6. 1 1 has ^70- 

p6(OVT0. 

Tavaitytj, woven long, irodrjprj. Wun- 
der's restoration of this word, in place 
of t<5v8c y cfttyrj, is confirmed by two 
facts: (1) there was a mysterious variant 
dttyfj, explained by XeirTov<pTJ : (2) ravav- 
<£t), explained by Xeirrou^, occurs in 
Hesychius, Suidas, and Photius. It may 
be added that the 7c of the vulgate, if 
not impossible, is at least suspicious. 

irfaXov : Eustath. p. 599.44 refers to this 
passage as one in which WtXos is part of 
a man's dress, alluding also to Eur. /. A. 
1550, where a viirXos is worn by Aga- 
memnon. The Homeric rArXos belongs 
to women only; hence the schol. here 
objects to the word. x LT( ^ v is> m feet, 
the proper term for the long robe sent to 
Heracles : whrXos , when used with ref. to 
it (674, 758, 774), is rather a general word 
for a stately garment. — She now hands to 
Lichas the casket (622) containing the 
robe. Hence the repeated t6vSc (instead 
of avrov) in 604 is natural. 



604 f. 4>po£' oitcds |M|8cls...d|t^t8v- 
crcTai: cp. Ai, 567 Keivip t' inyv dyyel- 
Xar' irroXiljv, owtat (5ef£et). The more 
usual infin. is often thus replaced after 
verbs of asking or commanding; but it is 
specially suitable, as here, after a verb of 
warning. 

607 gpicos Up£v, a sacred temenos, 
where there might chance to be a blazing 
altar (she is thinking of vv. 237 f.): 
tylvriov <r&as, any fire kindled in the 
warrior's quarters at Cenaeum. She is 
repeating the substance of the Centaur's 
precepts : see 685 f. 

608 1 <|>avcf>4s, 'conspicuous,' fy^a- 
v»s, * publicly,' * before all eyes': both 
words go with ora&ls, picturing the 
moment when Heracles shall stand forth 
in front of the altar. The order of words 
and the rhythm are against taking ifupa- 
vus with $€l£y. — to. vpo<r<{»dy<p : a day of 
solemn rejoicing, when the greater vic- 
tims are slain : Aesch. Cho. 201 povdfrrois 
iv rj/xaai. Cp. 760. 

6 IO i|tiv|M)v, the only instance of this 
plpf. (for €vkto in Horn. fr. 2. 15 is rather 
an aor.): but Plat. Phaedr. 279 c has 



TPAXINIAI 



95 



while thou wast speaking to the stranger maidens in the house ; 
— that thou shouldest take for me this long robe, woven by 
mine own hand, a gift to mine absent lord. 

And when thou givest it, charge him that he, and no other, 
shall be the first to wear it ; that it shall not be seen by the light 
of the sun, nor by the sacred precinct, nor by the fire at the 
hearth, until he stand forth, conspicuous before all eyes, and 
show it to the gods on a day when bulls are slain. 

For thus had I vowed, — that if I should ever see or hear 
that he had come safely home, I would duly clothe him in this 
robe, and so present him to the gods, newly radiant at their 
altar in new garb. 

As proof, thou shalt carry a token, which he will quickly 
recognise within the circle of this seal. 

(pavepdv ifupav&t. 618 fcauxf kcuvov] Nauck writes fcXetvQ icXeufhv, — iv] ifi L. 

614 £ evfxadh \ <r<ppayttos ZpKti t$5' &r' 6fipa dfyreTcu MSS. For the last three 
words Billerbeck restored r£d' £t6v /ladfocrai. Burges conj. 6fifM dels \ efpayitios 
(pK€i t$5' &r', eC fxad-fyrcrai. 



the pf. rjvicrai as pass, impers. Cp. O. T, 
1512 cr. n. 

611 £ iravSCic»s (with vrcXctv) 'as 
in duty bound,' — by the vow, and by a 
wife's natural sympathy. Cp. 294 to*- 
8lic(p 4>pevi (n.). — Others join the adv. with 
o-wO&t, as = * completely' (schol. dye?- 
SouLffrwSy 'indubitably'). But there is 
no evidence for iravoticus as merely = 
TTom-eXw: cp. 1247: O. C, 1306: [Eur.] 
Rhes, 720 6\oito TravSltcws (*as he de- 
serves'). 

618 Keuvf kcuv&v: the epithet, strictly 
applicable to the WTrXoyux only, is given 
to the Oxrrfip also, expressing the new ra- 
diance with which the robe shall invest 
its wearer. This common idiom (Her. 2. 
173^ 0p6v(p <re/jw<j) <T€/jlm6v OwKiovra) occurs 
elsewhere also under a similar condition, — 
viz., where the repeated adj. serves for 
collective emphasis rather than for separ- 
ate characterisation: El. 742 dpObs ££ 
dpO&v 5L<t>pwv : Ai. 267 kou>6s h> Koivot<n 
Xvxeiadcu : id. 467 £vfiir€ff<bv fiovot jjAvols. 
But it should be observed that, in this 
passage, the repetition has a further mo- 
tive. It is a touch of tragic irony, like 
the unconscious ambiguity of Tpoeapudacu 
in 494. For 0vri)p kclwos could mean, 'a 
sacrificer of a novel kind': cp. 0. C. 1541 
ty& y&p jjye/jubv | <r<p$v a5 TitpaffpMi kcuv6s. 
For the sinister sense of kouv6s, cp. 867. 

As to the wearing of new, or freshly 
washed, garments on such occasions, cp. 



Od. 4. 750 (Penelope is to pray to Athena) 
Ka.9a.pk xpot elfxad* iXovaa. 

614 f. Kal twv8* airotofit. Deianeira 
has sealed the casket (622) with her own 
signet. <r<ppayis here is not the signet- 
ring itself, but the impression in wax, the 
seal: cp. Eur. I. A. 155 a<ppayXba <f>v\a<r<r\ 
fjv iwl 64\r<p I tj}&€ KOfilfcis. The word 
ZpKos, 'enclosure,' means the part of the 
ring which bears the device, <rrjfxa. This 
part was called (npcvMrrj (Eur. Hipp, 
862 TtjToi...cr<p€y56vTjs), Lat. fun da, be- 
cause the gem in its setting was like a 
stone in a sling: the English term is 
bezel; the French, chat on. That tpicos here 
denotes the whole bezel, and not merely 
the rim, is shown by ivbv, which would 
otherwise be iv6v. The use of the word 
<rijfm in this context is illustrated by an 
inscription on a scarab of the 6th cent. 
B.C., published by Rossbach, ArchaoL 
Zeit. (1883, pp. 311 ff., pi. 16, No. 19): 
61/xriu* el/it ad/Ma' p.i\ fxe aroiye. Cp. 
Prof. J. H. Middleton, Engraved Gems 
of Classical Times (1891), p. 67. 

tir6v itaOtfcfTCu is Billerbeck's certain 
correction of he' 6\k\ux Oij<rrrat, a corrup- 
tion caused by the easy change of v (before 
/jLad^crerai) into p; just as in Ant. 1266, 
£i>»/ fi6p<fi t L has £ufj.fx6pu>L As to cvjta- 
6is. . .)u&9i(o-CTai, cp. n. on Ant. 502 k\4os. . . 
efaXeiarcpw, Those who keep the vul- 
gate govern & by firUhj<rcT<u o|i|&a as = 

6\j/€TaA. 



96 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



dXX' epire, /ecu <f>v\a<r<r€ npcira pev vofiov, 
to firj 'iridvpew iropiros aiv 7rept,o m o m a Spdv 
eireiff O7TC0S av y X^P 1 * K ^ vov t4 <toi 
K<ifiov tjvvtkdova i£ dirkrjs Siirkrj <f>airg. 

AI. dXX* einep 'Eppov rrjvZe iropTrevo) T€yyr\v 620 

fiefiaiov, ov tl prj (T<£aX<5 y h> <roC 7TOT€, 
to ff>7 ov too ayyos C09 9(€i oeifcu (pepcov, 
koycov T€ TTiarriv (ov *Xcy€i9 i<f>appoo m ai. 

AH. crrctvots dv ^Stj* /cat ya/> c^€7rtoTacrat 

tol y h/ hopourw <os c^oira Tvyydvei. 625 

AI. imarapat r€ ical <f>pd(TO) aecrcDO'peva. 

AH. dXX* ot<r0a pkv 8rj koI Ta tt}<; izivqs opcov 
7^poc^8ey/^aT , , avrfjv <os i8e£dprjv <f>l\<o$. 

AI. coot* iiarXayrjvcu Tovpov rjhovrj tceap, 

AH. ti S^t* dv dXXo y* ewc7rot9 ; ScSot/ca yap 630 

/X17 7r/o^5 Xcyoi9 d*> toj> ttoOov tov itj ipov, 
wplv elBevat TaKtldtv el wodovpeda. 

621 00 rt A, R, and Aid. ; of rot L, with most MSS. 022 rd /a*?? otf A : rb fity 
(sic) L, made from rd M otf : to /t^ r. 628 X^yeu Wunder: £y«s MSS.: Otto conj. 
tyeto-' (2nd aor.), and so Wecklein now reads : Wakefield, 0Aeis: Paley, tx w or 0^>«. 
In ^4rf »S0/£. #w. p. 49 Wecklein conj. \£yuv re vl<mv Cov \£yeif. 624 — 682 Nauck 
would place these nine verses immediately after 615, thinking that Deianeira's words 



616 £1 vlpov, 'rule'; cp. 11 77. — to* 
|it) *iri0v|&ctv iro|&iros »v: not TOfnrbv 
Sptcl. Even when the inf. has the art., 
and represents an oblique case, its sub- 
ject stands in the nom., if identical with 
the subject of the principal verb; Plat. 
Rep. 598 D i^fiwar/i$Ti did. to avrbs /xlj 
otts t' elvai iiri<rT^firiv...i^€Tda'aii cp. id, 
526 B: Thuc. 4. 18 AdxioV ay... 5 id 
rd fify Tip dpdovfitvy avrov wurrcfovrcs 
iiralp€<T0ai...Ka.Ta\ijotvTO : Andoc. or. 3. 
§ 30 el\6fJL€da...<TTpaT€V€a&ai..., fori tov 
fiivovret of/cot £vfX(JLaxovs ix €LV Zvpatco- 
olovs. — ircpioHrd Spav {Ant. 88) glances 
at the instance in which he had exceeded 
his master's orders (481 ff.); it is more 
particularly a hint, as the schol. remarks, 
that he is to respect the a<f>payls on the 
casket : verse 622 indicates this. 

618 £1 oirws av depends on the notion 
of iTtftcXov contained in <pv\a<ro-€ vo/xov. — 
If Lichas acts in the interest of his master 
only (cp. 286 no-Tot tJsv /cejvy), the \dp^s 
won by him will be dirXi) : if he regards 
the welfare of his mistress also, it will 
become SiirXij. The genitives kcCvov to 
icdfMri) (of which the second has the chief 



stress) = i from him and me': hence jw- 
cXOovo*'. 

620 ft ctircp '£p|tov ic.r.X. : for 'E/>- 
fArjs 6 tt4/itu)Vj the patron of rfpvices, cp. 
PA. I33n. — iro|&irfvo», absol., act as to/x- 
w6s: Wxvt|v, cogn. ace, like vofxir^v t 
which 'the art of Hermes' implies, f&fiaiov, 
predicate, with the sureness of experience 
and good faith. 

oC rt |») is more usual than oti roi 
|m) (L's reading), and seems slightly 
more suitable here. Yet note Ai. 560 
00 toi ff J 'Axcutov, otSoj fxi} rts vfipLffy : 
O, C. 176 00 rot ii-tjTCori <t\..8jcovt& tis 
&%€!,. — Iv coi, in thy case, in what con- 
cerns thee: Ai. 1092 iv 0avovcru> vfipia- 




kinds, here means a coffer or casket, the 
tfyturrpov of 692. Similarly in Eur. Ion 
32 6770s is the general term, denned by 
ivTlvv^t 'cradle* (19, 1337 f.). — As tx <i: 
with the seal unbroken (614). 

628 \6y»v...irCo-Tiv: \he pledge (588) 
of thy words, — referring esp. to the men- 
tion of the vow (610 flf.), which explains 



TPAXINIAI 



97 



Now go thy way; and, first, remember the rule that mes- 
sengers should not be meddlers ; next, so bear thee that my 
thanks may be joined to his, doubling the grace which thou shalt 
win, 

Li. Nay, if I ply this herald-craft of Hermes with any sure- 
ness, I will never trip in doing thine errand : I will not fail to 
deliver this casket as it is, and to add thy words in attestation 
of thy gift. 

De. Thou mayest be going now; for thou knowest well 
how things are with us in the house. 

Li. I know, and will report, that all hath prospered. 

De. And then thou hast seen the greeting given to the 
stranger maiden — thou knowest how I welcomed her ? 

Li. So that my heart was filled with wondering joy. 

De. What more, then, is there for thee to tell ? I am afraid 
that it would be too soon to speak of the longing on my part, 
before we know if I am longed for there. 

now close too abruptly with v. 632. 627 f. ical rd rija j-iprja bpQ» \ TrpoffSey/xar* 

a.i)ri\v [from afrrijv] w<r ideg&firjv <pl\u<r L. Most MSS. have airrfiv 0\ but a few 
(including A) aMfv, without 0': and so Aid. For vpoffiey/iaT 1 , Harl. has vpoa- 
htpyfMT 9 . Hermann gives vpwr^0eyfMr\ a^rrju $'. Wunder, ko\ t4 tt)s £&i7S, 
bpQv y I trpcxTdty/jLar' avrijv <bs idd-dfirp <pt\a. Kochly conj. ain-q 0': Patakis, 
avros (to be taken with dpwv). Nauck would delete the verse. 68O <2XXo 7'] 

Blaydes writes aXX' fr\ 081 vptp] irpyi L, with two dots under Q, and 

<tt written above, denoting tv (i.e. trpLp), by a late hand. 682 r&Keidev] rd 

xeWev L. Schneidewin conj. KaneWev. 



the gift. — tyap|*6<rai=' fitly (or 'duly') 
add,' — i.e. 'add in attestation of the 
gift. ' — Xivcis is the best correction of tx<is* 
which doubtless arose from <x <l m tne 
line above. (In EL 934 f., <riiv x a P& M- 
yovs I Tototia5 J exowr' fovevdov, the sense 
is 'bearing news,' not 'sneaking words.') 
Otto's tycttr (cp. 286 i&EtT') is ingenious, 
though the 2nd pers. of this aor. does not 
seem to occur elsewhere: but, before 
iipappUxrcu, the sound would be unpleasing. 
624 ortCxois <£v 4[8t) : a courteous 
form : Ph. 674 xwp ** *" dfo**- 

626 o-fcroMTfUva : all has been kept 
safe during the master's long absence: 
cp. 542 oltcovpia (n.). 

627 £ For dX\d...|Uv 8iJ, cp. 0. T. 
523. — I read avn)v (with A), not avrijv 
o* (with L), for these reasons. (1) It is 
clear that aM\v means merely earn, not 
ipsam. We cannot distinguish rol ttjs 
{&t)S ttpwrSfyitara, as meaning the wel- 
come of Iole along with the other captives, 
from a special welcome given to Iole 
personally. (2) atrip, although unem- 
phatic, has a position which would usual- 

J. S. V. 



ly give emphasis. But this is excused by 
the fact that the whole clause, avnjv <&$ 
4Sc{(£|M)y ^£Xa>s, depends on ol<r6a, being 
merely epexegetic of rd rfjs {frns irpoc- 
Styi&ara (instead of ota iyirero or the 
like). The chief stress falls on ^£\<ds. 
(3) If, however, we had avnjv 0', then the 
sentence would lose that compact unity 
which justifies the place of the pronoun. 
And so airnfjv 0* would naturally seem to 
mean ipsam, — raising the objection no- 
ticed above (1). The insertion of 0* may 
easily have arisen from a notion that the 
second clause required a link with the 
first. 

629 4KirXayrjvai, of joy (cp. 24), as in 
Aesch. Ch. 233 X a P$ && f**l 'KrrXayjs 0p^- 
pcls. — Cp. Aesch. Ag. 541 KH. wot' i»5a- 
Kpfjeiv y' SfAfAdffiv xapa? v* ' For the 
absence of ye here, cp. Ph. 105, 985. 

681 irp<p, * early,' i.e., 'too soon' 
(Aesch. P. V. 696 trptl ye ffrep&fets). 
icpta-l is prob. for xpof-t (Brugman, Stud. 
iv. 154). — |M\...Xiyoi$ &v. After a verb 
of fearing (whether the tense be primary 
or secondary) the potential opt. with dV 



9 8 



ZO0OKAEOYZ 



&rp. a. XO. <3 vavkor^a /ecu irerpcua 

2 depfia Xovrpd koX irdyovs 

3 Oi/ras irapavaierdovrts, ol T€ fiecraav 

4 -^pvaaXaKdrov r atcrdv Kopas, 

5 h/ff 'EXkdvcov dyopal 

6 IIuXaTtSes */c\€o^raf 



avr. a. 



MijXiSa 7ra/> 
635 



d /caXXi/Joas ra^ v/xiv 
2 avXog ov/c dvapaiav 



640 



088 — 689 L divides the vv. thus : — w vatiXoxa — | Btpith. — | oXtoat — | firj- 
\lSa — I xP vcra ^' aK * T0V — I W — I vv\dri5eff KKiovrat. 686 vapayaierdoprei L 

(Tapavaier&ovTea), A, etc.: Tcpivaier&ovTcs r (with rapa written above in B and T). — 



retains its ordinary sense. As yivovro 
&>= 'it might possibly happen,' so btdouca 
fit] ytvotro av = ' I fear that it might possi- 
bly happen.' This is the mildest mode 
of expressing a fear, as fj.rj with the fut. 
indie, is the most vivid. Hence it suits 
the misgiving, and the reserve, of Deia- 
neira : — ' I fear that you might happen to 
be premature in speaking on that subject.' 
Cp. Xen. An. 6. 1. 28 itceivo hvoCH fxij 
\lav av raxb ff(a<f>potn<r0€t7fv : id. De Vect. 
4. 41 el & rives av <po(3ovi>Tcu fxri paroda 
or yfrotro avrrj 1} KarturKev^. In Lys. or. 
13 § 51* where the mss. give Sedtores fit) 
KaraKvOetrjcrap 6 Srjfxos, Markland conjec- 
tured KaraXvOetij civ : and the mild phrase 
suits the irony of the passage. (Bekker 
reads KaraKvOetrf without a*.)— rov 4J 
4pov : cp. Ant. 95 rV l£ ifuu dvcrfiovXlav 
(n.). 

682 tcmccCOcv, ace. with cl&vai, ex- 
plained by cl iro0ov|u6a. Here rd iiceWev 
is not merely ra iicet (315 n.); rather it 
means, 'the feelingy/ww (or on) his side,' 
as opp. to ithdov rbv e£ ifAov. — iroOovpcOa : 
for the plur., following S&oiica and 4|tov, 
cp* n. on Ant, 734. 

688 — 662 Second ardaifiov. 1st 
strophe, 633 — 639,= 1st antistr., 640 — 
646. 2nd strophe, 647 — 654, = 2nd an- 
tistr., 655 — 662. For the metres see 
Metrical Analysis. 

A joyous music will presently be heard 
by the dwellers around Trachis. The 
victorious Heracles will soon return, filled 
with new love for Deianeira, under the 
spell of the robe. 

688 — 689 <J va6\oxa k.t.X. Wishing 
to call up a general picture of the whole 



region, the poet takes Thermopylae as 
his central point. From the cliffs of Oeta, 
which overhang that pass, his thought 
passes to the highlands {wdyovs Ofray) of 
Malis, and thence descends to the sea- 
board, — bringing us back to Thermopylae 
by the mention of the Amphictyons. 

0cp|id Xovrpd: the warm springs at 
Thermopylae are situated between the 
Malian gulf on the N. (ya6Xo\a), and 
the cliffs of Oeta on the south (xcTpata). 
They gush from the foot of the moun- 
tain, — that spur of Oeta which Livy and 
Strabo call Callidromus, — a little west of 
the point where the pass is narrowest. 
They were locally called x^P '* fr 0111 tne 
natural basins of rock; and near them 
was an altar of Heracles, for whose use 
Athena was said to have called them forth 
(Her. 7. 176: Peisander ap. schol. Ar. 
Nub. 1050). 

v*i)\o\a: Strabo 9. 428 speaks of a 
Xtfxijv fUyas near Thermopylae. Here 
the word suggests the expected landing 
of Heracles. 

mfryovs Otras: the Tprifx.lvuu virpau of 
Her. 7. 198, spurs from the main range 
of Oeta, which enclose the plain of Malis' 
on s. and w. : see Introd. to the Philo- 
ctetes, pp. ix. f. — irapavattrdovris with 
ace. : cp. Isocr. or. 4 § 162 "EXXipm 
rf)v 'Aalav wapoucov<riv t dwell along its 
coasts. 

ol (art.) Tf, sc, vcuerdovrcs, following 
the direct vocative (633) : cp. Xen. Cyr. 
3. 3. 20 w Kvpe koX ol oXXot Ift/xrcu. — fi&r- 
<rav Mi)\£Sa...\C|ivav, the part of the gulf 
between the two extremities, ue. the in- 
nermost part of the deep recess which it 



TPAXINIAI 



99 



Ch. O ye who dwell by the warm springs between haven ist 
and crag, and by Oeta's heights ; O dwellers by the land-locked slro P he# 
waters of the Malian sea, on the shore sacred to the virgin- 
goddess of the golden shafts, where the Greeks meet in famous 
council at the Gates ; 

Soon shall the glorious voice of the flute go up for you again, ist anti- 
strophe. 

fxiaaav L : juArw r, and Aid. 080 x&p T (Triclinius) : irapk. the other Mss. 

(Tapaklfivav L). 089 /rXlovrat Musgrave : KaXiovrcu MSS. : KaXevvrcu Bergk 

(as formerly Hermann). 041 dvapvlav] dpvaatay Aid. (a mere misprint). 



forms. It is in this part that the shores 
of the gulf belonged to Malis, — viz., from 
the neighbourhood of Thermopylae to 
that of Anticyra. 

XpwraXoicaTov r dicrdv Kopas : merely 
another way of describing the same sea- 
board : they live by the Xlfwij, and on the 
&kt1j. Artemis, one of whose attributes 
was \i/ievo<TK6irof> was worshipped all 
along these eastern coasts, since the whole 
maritime life of Greece Proper looked 
mainly towards the Aegaean. Apoll. 
Rhod. i. 571 (referring to the coasts about 
Pagasae and Iolcus in Magnesia), "Kprefuv, 
7} Ktlvat cr/cwt&s a\bs &fj.<pUir€<TKev. Cp. 
212 f. — The schol. wrongly takes dinky 
here as meaning that alytaXds in the 
N.w. of Euboea which was called 'A/>re- 
jiiaiov (Her. 7. 176). 

XpwaXaicaTov : this Homeric epithet 
of the goddess (//. 16. 183) is rightly ex- 
plained by Hesych. as = icaXX{ro£of 
TjXaicdrT) ybp 6 to£ik6$ KdXafJLos. Cp. firpcut- 
Tos — olvrbs. Artemis had nothing to do 
with a distaff. 

038 ft btf 'EXXdvc»v k.t.X. Meet- 
ings of the Amphictyonic Council were 
held at the town of Anthela, close to 
Thermopylae on the west, — where was 
the sacred precinct of Arjfi'^Trfp 'A/*0t- 
ktvovIs, containing seats {Zdpai) for the 
Council, and also a shrine of its legend- 
ary founder, Amphictyon (Her. 7. 200). 
Anachronisms were tolerated by Attic 
Tragedy, but this is hardly one, from 
the Greek point of view. The Thessa- 
lian and Dorian nucleus of what became 
the Delphic* Amphictyony was of im- 
memorial age; Amphictyon was called 
the son of Deucalion ; Acrisius of Argos 
figured in tradition as an early organiser 
of the league (Strabo 9. 420). 

'EXXdvcw, implying a Panhellenic cha- 
racter, reflects the regular phraseology of 



the poet's day. The Delphic Amphicty- 
ony never actually represented the whole 
even of Greece Proper 5 thus it never in- 
cluded the Acarnanians, Arcadians, or 
Eleans. Yet Her. 7. 214 speaks of ol 
7w 'EXXdvuv HvXaybpoi: an Argive inscr., 
older than 416 B.C., calls the Council r6 
ffw&ptor t&v 'EXXdvwv (Lebas, Revue 
Archiol. XI. 577): and Hypereides Epi- 
taph, c. 8. 25 describes those attending it 
as ol "EtWypes aTavres. 

dyopal IlvXarkScs: dyoph. iri/\aru= 
TTvXala (sc. crivoSos), the name for a meet- 
ing of the Amphictyons, whether at Pylae 
or at Delphi,— one of several proofs that 
the former place was the League's older 
centre. — icXiovrai, not *are called to- 
gether,' but, 'are famous': cp. 0, T. 1451 
tvda /cXflferai | oufids KiOaipuv (n.). — See 
Appendix. 

041 If. fltvapcrCav, * unkindly* (cp. 853), 
'harsh,' — referring to the use of the 
flute in wild or mournful music Cp. 
Sextus Empiricus Adv. Math. 6. 22 bUb 
Kal tois ireyOovo'tv avXol fieXtpSouaitf ol rip 
XvTrqv ai/T&v 4ttikou<pI£ovt€s. Lucian De 
Luct. § 19 ^ irpbs rbv aitXbv atini arepvo- 
rvirla. Plato Legg. 800 E, KapiK-j run 
fioijcry irpoTifxirovcL robs TcXevrfyravras, 
alludes to auXydol (cp. Pollux 4. 75). 

firdvcuriv, 'return,' but also with the 
notion of sound rising. — 6c£as...pov<ras, 
sc. Kavaxdv, a sound of music made to 
the gods (in thanksgiving): dvrtXvpov, 
like that of the lyre: schol. UrbXvpov. 
This is simpler than to understand, 're- 
sponsive* to it (as if both instruments were 
used). The lyre, 'common treasure of 
Apollo and the Muses' (Pind. P. 1. 1), 
was peculiarly associated with joyous 
worship. Cp. O.C. 1222 n. — d\&v, as 
a correction of U&x ttV > * s hardly doubtful, 
since a resolution of the long syllable 
would impair the rhythm (cp. 635 Ofras). 

7—2 



100 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



3 d)(Q)v Kava)(av htdv^xxriv^ dXkd deias dmikvpov /x,ovcras. 

4 6 yap Ato5 'AX/c/x/tyi/as Kopos 
* # cro5rat irdaas aperas 



6 \d<f)vp' €)(Q)v in oikovs* 

orp./?. ov diroTTTokiv efyofiev iravra, 

2 §voKai§€KdfjL7)i>ov dfifievovaau 

3 -yfiovov, irekdyiov, iSpies ovBev* 

4 a §€ oi <f>C\a Sdfiap 

5 raKaivav SucrraXaira icapSiav 

6 7rayfcXavros alh/ aJXXvro' 

7 *>w S* *Apr]S oioTprjdels 

8 c^cXvcr* iiriirovov dfiepav. 

dvr. P. d<f)lK0lT d<f>LK0LT0* [17] 0"TaL7] 

2 7roXvfca>7rov oyyuia i>aos avr<5, 

3 7Tpll> TCU>Sc 7T/305 TToXu' (XWCTCtC, 

4 vaa-La)TLV kaTiav 

5 d[i€L\jjas, evda fcX^crat dvnjp* 



645 



650 



655 



642 dx*?? Elmsley : tax a,J/ L, with most MSS. : /axwy r. 644 'AX/cyu^as icopos] 
6.\KpL7jvas re Kopos mss. (jcoupos A, and Aid.). Triclinius deleted re. Hartung writes 
J AXKfMr)vas re ircus : Wecklein (whom Nauck follows), d\/ccuos icdpos : Subkoff, clXki/aos 
Kopos. 645 (TovTai Blomfield and Elmsley : aevrat mss. 646 &r' of/cow has 

been made from AwoLkovo' in L. 647 — 654 L divides the vv. thus : — tv — | 

irdiTa' — I yjpovov — | a S4 — | r&Xaiva — | irdyK\avTo<r — | vuv 8' apqa — | i^ikva' 1 — 
afxipav. 647 iravra. MSS. : irdvra (better travrq. ) Bothe. Blaydes writes irXeiv 4). 

650 d 84] a 84 L. 651 raKaivav Dindorf: rdXatva L, with most MSS. 



644 6 Ai&$...'A\ic|L^va$ ic<$pos: ob- 
jection has been taken to the double gen., 
but needlessly: the second gen. practically 
forms a single notion with k6/x>s, — 'Zeus's 
Alcmena-son,'=the son of Zeus by Alc- 
mena. To a Greek ear tne effect would 
be nearly the same as when the first gen. 
is replaced by an adj. ; e.g., Aesch. Suppl. 
313 6 Atos wdpTLS.. (3o6s, Pind. 0. 2. 13 
to Kpbvie vcu 'P&s. 

645 £ o-ovtcu, instead of the MS. 
ccvtcu, is now generally read here. Cp. 
Ai, 141 4 ffofodu: Aesch. Pers. 25 eovv- 
toi: Ar. Vesp, 209 aov. On the other 
hand, crevrai has no nearer parallel than 
the Homeric orevrai: which some, in- 
deed, regard as syncopated (Curtius, Gk 
Verb> ch. iv. c), but others as a genuine 
non-thematic form (Leaf, //. 18. 191). 

irdous, complete: cp. Ai. 430 va/rav 



etf/c\«cw. — operas Xctyupa (like £#\a), 
* things won by' a-perf} (root \a(3). 

647 ff. 8v diroirToXtv ct\o|&cv : 'whom 
we had absent' = * whose absence we had 
to endure': schol. ov 4kt6s etxo/xev rijs 
ir6\ews. (Paley would join ctxoficv d/*- 
pjvovcrai, 'whom we had been waiting 
for': this seems inadmissible.) — iravT$, 
'utterly,' goes with diroirToXi v : it implies 
a contrast between this long unbroken 
absence and his former expeditions. Cp. 
Eur. fr. 966 oKb\aara vovtiq. (The Done 
form was written vavrq..) The adv. could 
mean also, 'in all directions,' but that 
sense is less fitting. — 8voKai8cK(i|&t)vov... 
Xjx&vov: more exactly, fifteen months 
(44 f.). — ircXdyiov: they imagined him 
as wandering on the sea, before or after 
his Lydian bondage: cp. 100 ff., Ant, 
785 <p<KTq.$ 5' inrepwbvTios (n.). 



TPAXINIAI 



101 



resounding with no harsh strain of grief, but with such music as 
the lyre maketh to the gods ! For the son whom Alcmena bore 
to Zeus is hastening homeward, with the trophies of all prowess. 

He was lost utterly to our land, a wanderer over sea, while *nd 
we waited through twelve long months, and knew nothing ; and stro P ne# 
his loving wife, sad dweller with sad thoughts, was ever pining 
amid her tears. But now the War-god, roused to fury, hath 
delivered her from the days of her mourning. 

May he come, may he come ! Pause not the many-oared *n<* anti- 
ship that carries him, till he shall have reached this town, leav- stro P he * 
ing the island altar where, as rumour saith, he is sacrificing ! 

and Aid. (Subkoff ascribes rdXaivav to A and K.) 658 olarprjdelff L and 

most MSS.: olarpwdels V 2 . Musgrave conj., ai arpwdeis, and so Dindorf reads: 
Hermann, ol crrpwdeis. 654 l£Ai/<r' MSS. Hermann writes i&lXwr'i Dindorf 

conj. iitfpvi-': Linwood e*£j}XXa£'. — iirtirovov ape'pav MSS. (ijfie'pay B) : Dind. (with 
Erfurdt) gives iirurbvw afiepav. 657 vpds] Wakefield and Erfurdt conj. vim 

(=the second and third syllables of ireKdyiop in 649). 658 avfoeLe] dy terete 

L, with e over the final a from a late hand. 659 dvHjp] Before this word 

three or four letters have been erased in L. 



650 * & ot...8d|&op. The art. is 
here a pron., in apposition with S&fiap, 
and serves to contrast the wife with the 
husband: the dat. ol is equiv. to a pos- 
sessive pron.: cp. II. 13. 616 \dice 8* 
dare" a, rb 84 ol 6crae k.t.X. Note also 
the epic hiatus before ol (/ol) : cp. El. 
196 ore ol (Herm., for 8t€ vol): where 
Dindorf cp. Aesch. Ag.. 1147 vepie- 
P&\ovt6 ol, and Cratinus ap. Plut. Per. 
24 "Hpcw re ol. In Eur. Phoen. 637, 
however, tOerb <roi (not ol) is clearly 
right. 

651 £ TctXcuvav (for the MS. TaXai- 
va) is required by the metre (cp. 659 
a/xe^a$).--<SXXvTO=^riJic€To: cp. El. 140 
dXX* airb r(av /xerplwv eV aiufixa-vov \ akyos 
del crTev&xovca dt6XXwat. 

658 £ tf ApT)$. The first syll. might 
be long (as it is in some other lyric pas- 
sages, Ant. 139, El. 96, Ai. 252, 614): 
but more probably it is short, and the 
first syll. of ireiQom in 661 is 'irrational' 
(see Metr. Anal.). — ol<rrpi)0cl$: the sud- 
den rage of Ares symbolises the furious 
impulse which sent Heracles against Oe- 
chalia. Cp. Eur. Bacch. 119 oUrrpriOels 
Aiov&rt?. The conject. afi (or ol) <rrpw- 
6cl$ would suggest the subsidence of a 
storm (Her. 7. 193 rb kv/mi (arpwro). 
This is less suitable, when, as here, Ares 



is a personified deliverer. 

i£t\vcr' tirfrrovov dp^pav, has ' resolved,* 
'cleared away,' the day of sorrow. The 
notion of untying a knot passes into that 
of dissipating a trouble. Cp. O. 71 35 e*£e*- 
Xwras... dcurfibv (n.). The image is more 
clearly developed in Ai. 706 Awe? alvbv 
&xos dir' d/xfiarvp "Apr)s. — For tirfrrovov 
dplpav, cp. Eur. Phoen. 540 txOpas... 
Tlfitpas, Hec. 364 \vwpav...iifAipay. In the 
Athamas Sophocles had Xcvicty riuApav 
as=r^y ayaOip (Bekk. Anecd. p. 106. 33). 

656 ^x t ll lba vao * : ** mav De doubted 
whether this means more than 'the ship 
which conveys him.' Eur. I. T. 410 
vaXov 6xVfJ>a is similar. Cp. Plat* Hipp, 
ma. 295 D rb. dx^M-ara, ra re irefA teal 
rb. h ry $a\irrjf irXoTa. But in vavrCKtav 
6x^/ JMTa (Aesch. P. V. 468) the metaphor 
of the chariot is distinct, as in Eur. Med. 
1 1 22 vatav \ ... &irf]VT]v. — iroXv.Kwirov 
agrees with the compound phrase: cp* 
Ant. 794 n. 

657 irplv...dv&rctc: the opt. is due 
to the preceding opt., oraty: cp. Ph. 961 
6\olo firjiru), irpiv (jiadoL/x\ 

658 £ 4o*r£av, altar: O. C. 1495 
potidvrop karlav (n.). — dpctyas, having 
quitted: Ph. 1262 n. — kX^ctcu Ovrn'p, is 
said by rumour to be sacrificing: cp. 237, 
287 : and for the verb, 1268. 



102 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



6 O0€V [l6\0L *7T(Wlfl€0OS, 

8 fo-vyKpadels cirl irpoifido'ei # <£apovs. 

AH, ywawccs, cus SeSot/ca /jw) mpaiTepa) 

n€7rpayfidv y (xol irdvff oa aprtcos cSpcov. 

XO. rt o ccrrt, Aydveupa, tzkpov Olveais; 

AH. ovk oT8 ,# dOvfiai o, ci (fxurqcofMu rd)(a 
kolkov fiey iK7rpd£a(r air iXwCSos Ka\r}$. 

XO. ov Sij tl tSxv craw 'HpcucXci 8<ofyrjfjidT<ov ; 

AH. jLtaXtcTTa y • cSotc [itfiroT dv irpoOvfiiav 
dSrjXov ipyov tg> irapaiviaai Xa/Selv. 

XO. 8c8a£w, ct StSa/crov, c£ orou fofiei. 

AH. rotoi/Toy ck/Jc^kc^, otoi/, ^ <f>pd(ra) 9 



66o 



66? 



670 



66O iravLfxepos Mudge : iravd/xepos MSS. 661 f. 

<ri/-y/cpa0els liri wpo<f>dffei dypos mss. See comment. 



rat ir«0ous Trayx^ ffT V 
668 ire/wuT^pw] Hense 



660 iravCjiipos : Ant hoi. 2. 169 xa\- 
jc$ Kdfffiov {douce iravlfiepov. Here, how- 
ever, the act. sense, *full of love' (for 
Deianeira), is fitter than the pass., 'all- 
desired.' This is Mudge's correction of 
the MS. TravcCpcpos, which admits of no 
satisfactory explanation. It has been 
interpreted: (1) * travelling all day': 
' Thence may he come, I A long day's 
journey without pause' (Whitelaw). (2) 
'Today.' One schol. paraphrases it, 
t^» <Hifi.€pov iifUpcw : another, iv tj} a&r$ 
ilftipQ. How this sense was extorted 
from the word, I do not know. (3) 
Taking it with what follows : ' re-united 
to Deianeira for all his days to come.' 

661 £ Tas ircifovs irayvpCcnp k.t.X, 
The corresponding verses of the strophe 
(653 f.) appear sound : vvv 5' "Ajnjs ol- 
ffTprjBels I £|Awr' iwlirovw & fit par. The 
traditional text here, ras ireiOovs wayxpt- 
<rr(p I ffvyicpaBels M irpo<pdcrei drjpds, 
makes a long syllable answer to the se- 
cond of i&\w\ and to the second of 
ifitpap. 

Let us now examine the text in detail. 

(1) iravxpCorqp does not look like a 
gloss. Dmdorf, who thinks it one, can 
only suggest that it arose from ir&yxpi~ 
(ttos, a gloss upon trvyicpadels. This is 
hardly probable. Sophocles is fond of 
intensive compounds with trail cp. 505, 
652: EL 851 warctiprrtp, wawfivv : Ant. 
1282 wawfyrwp • fr» 347 fr&yt&os, etc. 
As an epithet for the robe, Tayxp^or<fi$ 



'thoroughly anointed,' is suitable. (Cp. 
Deianeira's words in 580.) But it cannot 
be a subst., as the schol. on 663 would 
make it (\eliret. r<jj ir^rXy). 

(2) The words tirl irpo^Urci Oi)p&= 
tvlicovov afitpav in 654. Besides being 
unmetrical, 0r)p6$ requires an unexam- 
pled sense for irpo<pa<Tei, viz., 'precept/ 
Hence Dindorf reads irpo0av<ret (a word 
which is not extant), and in 654 iirnro- 
vuv a/xepav. For drjpdt, M. Haupt con- 
jectured 4>dpovs (9HP02, #AP02) : for 
the 5, cp. 916. The words ivl irpo<pd<j€L 
(pdpovs then mean, ' on the pretext of the 
robe.' The robe was the irpojxuris for 
using the love-charm. irayxpLaTtp can 
be retained in the dat., agreeing with 
irp<xpd(T€i (cp. Ant. 704 n.). 

(3) For cuyicpaOcls, cp. Ant. 131 1 
bcCKoda Si avyK^Kpa/xai dtia ('steeped in' 
it) : At, 895 dtKT(fi Tipde crvyK€KpafUvy\v 
(* steeped in this lament,' — i.e., in the 
anguish of it). Ar. Plut. 853 ovrta iro- 
Xvifdpqi avyK^KpafMOU bcdfjiovi. Thus the 
primary sense of mixture, or fusion, led 
to that of intimate union. If we accept 
(pdpovs, then crvyKpadds would be most 
naturally taken in the sense which iravl- 
ftepos, just before it, could suggest, — 
'made one in heart' with Deianeira. 

There remains, however, the metrical 
discrepancy between cuyicpaOcls and i£l- 
Xvor' in 654. Hermann read iJciXw' 
('unrolled,' meaning, 'disentangled,' 
'brought to a smooth close'). But i&- 



TPAXINIAI 



103 



Thence may he come, full of desire, steeped in love by the 
specious device of the robe, on which Persuasion hath spread 
her sovereign charm ! 

De. Friends, how I fear that I may have gone too far in all 
that I have been doing just now ! 

Ch. What hath happened, Deianeira, daughter of Oeneus ? 

De. I know not ; but feel a misgiving that I shall presently 
be found to have wrought a great mischief, the issue of a fair 
hope. 

Ch. It is nothing, surely, that concerns thy gift to Heracles ? 

De. Yea, even so. And henceforth I would say to all, act 
not with zeal, if ye act without light. 

Ch. Tell us the cause of thy fear, if it may be told. 

De. A thing hath come to pass, my friends, such that, if I 

declare it, 



conj. Kcupov it 4 pa. 670 rtp r : tow L. Blaydes conj. rov. 

(ppdffu) Erfurdt : av <ppdcro> mss. : to tppdccu Wunder. 



672 rjv 



\va* seems genuine. It is possible, how- 
ever, that (TvyKpadels was an explana- 
tion of o-wrctKcls (suggested by Paley), 
which would give the same sense. Cp. 
Eur. Suppl. 1029 yafiiras | trwrrixOcls 
atipais &8o\<h$ \ yevvalat akoxv fvX&Si 
' husband made one ivith wife in the sin- 
cere spirit of a loyal soul.' So awraKeis 
tlvi, of close attachment, Plat. Symp. 

183 E, 192 E. 

Either avyicpaOels or <twtclk€Is would 
here admit a secondary sense, uncon- 
sciously prophetic of the dire event (833 
wpocraKcvTos lov : 836 irpooTeTeuafo), — 
like Trpocapfxocrai in 494. — For other 
views, see Appendix. 

668 — 820 Third iveicroSiov. Deia- 
neira confides to the Chorus her fear 
that a danger may lurk in the gift which 
she has just sent to Heracles. Hyllus 
enters (734). He describes the suffer- 
ings of his father, who is being carried 
home; and ends by invoking curses 
upon his mother. She goes silently into 
the house. 

668 ircfxuTlpa>, absoL, implying ve- 
pairkpta tov dewros (Plat. Gorg. j.84 c). 

665 Andvcipa, tIkvov Olvcus: the 
form of address implies earnest sympathy 
with the terror which they perceive in 
her : cp. the 'irat Mepourcws of the Chorus 
in Ant. 1098. 

666 £ ctfo|u5 S', cl ^awfo'oiiai : cp. 
176 n.: Eur. Andr. 61 Qofitp fxev, tt ris 



SeairoTuv alfftHjacrcu. — dir' IXirCSos ica- 
Xtjs, as the outcome of it : cp. Ant. 695 
KaKurr 9 dir* tpywv ebicXeeffTaTtov <pdlvei. 
(Not, * contrary to it.') 

668 ov Sij in a question, as Ph. 900 : 
more often, oi difj vov (0. T. 1471, Ant. 
381), or ojJ ty Tore (Tr. 876, EL 1108). — 
ti is ace. of respect, and the gen. depends 
on it : ' Surely thou art not anxious as to 
aught belonging to, concerning thy gift?' 
This is simpler than to take the gen. as 
depending on 4\ir£8os, and n as adv.: 
*Not, perchance, (the hope concerning) 
thy gift?' — For the plur. oi»pi)|u£T»v, cp. 
494 : for the dat. 'HpaxXct, depending on 
the verbal notion, Plat. Euthyph. 15 A 
tcl rap* iifjLtav bwpa rots OeoU : and O. C. 
1026 n. 

669 f. &rrc (jltJitot Av iropaivtVoi, 
i.e. t wore otivor* &v irapatveaaifju. The 
words Trpobv\t.Lav...tpyov form a single 
notion, the sense being the same as if 
&St)\ov were ddJjXov. Cp. Ant. 794 n. 
ddrjkop here means, * untried by previous 
test': cp. her own words in 590 f. So 
in Thuc. 5. 103 a<paveis iXirldes (as opp. 
to (pavepai) are those which rest on no 
solid ground. Cp. id. 1. 78 iv afyXy 
KwdweueraL. — For Xopciv, • ' conceive,' 
cp. Ph. 1078 <pp6vr)criv...\dpoL. 

671 cl StSaicrtfv : cp. 64. 

672 £ olov, ^v 4>pcUr(o k.t.X. The 
choice here seems to lie between two 
courses. 



104 HWOKAEOYZ 

yvvalices, # vfta? Oavp? dvekmarov p.adeiv. 

g> yap tov ivhvrrjpa iriirkov apricu? 

itypiov, *dpyr}s otos evdpov ttokos, 

tovt TqKJxivLOTcu, huxfiopov npos ovSa/os 

T(ov evoov, aXA eoeorov eg avrov mvLvei, 

fcal \pj) kclt aKpas cnriXaSos. cJs o ciS^s dtrav^ 

$ tovt hrpd.'xffol* fieitpv iKTevS \6yov. 

iya yap m> 6 6rjp fie Kevravpos irovaiv 

irXevpav TTiicpq. yXajvw'i 7rpov8i8d£aTO, 

TraprjKa 6eafL<av ovoiv, aXX' i(r(o^6[i7jv, 



675 



680 



678 tytas] itfuv L, with most MSS. : fya* r.-— /xa0eu> A, R, K, Harl., and Aid. : 
Xafiew L (from 670), with fi written over X, and over 0, by first hand : vadeiv 
r and schol. (with yp, di koX padetp). 676 &pyijs...ir6Kos Wunder and Lobeck: 

dpyrfr' ( = &pyrjri)...ir6K(p MSS. (ir&rjv for a-6/cy, A, R), which Nauck keeps, taking 
dpyrjr 1 , however, as ace, and placing the comma after it (and not after typiov). 
Blaydes conj. dpyrjs (gen.)...ir6fcy. — evipov Lobeck: eveipip mss. (efelpw L): eucl- 
pov Valckenaer. 676 rjcpdvicrTcu L, with most mss. : r)<pavurro B, T, Lc 



(1) To retain fytv, but with a comma 
after it, and to supply from it v/xas as 
subject to poOctv : * such that, if I tell 
it to you, ye will learn an unexpected 
marvel.' Cp. Ar. Plut. 349 rrotos tls 

(SC. XPyVWV y OTOS... I fy flkv KCLTOpdli)- 

crwfxev, ev rrpdrruv del : where the sub- 
ject to the inf. is ^/a&s, supplied from the 
preceding verb. 

(2) To read vpas (subject to fxaSelv) 
instead of vpfv, which may well have 
arisen from <^pd<r». This course is 
recommended by the lucid construction, 
and by the better rhythm. Cp. O. T. 
1295 f. deafxa 5' eUr6\f/€i r&xa I tolovtov 
otov teal ffTvyovvr 1 irroucrleai. 

Others, taking |M&0ctv with Oav|& ctWX- 
irurrov only, suppose an ellipse of forat 
(or an equiv. word): 'Such that, if I 
tell it, (it will be) an unexpected marvel 
for you to hear. ' But such an ellipse is 
extremely harsh. Wunder's dtv <J>pct<rcu 
(with ifie understood as subject) is pos- 
sible, but loses the emphasis prepared 
by r)v <ppcuTiD, and gives an unpleasing 
rhythm. 

674 tov IvoVrijpaniirXov. The word 
ivdvHip (found only here) expresses that 
the ir^rXoj was not for ordinary use, but 
was one which Heracles was to assume 
for the solemn rite. Thus it is equivalent 
to 'stately,' or 'festal.' Cp. Eur. Tro. 
258 ivdvTUp <TT€<p£<jJV lepovs <TTO\/XOlJS t 

' die sacred apparel of wreaths with which 
thou hast been invested' (because they mark 



Cassandra's prophetic character). — The 
Xiruv belonged to the class of ivdtipMTa, 
garments ' put on ' (and not merely wrap- 
ped round the body) ; while the Homeric 
ir^rXos must be classed with iwipXifi/MTa 
(cp. //. 5. 734 ff.). But we cannot well 
regard ipdvrjjp here as a qualifying epi- 
thet, meaning that this w£ir\o$ was of the 
Xltuv class (cp. 602 n.). 

676 ctp*yi)s...ir6KO$: I follow Wunder 
and Lobeck in thus amending apvtJT ... 
v6k<$. The latter reading, if sound, pre- 
sents a dilemma. (1) apyiJT' = dpyrjri. 
But it is now generally recognised that 
the epic license of eliding datival l was 
foreign to Attic Tragedy: the supposed 
examples all admit of easy remedy : see 
O, C. , Appendix on v. 1436. (2) dpyrjra, 
agreeing with ir^rXoi' : 'white, glistering.' 
This is possible ; for, though tov IvSvrijpa 
TiiirXov precedes, a second epithet might 
follow: cp. n. on O. T. 1199. But the 
effect of such an epithet, added at the 
end of the clause, would here be very 
weak. And if dpyrjra is taken as the 
proleptic predicate ('anointed so as to 
make it shine,' Wecklein), this does not 
suit the sense. On the other hand, the 
connection of dpyrjt with tt6kos is confirm- 
ed by Aesch. Eum. 45 dpyrjra fia\\6i>. 

Blaydes suggests ctpyfjs olds e&ipov it6k<p : 
but the usage of dpyds precludes this. A 
change of dpY^s...iroicos into apyTJT 
(meant for dpyr}ri)...v6Ktp would easily 
have been induced by the preceding $ . — 



TPAXIIMIAI 



105 



ye will hear, a marvel whereof none could have dreamed. 

That with which I was lately anointing the festal robe, — a 
white tuft of fleecy sheep's wool, — hath disappeared, — not con- 
sumed by anything in the house, but self-devoured and self- 
destroyed, as it crumbled down from the surface of a stone. N 
I must tell the story more at length, that thou mayest know 
exactly how this thing befell. 

I neglected no part of the precepts which the savage Centaur 
gave me, when the bitter barb was rankling in his side : they 

were in my memory, 

(perh. due to Triclinius). 677 r(av Mov] Blaydes reads tQv iicrbs (as 

Herwerden also had proposed). — avrov A, and Aid. : avrov (sic) L. 678 koX 

\pi mss., and Aid.: koX \frij Eustath. p. 751, 52, and p. 1071, 9. Wecklein conj. 
xf/Tjicrbv : Frohlich, ical ^ifaereu kclt' tda<f>os. 68O £ Nauck brackets the words 

Kfrravpos irovQv \ irXevpb.v iriicpq. yXtaxivi. 



c&pov, the Attic form, ace. to the schol. 
on Ar. Av. 121 (where metre requires 
etiepov). 

676 £ irpos ovScv&s (neut.) twv JfvSov, 
by nothing in the house (such as fire, or a 
corrosive substance). The conj. t«v 4kt6s 
is ingenious, but seems unnecessary. — 
<|>0£vci, instead of <pdlvov : see n. on O. T. 

"34- ,„ 

678 yd is not elsewhere intrans. (cp. 

698), and hence has been suspected here: 
but cp. 128, n. on iTrl...KVK\ov<rw. — KaT 
oucpas <nriXa8os, down from the top of a 
flat stone, or slab, in the av\if) of the house. 
Schol. : u>5 ovv iirl Xidov defxfry avrb rovrb 
<py)<ji. On coming into the court-yard 
from the room in which she had secretly 
anointed the robe, she had carelessly 
thrown the tuft of wool down upon this 
stone. 

Such is the only sense which the words 
will bear. They are perhaps corrupt. 
Sophocles has the dat. plur. cnnX&decrcri, 
in the ordinary sense, * sea-rocks,' in fr. 
341 ; but the sense of the sing, here is pecu- 
liar. And w. 695 — 698 would naturally 
suggest that she had thrown the tuft at 
once on the ground, rather than on a stone 
from which it afterwards crumbled down. 

Possibly the true reading is icar' aicpas 
(nroStov, 'utterly pulverised,' and <nriXd- 
80s arose, when the letters after <nr had 
been partly effaced, through the wish to 
find a subst. which could agree with 
aicpas. Cp. Suid. /car' dicpas' di' 5Xov, 
vavTeXios : and O. C. 1242. 

679 £ktcvm: Ai. 1040 fii] reive fuuepav: 
Aesch. Eum. 201 roffovro firjicos txTeiyov 
Xbyovv. 



68O f. yap, prefatory. — <5v, for ofc, 
by attract, to the subsequent OcctjuSv : cp. 
Dem. or. 20 § 87 <av tpyy ireTolrfKev 2jca<r- 
tos..., To&rtw tie \byov k plats ylyverat.. — 6 
8ijp K&rravpos, as in 1 162 : Bifjp may here 
be rendered by an adj., but is strictly a 
subst., the general term in apposition with 
the special. — irovwv irXfvpdv : Hense 
quotes Ennius Ann. 601 turn lateralV 
dolor, certissimu* nuntitC mortis. — irucp£, 
cp. Ai. 1024 mKpou I ...Kvddovros: II. 5. 
278 TTLKpbs 6'utt6s. — yXcoxua. This sense of 
yKurxiv (which means 'the end of a strap ' 
in //. 24. 274) does not occur elsewhere 
in poetry of the classical age, but is at- 
tested by //. 5. 393 6i<rr$ TpH.y\(bxM (cp. 
n« 507)» a three-barbed arrow: which 
shows that the schol. here is right in 
identifying yhsaxfo with the Homeric 
SyKos (uncus), 'barb' of an arrow (//. 4. 

I5i)- 

irpovStSoJaro, 'had taught me before- 
hand* 1 distinguish the other sense of 
this compound, 'to teach gradually' (Ai. 
163, Ph. 1015). The midd. voice here 
suits the fact of the Centaur's hidden 
design. In Ar. Plut. 687, 6 yap lepevs 
avrov /te vpovbibd^aro y the verb might be 
causal ('had me instructed beforehand'). 
Sometimes, however, the midd. diddaKo- 
fjuu hardly differs from dtddo-Kw, unless by 
emphasising the teacher's effort (cp. Pind. 
O. 8. 59 : Ar. Nub. 783). 

682 OccrfuSv ovcWv. The regular plur. 
was Seo-fjLoL, though in fr. 90 we find ov 
ydp ri detrfia toutlv aarlrais irpArci. Cp. 
Ph. 24 rdirlXonra tuv \bytaw (n.). — 
kry% l 6\i.i\v, remembered : Plat. Rep. 455 B 
a tfMaOt, o-yfercu : cp. O. T. 318 n. 



io6 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



-^aKiajs 07To>5 hvcrvnrrov 4k ScXtov ypa<fnjv. 
Kai fiot rd& rjv irpopprfra, teal toiovt ihpcjv 

TO (fxXpfJLOLKOV TOVT OJTVpOV aKTlVOS T 0€t 685 

depixrjs aducrov iv fixr^ois ca^eiv ctic, 

co>5 viv apri)(pi(TTov apttocrai/u irov. 

Ka8p<ov Toiavra. vvv S> , or rjv ipyacTeov, 

€)(piaa [xkv kolt oTkov iv So/xois Kpv^j 

[laXkai, (riraaaaa KTrjaiov /Sotov \a m )(yqv i 690 

KaOijKa aup/irrv^aa aXatwrcs rjkiov 

kol\(o ICpyaarpo) haipov, a>o"?rep ciSctc. 

CtCTG) S* a7TOCTTCtJ(OVCra StpKOfXCU (fxiriv 

a<f>paoTov, d£vfJifi\r)Tov av0p(O7ra> fiadelv, 

to yap Karayfia rvy^avoi pu/racra 7ra>s 695 

rfjs olos, & irpov-vpiov, c? [xicrrjv <f>\6ya, 

a/crw cs 7]\ig)tw a>? o evakirero, 

084 Kai fxoi...Z5puv. Wunder rejects this v. 685 &ktiv6s t'] t' is omitted by L. 
686 fep/t^s] Stp/xTja L, A, and Aid., as if from fl^w, ' heat.' 687 tos wi> 

Elmsley: £ws av mss. 689 tear' oTkov kv do/xois] For iv 86/xois, Dindorf conj. iv- 

dvrov : Axt, iv fjwxots. Heimsoeth would read, rbv vbr\ov iv 56/xols. 690 /xaXXy 



688 \(&XktJ$...8^Xtov. This image is 
peculiarly forcible in connection with 
Otorpov, — the word which expresses her 
religious reverence for the Centaur's pre- 
cepts. Laws, rituals, oracles, etc., were 
often engraved upon bronze tables. An 
example is afforded by the 'Eugubinae 
Tabulae* preserved at Gubbio, which 
concern sacred rites. Diod. Sic. 12. 26 
(referring to the Laws of the XII. Tables) 
els dwdeKa xaXiroOf irLvaKds x a P&£ avTiS ol 
fhrarot. Plut. Alex. 17 5i\Tov...xa>\Krjv $ 
Hrwovs ix ovffav dpx c ^ <av ypafAfi&TW (an 
oracle) : where, for nfirovs (graven cha- 
racters), cp. Pollux 8. 128 b*i\ron xaXiccus 
rjdav xdXat ivrervictanivoi ol vbfiot ol ire pi 
tQv lepwv koX tQ>v irarpiojv. Cic. Phil. 1. 
§ 26 Quod ita erit gestum, id lex erit? et 
in aes incidi iubebitis... ? 

684 Ka£ |aoi ir.r.X. Those who agree with 
Wunder in rejecting this verse hold that 
<r^t«v depends on irpovSiSagaro (681), 
and urge that tclSpav TotavTa in 688 con- 
demns ToiavT iSfkov here. The question 
must be considered in the light of the 
whole context. She begins by saying 
that the Centaur's dying precepts remain- 
ed in her memory as if graven on bronze 
(680 — 683). That passage is much more 
impressive if a full stop follows 683. She 



then says, * Now tAesewere his precepts,' — 
verse 684 marking her anxiety to explain 
that she had simply obeyed him to the 
letter. The reiteration, K&bptav rotaura, 
in 688, is unnecessary; but, in her actual 
state of mind, it is full of dramatic truth. 
The scholiast read this verse. 

685 £ airvpov ir.r.X.: cp. 606 f. — For 
<£6iKT0v with gen., cp. 23 n. 

687 t<o% viv. The solecism in the 
MSS., fos av, is like their vplv dv O&voi in 
2 f., and tylie' ay... dire/ 17 in 164^ — irov: 
neither Nessus (575) nor she herself had 
ever thought of the charm being used on 
any one except Heracles. But, as she 
shrank from naming Eurystheus (35), so, 
at this moment, she shrinks from naming 
the man whom she loves. 

689 *xP t<ra pAv corresponds with k£0- 
t|Ka in 691, not with ffcrw 8' in 693. Cp. 
At. 1 del M&V..3 koX vvv : Thuc. 2. 65 § 12 
biica fxkv try &VT€ixov...Kal oti irpdrepov 
ivtdoaav. So iUv...T€ % below, 1012. — 
Kai^ oIkov, in the house (and not outside 
the gates) : Iv S4|tois, in the ywaiKwiTu, 
and not in the open ad\i}. For this 
limited sense of 86(101, cp. Od. 6. 303 dXX' 
inrbr' av <re 56fxot k€k6$wfi koI av\-/). 

690 Krqcriov, ( belonging to the house- 
hold/ — i.e. , to a flock kept near the house, 



TPAXINIAI 



107 



like the graven words which no hand may wash from a tablet 
of bronze. Now these were his orders, and I obeyed them : — 
to keep this unguent in a secret place, always remote from fire 
and from the sun's warm ray, until I should apply it, newly 
spread, where I wished. So had I done. And now, when the 
moment for action had come, I performed the anointing privily 
in the house, with a tuft of soft wool which I had plucked from 
a sheep of our home-flock ; then I folded up my gift, and laid it, 
unvisited by sunlight, within its casket, as ye saw. 

But as I was going back into the house, I beheld a thing too 
wondrous for words, and passing the wit of man to understand. 
I happened to have thrown the shred of wool, with which I 
had been preparing the robe, into the full blaze of the sunshine. 

As it grew warm, 

...\axvyv* Wunder rejects this v. 691 K&drjKa] KaBrfica L. — cu/jarr^atr*] 

avfurlifav' Harl. 692 w<nre/>] Blaydes conj. firep. — eidere] etderai L, with 

€ written over at by first hand. 698 tepicofiai (party MSS. In L the gloss 

(paafxa (not <pavTa<r/xa) t <pavTa<rlap, is written over (pdnv. Hence Nauck writes 
(fraofia SipKOfiau, Reiske and Musgrave had proposed <pa<nv : Blaydes suggests 
04om or ripas. 696 wpoOxP 10 "] vpotxp&o* L- — Wunder rejects this v., which 

Dobree too suspected. 697 oktip* 4s] Dobree and Bothe conj. dartVoy. 



to supply food, and victims for sacrifice. 
Zei>j Krijatos was more especially the 
tutelar god of household property ; hence 
domestic slaves stand KrrjaLov fiu/xou irt\a$ 
(Aesch. Ag. 1038). The epithet here 
does not, however, directly allude to him, 
as if meaning, 'devoted to the Krfoios. 1 

691 dXa|fcirfe i)X.£ov: cp. O. C. 677 
dvi/jve/xov... I xtW&vwv (n.). 

692 tvyrfo»rpq>: for the dat., cp. 564. 
Xen. Cyr. 7. 3. 1 uses $6yaarpa 01 boxes 
in which treasure is packed up for removal. 
The word meant simply, 'something fitted 
together,' ' compacted ' ({Vy-)- — koCX<j> : 
the addition of this adj. is sometimes, esp. 
in poetry, merely picturesque: cp. 0. C. 
1593, At. 1 165: Eur. /on iQKol\r)s...&rrl- 
Tipyoj: Her. 4. 2 dyyifCa. KOiXa. — »<nr€p 
ctScrc. They saw the tfyaoTpov, but not 
the act of placing the robe in it : this (as 
dXafiwh ijXlov shows) had been done in 
the house. 

698 £ clew S' diro<rrcCxov<ra, return- 
ing into the house (632). The words 
wawep ef Sere indicate the previous dialogue 
in front of it (531 — 632). — <J>cLtiv is boldly 
used here, but appears sound. The harsh- 
ness is modified by the context : i.e., the 
antithesis between uttering and compre- 
hending has led the poet to strengthen 
dtypcurrov by a noun specially suited to it, 



as he strengthens d(v|iB\ipx>v by the ad- 
dition of dvOfrimp |M&Octv. — Cp. Aelian 
Nat. An. 6. 60 rutv dreK/xdprojp re koX 
&<jvfAp\-/)Twv. Eur. Med. 675 <ro<p(»rrtp' rj 
kolt* avdpa av/xpakeiv fny. 

695 ff. Kctrayiui properly meant 
the ball of wool on the distaff, from 
which the thread is drawn down (tcara- 
yerat, deducitur) by the spinner. (Plat. 
Polit. 282 E: Soph. 226 B.) Here it is 
merely a synonym for paWds (690). In 
Ar. Lys. 583 ff. Karay/xa is the thread 
itself. — irpoi»xpM>v, before putting it into 
the casket (692). Lucian Alex. 21 <r«£- 
\(p tt)v <r<ppayida irpoxpi^as. — <f»X<$'y a 
comes first, since heat is the main point ; 
then, to avoid ambiguity, ctKTiv Is ^\u»- 
tiv is added. Seneca Here. Oet. 725 
translates these words: medics in ignes 
so/is et claram facem. 

Wunder rashly rejects the verse. Do- 
bree's objection to it seems to have been 
the repeated 49. His words are merely : 
' Suspectus ob constructionem ; nisi legos 
<p\6ya dicrivot ij\i&riv ': Adv. 11. 38. But 
the prep, is often thus repeated when a 
second noun stands in apposition with the 
first, serving to explain it : e.g., Lysias 
or. 6 § 14 kcU h 'Apcly irdy(p t 4v rQ acfi- 
voTdTc l )...6iKa<TTr)pl< i ) : Plat. Laches 183 c 
iic To&rtav ol dvofxaorol ylyvovrcu, 4k t£jv 



108 Z04>0KAE0YZ 

pet rtdv d8rj\ov kcu KaretyrjKrai yQovi^ 

[iop<f)fj [ioXlot eiKaoTov (Sore irpiovos 

iK^pcifxar av jSXei/fCias ev To/if} £v\ov. JOO 

roiovhe KeiTcu 7rpo7rcT€S. ck 8c yfjs, S0ev 

irpovKeiT, dvatjiovai 6pofifia&e^ d<f>poi f 

yXavKTjs 07T(opas cootc movos rrorov 

vv^€kto5 cis yrjv BaK^ta? dm dfiTrikov. 

(oar ovk i)(a) rakaiva vol yvdp/rjs maw 705 

6p<£ 8c fL epyov 8eivov c^ct/oyaoyxcVi^. 

irodev yap av iror, dvrl rov dvgcKCJV 6 drjp 

ifiol 7ra/>c(7Y* evvoutv, rjs ^^V ^ ^7rcp; 

ovk iariv* aXXa rov f5a\6vr diro^Oiaai 

Xpjj&v idekye fi* <ov eya> [xeOvcrepov, 7 10 

or ovK€r dpKei, rrjv fiddrjo'iv dpw/jbai. 

/jLOvrj yap avrov, ct rt p/q \fj€VO'vrjo'op,ai, 

yv(6p/rjs, eyci hvo"rqvos c£a7ro<40€pa>* 

rov yap fiaXovr drpatcrov oloa Kal deov 

Xetpcova m)pr\vavra> ^ywnmep av Oiyg, 71 5 

698 KartyriKTCu] Kare^iKrai L. 700 av /SXtyetas A, R, and Aid. : 

iicpXeipeiaff L (an error caused by eK^pui/xar) : ippbeif/cias B, etc. 704 ficuc- 

Xiat r : paKxcloff L (so most mss., and Aid.). 705 This v., omitted by the 

itriTtidcvtrdvTUfP excurra : Pro/. 358 B at 5i€ko/xL{ovto e&$ds 66ev (=ivT€v$cv 6voi) 

M rotirov ir/xt£cis aireurcu, M rod d\vir 00s virtue Seyro wdidas Kod yvvcu/cas. In O. C. 

tfjv. 1 226 the doubtful tctidev is not similar. — 

698 (bet is equiv. to \/rg in 678. The irpo&cciT, dva^ovoa: past tense com- 
wool shrivels away; and presently there bined with historic pres. (Ant. 254 n.). — 
is nothing to be seen but a powder, like Opopif&Scis ctypoC, foam, thickened into 
saw-dust, on the ground, r or /Jew, cp. clots (Spofxpoi, rpe<f><a)i hence the plur., 
O. C. 259 n. — KaTO|n)KTCu : the perf. of which Seneca imitates, Here, OeU 737 
instant result : cp. Ph. 76 6\w\a (n.). Quin ipsa tellus spumeos motus agit. 
Seneca Here. Oet. 736 Dumque ipsa mi- 703 £ irCovos itotov y\. &iro»pas dir& 
ror> causa tnirandi petit, B. d|iir&ov: the rich juice of the blue 

699 £ K^P^D* dat. of respect: \ui- fruit (obtained) from the vine: i.e., the 
Xwrr' cIkcuttov, lit., 'most nearly com- yXevicos, or 'must,' newly pressed from 
parable '; but, instead of a simple dat., the ripe grapes ; which foams when 
itcppd/Mai, we have a clause with fieri poured on the ground, since it has not 
(=£$), as if (e.g.) ovrtas tyov had pre- yet passed through the stage of fermenta- 
ceded. — irpfavos iKfyxaparf = -k plaiw.ro. tion. Schol. : fiaXurra dl 6 veos olvos, 
(or wapairplafMTa) : Schneidewin cp. Ni- Sep/xbs c3e, e/ wecroi x a f Aa ^t &<PpLfri. The 
cander 7%^r. 52 <col ^ irpioyeaaL rofialri \ simile is suggested chiefly by the foam, 
KeSpot, wovXvodovfft KaTayprixdeiaa yard- but partly also by the purple tinge which 
01s. — Iv ro|&{ £iJXov=tfTe £v\ov refivercu : the poison gives to the blood. — x^^™ 
for the form of the phrase, cp. Ant, should not be taken with B. ctir* d|&irlXov, 
24 n. since the grapes have already been ga- 

701 £ irpoireTcs, where it was thrown thered. 
down: schol. kppuxpJevov (cp. 695) kqX For <^ircopas as = 4 fruit,' cp. fr. 235. 

vpovetrbv x^A^-— 8&v> by attract, to ^ac 7 ireura riftyerou pXaffrov/icyrf | kcl\Qs 

yrjs, instead of Swov: cp. Thuc. I. 89 § 3 (Jr^pa, KavaKlpvarai totof.— With 



TPAXINIAI 



109 



it shrivelled all away, and quickly crumbled to powder on the 
ground, like nothing so much as the dust shed from a saw's 
teeth where men work timber. In such a state it lies as it fell. 
And from the earth, where it was strewn, clots of foam seethed 
up, as when the rich juice of the blue fruit from the vine of 
Bacchus is poured upon the ground. 

So I know not, hapless one, whither to turn my thoughts ; I 
only see that I have done a fearful deed. Why or wherefore 
should the monster, in his death-throes, have shown good will to 
me, on whose account he was dying ? Impossible ! No, he was 
cajoling me, in order to slay the man who had smitten him : and 
I gain the knowledge of this too late, when it avails no more. 
Yes, I alone — unless my foreboding prove false — I, wretched one, 
must destroy him ! For I know that the arrow which made 
the wound did scathe even to the god Cheiron ; and it kills all 

first hand in L, has been added in marg. by S. 707 av made from dp 

in L. 708 rjs] r^a L. — tiirep] Nauck writes vtto. 710 tdeXyk fi* L, 

with most MSS. : (OeXyep A, R, Harl., and Aid. — fMedforepov] fieO 1 vcrepov L. 
712 f. Nauck brackets these two vv. 715 %^ v ' !re P Wakefield: x' watrep L, 

with most mss. and Aid.: x^ a7r€ P & ^TO B, T, Lc, which Wunder (omitting 
&v) adopts. (Ace. to Subkoff, v is written over x* c&nrep in A.) 



regard to the yXevicos, cp. id. 6 yXv- 
KoLveral re Kd-rroirepKovrcu porpvs (the 
colour of the ripening grape is esp. 
described by irepicvos, as here by yXav- 
k6s) : for BaK\Ca$, id. 2 Bazoos porpvs : 
Verg. Geo. 2. 5 tibi pampineo gravidas 
autumno \ Floret ager t spumat plenis 
vindemia ladris. For irCovos cp. Tibull. 
1, 1. 10 pleno pinguia tnusta lacu. 

705 irot yvu|ii)s ir&ra>: she knows 
not to what counsels she can have re- 
course: i.e., she can think of no remedy. 
Cp. 0. C. 170 irot tls <ppovrl8os £X0y; 
(n.). 

706 6p£ & |i' ...i£cifycur|UvT)v. The 
constr. with the ace. can be used when- 
ever the speaker looks at his own case 
from without. But the examples are of 
two kinds. (1) Most often there is a 
contrast of persons ; El. 65 : Andoc. or. 
1 § 30 <pr)pX Sew iKetvovs fxkv diroX£o~0ai... 9 
ifit 5t (Tcpfradat. (2) Sometimes, as 
here, there is no such contrast, and the 
effect is merely to give a certain objectiv- 
ity: El. 470 TTLKpdy J doKu> fie veipajf 
rfySe ToXfi^aeuf in: so Ai. 606 f.: Plat. 
Rep. 400 B dtfiai 64 fxe dicrjicofrcu. This 
is esp. fitting when the speaker is in an 

. evil plight, and means that he can see 
himself as others see him : so Xen. An. 
5. 6 § 20 vvv pJkv 6pu)fxev fyxas dirdpovt 
oWas k.t.X. 



707 £ iroOcv, 'from what motive ?' : 
dvTl tov, ' in gratitude for what?* — dv... 
irapiay^: (if he had shown kindness, — 
as he did not), why would he have done 
so ? — i{s . . . iiirip, on account of whom , = ijs 
tveica, or dV rjv: cp. Ant. 932 PpadvTTj- 
tos (Jirep. 

7O0 diro<t>6£<rai : <pdlaw and t<f>0ura 
have X in epic poetry, but I in Attic : cp. 
1043 : 0. T. 202 : Ai, 1027. 

711 dpicct, 'avails': not, 'suffices.' 
In the latter sense, dp/cet is usu. impers., 
but in the former, personal, as it is here 
(sc. ii pA6T)(n$). — dpwfuu: Ant. 903: Ph, 
838. 

712 ct ti |&TJ: 586 n. — i|rcv<r6ij<ro|uu 
yvcS|U)s: Ai. 1382 real p? tyevaas iXirldos 
voXfa 

714 f. aTpaKTOv: cp. Ph. 290 n. — 
— 6c£v XcCfMwa. Cheiron, as the son of 
the god Cronus by the nymph Philyra, 
was of a different origin from the other 
Centaurs, the descendants of Ixion and 
Nephele. So Pindar distinguishes him 
as Kpovidav \ Kivravpov {N. 3. 47), otipa- 
plda ybvov fvpv/jLtdovra Kp6vov (P. 3. 4) : 
and Apollonius Rhodius as dX\a fxb> Xir- 
Trtp, I dXXa $€<} aT&Xavrov (2. 1240). He 
was still more separated from the rest of 
the Centaur tribe by his just and gentle 
character (//. n. 832 diKaioTaros Kev- 
Tavpwv). Hence Greek art, after the in- 



no 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



<f)0€Lp€L rd irdvra KvctlSaX'' £k 8c rovS* 08c 
<r<f)aya)v hteXOojv 16s alfiaros ficXas 
7tg>s ovk oaci /cat Towc; oog^ yovv €[iy. 
kolltol SeSo/crat, fccu>os ct cr^aX^crcrat, 
TavTj} o~uv opfjifj KafJL€ avvdaveiv a/xa # 
£t7*> yap /ca/cak fcXvoucrcu> ovk dvaoyerov, 
rjns TrpoTifiq. fir} Kafcrj TT€<f>VK€vai. 

XO. Tapfieiv fikv epya 8eCv dvayKauos ex?**' 

rrjv 8* cXmS* ov x/») ttjs rvjc^s icpiveiv irdpos. 

AH. ovk cotw c^ tois ju/iy KaXoi? fiovXevfiacLV 
ov8' iXiris, rjns feat dpdaos tl 7rpo£ei/eZ 

XO. aXX* d/x<£i rots cr^aXctcrt fir} '£ cicovcrias 
o/>yr) ircVctpa, tt)s crc Tvy^dveiv npeirei. 



720 



725 



716 (pdelpei rd iraira] Blaydes reads <f>0elpovTa iravTa, as Wecklein and Faehse had 
conjectured. (Qdclpovd 1 awavra Frohlich.) — *irc6faV' iic 8i rovS* 88e] Hense conj. kvw- 
8d\ov 8i Tovde 8ij (rovSe 5^ with Meineke), and so Nauck reads. 717 /teXat] 

Wecklein puyfo : Frohlich conj. fiha : Nauck suggests lbs al[xa.Topp6<pos. For at/taros, 
Wunder writes alfiarovs, 718 86^-q yovv ipy] $o£i/t 'yovv [=7' otiv] ifirjc L. 



vention of the hippo-centaur (564 n.), 
continued to portray Cheiron under the 
more humane type of the andro-centaur. 
This is his form on Greek vases, down 
at least to 400 B.C. Later art neglected 
this distinction. (See S. Colvin in 
Joum. He lien. Stud. % vol. 1. pp. 133 — 

I37-) 
•mjHTJvavra. Other Centaurs, routed 

by Heracles in Arcadia, fled to Cheiron 
near Cape Malea ; and the hero, in shoot- 
ing at them, accidentally wounded his 
friend. Cheiron could not be healed; 
and, being a god, could not die. At 
last Zeus allowed him to exchange fates, 
the immortal for the mortal, with Pro- 
metheus ; and so he found rest ( Apollod. 

2. 5« 4)« 
Ovid varies the story. Heracles visited 

Cheiron on Mount Pelion; a poisoned 

arrow chanced to fall from the hero's 

quiver on the left foot of the Centaur. 

Virus edax super abat opem...Nona dies 

aderat, cum tu, iustissime Chiron ■, | Bis 

sefitetn stellis corpore cinctus eras, (Fast, 

5- 387—414.) 
vcSnrcp seems a certain correction of 

X&orop. The latter has been explained 
thus:— (1) 'Even as it may touch, (so 
surely) does it destroy.' This is possible, 
but somewhat forced ; certainly less pro- 
bable than x<5pir£/>. (2) 'If only it touch 



them.' This view — that wairep av=dum- 
tnodo — rests on passages in which ws 
should be corrected to Ifws (O. C. 1361, 
Ph. 1330, Ai. 1 1 17). — Few will defend 
Xc&rcre/o as =kclI fowep ('whoever touches 
the arrow*); or accept, with Wunder, 
XCfc<rairep. 

716 ft &c...<r<j>aY»v tovSc SicXOtAv, 
having passed out from the wounds of 
Nessus. — Us atjMvros, a poison consisting 
(or contained) in blood, because the 
poison from the arrow had become mixed 
with the blood; and it was in the form 
of blood (572 d/x<pldp€WTou atfxa) that the 
poison had been applied. For the 'de- 
fining* gen., cp. EL 682 Tpbaxnn 1 dyw- 
vos, = irpdox. ayuvurrucbv. 

t6vSc, Heracles, toOSc — 88e — rbvde : 
this repetition of the pron., in different 
relations, has been thought strange. Yet 
cp. 0. T. 948 koX vvv 68 e I irpbs rrjs rfi- 
XO* S\ul\af t ov8i rovd' (hro: where 68e 
is Polybus, and rovd\ Oedipus. She 
reasons from past to present: — 'the same 
poison, coming from this source, will 
kill this man. The reiterated pronoun 
really marks the stress of the inductive 
argument. 

Others take tic.rovSc as =' from this 
arrow': then atpayQv must go either 
with SieXdwv, 'having come through 
(from) the wounds'; or with aXfiaros, 



TPAXINIAI 



in 



beasts that it touches. And since 'tis this same black venom in 
the blood that hath passed out through the wound of Nessus, 
must it not kill my lord also ? I ween it must. 

Howbeit, I am resolved that, if he is to fall, at the same time 
I also shall be swept from life ; for no woman could bear to live 
with an evil name, if she rejoices that her nature is not evil. 

Ch. Mischief must needs be feared ; but it is not well to 
doom our hope before the event. 

De. Unwise counsels leave no room even for a hope which 
can lend courage. 

Ch. Yet towards those who have erred unwittingly, men's 
anger is softened ; and so it should be towards thee. 

5o|ei yovp i/xoi A (with a few more), and Aid. 720 Tavrjj H. Stephanus 

and Brunck : radry mss. — bp/xy] bpfxyi L, with y written over fi by the first hand. 
Of the later mss., some (as L a and B) have bpny, others (as A), dpyg : Aid. gives the 
latter. Wunder writes d*r/*fl. 728 deb'] deiv* L. Tournier conj. tpy* AdrjW 

728 ickweipa, rrjs\ Blaydes writes irkreipos, ^s. — <rk Blaydes : <re MSS. and edd. 



'poison contained in the blood of the 
wounds. ' But the point is that the poison, 
though it comes to Heracles from the 
wound of Nessus, and not (as to its 
former victims) directly from the arrow, 
is still the same. And, since o8< expresses 
this, toSS', if it referred to the arrow, 
would be superfluous. 

86{j) 70VV t|ijj: cp. Plat. Phaed. 68 B 
oi/K da/xevos chriv airrbae; oUadal ye xpti- 
For yovv, cp. n. on Ant. 45 rbv yovv 

ifJLOV. 

719 £ o-^aXijorfTiu: cp. 297, (T<pa\y. 
— Tavrjj oSfrv 6p|i{j, lit., 'borne along by 
the same impetus. The bp/xr), impetus, 
is that of the fate which brings Heracles 
low : she means, 'at the same moment 
I, too, shall be swept out of life.* Cp. 
Xen. Ages. 2. 29 hbfufr ydp r% a&Ty 
bpfiy r<£ fxkv AlyvirTtip x < ^P LV airo$u>- 
<reiv..., roin 5' eV rj 'Aelq. "EXkypas tt&Xlp 
iXeudepibaeiv, t<£ de Utpay Uki)v iiridy- 
<reiv: i.e., 'by the same effort.* The 
phrase was perhaps a familiar one, to 
which the poet has here given a new 
turn. 

For <r$v, cp. Theocr. 25. 251 rrjXov 
de fuy ir-fidrjae <rdv bpfiy ('at one bound': 
though tuq. bp/xy usu. = 'by a common 
impulse,' Xen. An. 3. 2. 9). 

722 irpoTipf with inf.; cp. Her. 3. 
21 vpon/xuv iroKKov ifxol i-eipos yevfoOat. 
— \l1[ ('generic') with icaia), rather than 
with the inf.: cp. 725: fr. 154. 2 fyoip? 
dv avrb fxy kclkus axetKcurat. The adj. is 



not here a mere synonym for 8v<ryevrj$ 
(as in 0. T. 1063), but rather blends 
the ideas of birth and character. For 
the sentiment, cp. El. 989 jfiv alcrxpbv 
alaxpw* toU /caXws ireipvKbffiv : At. 479. 

728 £ tpya ScCv': the 'deeds' are 
the dire results which Deianeira has so 
frankly presaged (718 twi o&k 6\ei koX 
rbvde;). Hence dewd is not too strong. 
— tXirffi' has properly a neutral sense (cp. 
125 n.): 'we must not decide our forebod- 
ing before the issue,'— i.e. t assume that 
the worst will certainly happen: hence 
we may more freely render, 'doom our 
hope. ' 

725 tois |i^ koXois p.: for the ge- 
neric juij, cp. Ant. 494 T(2v /xydtv dpdws 
iv <jk6tlp TexvuiiAvtav. — iXirCs, yjtis Kal 
Op. ti irpofcvct, a foreboding which so 
much as lends courage. The measures 
which she has taken do not allow her to 
think of a good result as even possible. 
For irpogcvci cp. O. T. 1483 n. 

727 £ dpfyl with dat., 'in the case 
of,' Ph. 1354 n. — pi) '{ iKovo-Cas: cp. 
395: Ph. 467 pii '£ dirdiTTov. The ad- 
verbial phrase would properly precede 
aipaXeiai : but cp. Ant. 659 n. — ireVeipa 
(related to viirwr as irLetpa to iriwp) is 
attested by the grammarians, but extant 
only in Anacreon fr. 87. Hippocrates 
Acut. 390 has ireVeipos vbaos, and Ar. 
Eccl. 896 eV reus ireiretpois (Rav. ire* 
iretpaLs). — For the sentiment, cp. fr. 599 
cLkuv 8 dfiapTtav otiris dvdpunrtav kolkos. 



112 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



AH. Toiavra 8* dv Xc^ctcv oxr^ 6 rov kclkov 

kolvmvos, oXX' <5 fxrjSev iar olkol fiapv. 730 

XO. aiydv dv <xp/xo£oi <re rov irkeCcj \6yov, 
el fjo/j ti Xefcis 7rat8l t$ aavrfjs* iirel 
napecm, naarfjp warpos os irplv cJ^cto. 

TAAOS. 

(3 p/fJT€p f cos dv £k rpifov a tv eikopfqv, 

rj [xrjK€T 9 elvcu £a)craj>, rj (reaaxTfievriv 735 

aXXov KeKkrjaOai [xrjrep* 9 rj \<oov$ <f>pevas 

T(ov vvv irapova&v tcD^S* aftcu/facr&u iroOev. 

AH. ri 8* iariv, <3 irat, irpos y ifxov orvyovfievov ; 

TA. rov dvBpa rov cov ladi, rov S* cftoi' Xcfyco 

irarepa, KaratcreCvaa-a rfj8* iv rjixtpa. 740 

AH. OLfJLOL, riv iJjrjveyKas, cS reicvov, \6yov; 

TA. ov ov^ oto v tc ju/9 TcXccr^^af to yap 
<f>avdev tls dv hvvavr dv dyivryrov iroelv; 

AH. 7rc3s ct7ras, <5 7rat; rov irap dvOpdiroiv [ladav 

d£q\ov ovtcos epyov elpydaO ai fie (fyiijs; 745 

729 6 rod] Blaydes writes 8 rov. 730 oftcoi Wakefield : ofrrots mss. 

781 &v ap/io{ot] dp 1 apfwfa Harl. (yap dp/xo^oi V 2 ). — X^op] xp6vov MSS., and 
Aid. : but L has 7/). \070y written above. 732 cl /atJ ti] koi) /«$ ti Her- 

mann. — cavTTjs] <r' a&rrjiff L (the ' after <r added by S). — Hense would omit the v. 
733 fta<n4ip] In L the first hand had omitted this word, but has added it above 



729 f. TouxvTCt 8': 84 introduces an 
objection, as in 0. T. 379 (n.).— oticoi, 
fie.: cp. Eur. Tro. 647 rbv 8& vow 61- 
SaffKaKov I otnodev typvaa xP r l <Tr ^ v '• So 
Lat. domi (Plaut. Miles 194, with Tyrrell's 
note). In Her. 7. 152 ra olicqia Kaica 
('the troubles that they have at home') 
is similarly figurative. 

731 ff. dv dp|i6toi: cp. Dem. or. 18 
§ 42 X070US ovs...&pfji6aei \4yeiv. — r&v 
ttXcCw X6vov : the further discourse which 
might be expected : cp. n. on 0. C. 36 
tol irXelov' Urropciv. — cl |iij ti : the schol. 
seems right in taking rt as object to 
Xi£cis, rather than as an adv. ('perchance,' 
712). — pcumjp iraTp&s: cp. 0. C. 455 
ifjiov I imcrripa. The Chorus may be sup- 
posed to know of this mission through 
naving heard the last words of the irpo- 
X070S as they were entering (95). 

734 ff. &v...ci\4|it)v: cp. Ph. 1230 
oj>... £pov\6p.riv (n.). — o*€ is subject to each 
of the three infinitives which follow. It 
is placed as if the speaker mentally sup- 
plied a word such as vaBeXv, But cV is 



really an accus. in apposition with the 
whole sentence, <ri •f |&t)kcY ctvat, etc. 
The peculiar order has been due to the 
metrical difficulty of inserting <rc any- 
where in w. 735 — 737. 

ck Tpuov cV. Photius and Suidas quote 
the proverb, rwv rpidv kcikuv ftr, illus- 
trating it from Polyzelus (a poet of the 
later Old Comedy), rpitav kokwp tv y 1 
ovv £X&r0' avrf ti ira<r fodyicri, and Me- 
nander, (v yap tl to&twv tw rpiQv %xoi 
kclkwv. Cp. schol. Pind. 0. 1. 97 rpla 
\4yerai k olv us koX ra vpbs rbv Qa.vo.rov 
ffvvepyovvra, j-i<f>os, d.yx^ V7 l* Kprjfivor So- 
(poKXijs (fr. 822)* \<htu yap j el ical tuv 
rpiwv h> otaofioA. A like prov. was rpla 
OypafAe'vovs, alluding to three alternative 
penalties proposed by him. 

kckXtjowu : cp. 149: EL *66 iravruv 
dpLorov iraida K€k\rj<r0cu» — d|ictycur6ai, 
get in exchange: Aesch. Theb. 304 voiov 
d* afielxj/cadc yaias rrtdov \ t8xf8' dpetov; 
iroOcv is wholly vague: the schol. 's iic 
$eov tlvos is too definite. 

738 rt 8* foTiv...irptff y* c|U>0 <rrvyov- 



TPAXINIAI 



"3 



De. Nay, such words are not for one who has borne a part 
in the ill deed, but only for him who has no trouble at his own 
door. 

Ch. 'Twere well to refrain from further speech, unless thou 
would'st tell aught to thine own son ; for he is at hand, who went 
erewhile to seek his sire. 

Enter Hyllus. 

Hy. O mother, would that one of three things had befallen 
thee ! Would that thou wert dead, — or, if living, no mother of 
mine, — or that some new and better spirit had passed into thy 
bosom ! 

De. Ah, my son, what cause have I given thee to abhor me ? 

Hy. I tell thee that thy husband — yea, my sire — hath been 
done to death by thee this day ! 

De. Oh, what word hath passed thy lips, my child ? 

Hy. A word that shall not fail of fulfilment ; for who may 
undo that which hath come to pass ? 

De. What saidst thou, my son ? Who is thy warranty for 
charging me with a deed so terrible ? 

the line. 786 lafrkfi r : firp-epa <r' L. 742 fify mss. : /xij oft Nauck. 

748 <pavdev] Nauck writes KpavOkv. — Sifrcur' a? Suidas s. v. otfioi : duvair' 
(without dv) mss. — dyerqrov L : dykvvifrov A, with most mss., and Aid. — Hense 
would omit this v., changing rb ydp in 742 to ytivcu. 745 Nauck brackets this v. 



ficvov; 'What is there, on my party that 
excites hatred?' The phrase is peculiar 
(since the words could mean, 'what is 
hated by me?'); but, in speaking, the 
sense would be made clear by a very 
slight pause after the words irp6s y* 4|iov, 
which are naturally emphatic (cp. O. T. 
516). 

789 £ r6v 8' Ipbv : for this use of 84 
to mark a second relationship, see on 0. 
C. 1275 to cnripfxaT dvSpos rov8\ if/ml 8* 
6/jLalfxoves. Two modes of expression are 
blended here, since either 81, or X6yv», 
should properly be absent: but the re- 
dundancy suits the speaker's vehemence. 
— For Xty», cp. 9. 

741 igtjvryicas here denotes a startling 
utterance (like irdibv ae tiros <p6yev ipKOS 
686vtw;). iiaptpta, with ref. to speech, 
usu. = 'to disclose 1 a secret (Her. 3. 71). 

742 f. Sv owx oX6v « k.t.X. This\6- 
yos is one which must needs 'be fulfilled 1 
— ue. t 'be found to correspond with a fact,' 
' prove true,* — since the thing has already 
happened. Cp. //. 1. 388 ^refXi^rei' /*8- 
dov, 8 dfy TereXefffiivos 4<rrlv. — Most edd. 
read prij ov, instead of the MS. pi], here: 
but see 90 n. 

J. S. V. 



rb...$avQkv, that which has come before 
men's eyes, — come to pass: cp. Au 647 
{Xpovos) <pi!>€i r' aSrjXa ical <pav4vra Kpfarre- 
rat: Ant. 457 KobSels older 41- 8rov f <f>dvrj. 
The word is fitting at a moment when his 
mind is full of the terrible sight which 
he has just seen (746 f.). For r6 ydp at 
the end of the v., cp. 92. — tCs dv Svvcut' 
dv: cp. 21. 

dyevryrov, 'not brought to pass' (st. 
yev~ f ylyvo/icu): cp. Horace's infectum{C» 
3. 29. 47). But dycvrrfros (7«wa-) = 'not 
begotten' (61). Agathon fr. 5 (ap. Arist. 
Eth. N. 6. 2) fUtvov ydp abrov kcuL debt 
<rreplffKerat 9 \ dyevrfra iroteiv d<r<r* w y 
wevpay/xeva. Pind. 0. 2. 17 tGxv 84 we- 
wpay/xevojv \ ...dvolvprov odd* au> \ xpovos b 
Tcfortav var^ip Sijvcuto dkpjev (pywv r4\os. 
Simonides fr. 69 rb ydp yeyevrffUvw 
ofaer' dpeicrop iffrou. Theognis 583 dXXA 
rd fxev jrpop4priK€V dfufaavfo 4<rri yevfodcu \ 
dpyd. Plin. H. N. 2. 7 Deus nullum 
habet in praeterita ius praeterquam obli- 
vionis. 

744 £ For dvBfxkrcov added to the 
interrog. rfe, cp. EL 238, 930. — ££t)Xov: 
cp. 284. — Nauck rejects v. 745, because 
Deianeira ought to have one verse only 

8 



U4 



IO<l>OKAEOYI 



TA. avros fiapeiav ^v[x<f)6pdv h> o/x/xacrw 

7rar/)05 Sc8o/>fca>s kov Kara yXaJcrcrcw kKvojv. 
AH. irov S* ifXTrekd^eis rdvBpl k<lI Trapiaraa'ai ; 
TA. ct x/ot) ixadeus crc, irdvra 8rj (fxovelv x/occoi>. 

00* cfpirc /cXcu^y Evpvrov mpaas irokiv, 750 

jjiktjs dycoi/ TpoTrcua KaKpodivia, 

dtcrq tls ajLt^tfcXvcrro? Ev^Sotas dicpov 

YLrjvaiov £(ttiv 9 evda iraTpa>a> Ail 

fico/xovs 6pit<Ei r€fi€i/iav tc <£vXXaSa- 

ov viv rd ir pair ccrctSov dafievo^ ir60a>. 755 

[liXXovTL S* avrai 7roXv0vrovs rcv^ct^ cn^ayas 

Krjpvi; dif oikodv lk€t owcctos At^as, 

to crov <f>epo)v Scoprjfia, OavdaifLOv TreTrkov 

OV fCCt^OS CJ>SvS, 6i? (TV 7rpOV^C^tCCTO, 

ravpoKTovei fikv 8<68eK e/rcXcis e^a>^ 760 

Xeia? aTrapxrjv fiovs* drdp rd itdvff 6fiov 
ckoltov irpo<rf}ye crvfifii/yrj jSocriajjaaTa. 

746 f. Deventer and Hense reject the words papeiav £vfx<popdv £v 6fx/w<riy | irarpds. 
— ia>6] icai L (with rod in marg. from a late hand). This error is in most mss. 
(as in Aid.); though a few (including B) have nob. 751 rpoircua Dindorf: 

rpoircua MSS. Cp. 1102. 753 Kfyauov i<rriv\ KTjvaiov 1<jtu> L. Many edd. 



(cp. 738, 741, 748). But it is unsafe to 
assume such a rigorous 'symmetry': and 
the larger utterance is natural here. 

740 £ kv #|&|uuriv: 241 n. — icard 
ykuvouv, 'as a matter of report,' i.e. irap* 
dKkojv. (The similar phrase dirb yXdxrffrp 
usu. means 'orally,' i.e., not in writing: 
Her. 1. 123, Thuc. 7. 10.) Cp. Eur. 
/. T. 901 racV ctBov airrfi, kov Mover' 
dxayyeXQ, 

748 4|iirc\c£g«s...ical irap&rrcunu, i.e., 
find him, and then stand near to him in 
his sufferings. The vivid historic pres. 
suits the tension of mind with which the 
question is asked : cp. O. T. 1 1 3 ffvinrlv- 
ret, and id, 1025 SlScas. — These are Deia- 
neira's last words on the scene. 

749 cl \p4 PLaOcfr °" € - Hyllus abhors 
her, as the murderess of his father ; there 
is no touch of pity in his mood. His 
words mean that the recital will be pain- 
ful to him, and also that he shrinks from 
speaking to her at such length. (Cp. 
815 f.) According to Greek usage, it 
was not foiov for the relatives of a slain 
person to hold any avoidable intercourse 
with the slayer. (Cp. Lys. or. 12 § 24: 



Isae. or. 9 § 20.) This feeling appears in 

815**. 

750 88' itfwrc : see on 237 f. For the 
absence of a prefatory ydp, cp. 555, 900. 
iirel is more usual than 6re in opening 
such a ^tjcls. The schoL's remark here, 
Kcuvoirpeirty ij 0pd<r«, may refer partly to 
that, and partly to the abruptness of 
etpire. 

751 Tpoiraia, the arms taken from 
the enemy (cp. Ant. 143 n.), orcOXa: 
dicpoMvui, the booty, \ela. — This accent 
for the subst. rporouov is attested by the 
grammarians, and preserved by L in 
1 102 : though, ace to rule, the subst. 
would be rpbirauov, and the adj. rporaios 
(PA. 1459 n.). 

752 ft dicrq...I<mv, instead of f)\dep 
els aicHiv k.t.\. : cp. Eur. Hipp. 11 98 
iirel d' tfnj/JLQv x^pov el<repdXXo/A€v, | dxH\ 
n% fort k.t.X. (instead of etSofiep dicHp 
rtva) : /. T. 260 iwel rbv io-ptovra Sid. 2v/a- 
irXrjydSuv | jSous vXo<popfiovs irbvrov elo~~ 

€pdX\0fJL€V, J TfV TLS 8iappth£ KVpLCLTOW TTo\~ 

\<} adXcp \ KoiXwirbs dy/x6s : ib. 1449 6rav 
5 1 'AOfyas rd.s 0€o8/j.^tovs fjAXys, | x^pos tis 
iffriv. The epic fashion is to begin with 



TPAXINIAI 



115 



Hy. I have seen my father's grievous fate with mine own 
eyes ; I speak not from hearsay. 

De. And where didst thou find him, — where didst thou 
stand at his side ? 

Hy. If thou art to hear it, then must all be told. 

After sacking the famous town of Eurytus, he went his way 
with the trophies and first-fruits of victory. There is a sea- 
washed headland of Euboea, Cape Cenaeum, where he dedi- 
cated altars and a sacred grove to the Zeus of his fathers ; and 
there I first beheld him, with the joy of yearning love. 

He was about to celebrate a great sacrifice, when his own 
herald, Lichas, came to him from home, bearing thy gift, the 
deadly robe ; which he put on, according to thy precept ; and 
then began his offering with twelve bulls, free from blemish, the 
firstlings of the spoil ; but altogether he brought a hundred 
victims, great or small, to the altar. 

write KjvaiSv kirnv. 760 wo\v66tovs] to\v$€Tovs A, Harl. 767 tcrjpvij] 

Cp. cr. n. on 189. — Uer*] fyer' L (not altered from fleer'). 760 Tpov£€<ple<To] 

v pov&faUao L. 760 frreXets] Blomfield conj. iicreXeU. 761 dwapxty] 

In L there has been an erasure between x and 7) (dc?). 



a description of the place (//. 2. 811 &m 
64 tis...ko\u)vt), Od. 3. 293 Am 64 r« *4- 
r PV) — as above, 237. The mixed con- 
struction here comes from a wish to make 
the narrative at once consecutive and 
graphic. 

Kifvcuov : 237 n. — irarpytp : 288 n. — 
ffouovs opCfcci ic.r.X. : 138 n. — TC|&cv£av... 
AvA\aSa= rl/iepo* iro\ij<f>v\\ov (schol.). — 
a<r|Uvos ir60<j), glad, through my longing 
(causal dat.). 

760 iro\v66Tovs...er^aycte: the se- 
cond part of the compound adj. is akin 
in sense to the subst. ; cp. x oc "<ti rpi- 
trir6v6oi<ri {Ant. 431), vevrbitjouri xX^yfia- 
ffiu (ib. 1283). 

767 KtjpvJ chr' otKW...olicctos: 'his 
own' herald, returning from Trachis, 
was not one at whose hand he could 
have expected such a gift. It is needless 
to give oUctos a special sense, as (a) 
'bred up in his household,' or \b) 'sent 
on a private mission,' as Paley takes it. 

760 irpov£f$£coro : for the imperf., 
cp. O. T. 1055 iipiifieffOa : 0. C. 1605 
tylero : so often ixiXevov. This com- 
pound does not occur elsewhere, but is 
paralleled by irpoetavlirrafiat, irpoe^atro- 
<rrA\<i>. 

70O ft. ravpoKTOvct *.r.\. The offer- 
ing consisted of a hundred victims alto- 



gether, including bulls, sheep, and goats 
(<ru|&|UYn Pooxifpara), — a 'hecatomb' in 
the general sense (//. 1. 315 iKardfjfias | 
Taijpw -f}6' alyQv). The sacrifice was to 
begin with the slaughter of twelve oxen, 
animals specially selected from the spoil. 
Such a Owrla dudeica lepeltov was called 
5w5e/q/j (Eustath. p. 1386. 48, etc.). In 
II. 6. 93 Helenus directs that an offering 
of twelve cows shall be promised to A- 
thena. 

4vrcXct8=reXe<ovf } with no physical 
blemish or taint : Lucian Sacrif, 12 <rre- 
<pavuxrarrci rb ftpo?, koX toXiJ ye vpbrepw 
iterdaarres el ipreXis etrj, tya firjd^ twv 
&XpJ)<rru)v n KaTtun/f&TTwri, wpoadyowri 

Tip fiwflip. 

Slovs is probably masc. here (as in At. 
, though in Homer it is usu. fern., unless 
the contrary is specified. The word rav- 
poKxovct is not decisive, since it might 
express merely the antithesis between 
oxen and other victims (cp. such phrases 
as olvoxoeir viicTap). Seneca Here. Oct. 
784 Ut stetit ad aras omne votivum pe~ 
cus, I Totumque tauris gemuit auratis 
nemus. 

irpooTJ-yc, sc. t£ pw/jup : cp. Pollux 1. 29 
r& 6e wpoo'aKTe'a dti/Mara, Upeta aprta 
drofia 6\6k\ripa iiyirj awrjpa. The imperf. 
means strictly, ' proceeded to bring' (after 

8—2 



u6 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



Kal TTptoTa fiev SctXatos tkeco <f>pevl 
Koafico re yaiptov Kal <rro\f} Karr/v)(eTO % 
07rcc)5 $e aefivciv opytav cSaiero 
<f>\6£ ai fiarrj pa koltto meipas 8pvos f 
I8pa>s dvyjei, yptoTi, koX irpo<rirTv<r<rerai 
irkevpaiaiv a/mfcoXXos, cuotc t4ktopos, 
"XiTtav airav Kar apdpov *J}k0€ 8* o&T&tov 
dSay/jbos awi<nraoT0S 9 clra (fxuvias 
€)(upa% €)QLOvr)$ w>5 co5 coawvro. 
ivravda or} 'fioTjae rbv SvoSai/Jbova 
Atj^av, tov ovhh/ avnov rov aov KaKov, 
7rotats iveyKOL rovSe fiTj^dvols 7reir\ov 
o o ovocv €too)5 ovafiopos TO OW /JL0V7JS 
S(opr)fi cXcfei/, aairep ^v iaTaknevov. 



765 



770 



775 



704 garqtfxcro] Meineke conj. KaHipxero. 767 tfp&s] L has ifyxiwr, not i$/x5<r, 

though the grave accent is short, thick, and nearly horizontal, as the first hand some- 
times makes it: the accent on elddxr in 775 is somewhat similar. — d>#«] &v ifei L. — 



donning the robe). The hist. pres. rau- 
poKTovel, too, represents an imperf., not 
an aor. 

708 tXcy. While l\ap6s (1) properly 
refers to aspect ('beaming,' 'cheerful,' 
as opp. to crKv0pujTr6s) t tkews denotes a 
placid or gracious mood of the mind : 
cp. Ephippus (a poet of the Middle Co- 
medy), 'E/uiroX^ fr. 1 brolriai 0' l\ap6v t 
cu^ws 6* d0e?Xe far \ a&rov rb Xwrow, 
K&Hdeil-ev tXetav (where Meineke rashly 
changes $' IXapov to Bakepov). 

764 K<S<T]«j> TC.Kal OToXtj = KOCfliq. 

<rro\jj. So in Eur. Med, 1 165 Glauce puts 
on the deadly gifts of Medea, depots ftirep- 
Xalpovca. — Kanjfixtro: as Chryses fieyd\' 
€&x.ero %e?jpa* toa/rx&v, at the sacrifice 
described in //. 1. 447 — 466; and as 
Nestor xoXXd... , Aft}^ | eflxer' on the 
like occasion in Od, 3. 430 — 463. Those 
two passages explain the ritual imagined 
here (w. 756 — 766). (1) Heracles, 
having put on the robe, brings his vic- 
tims to the altar. (2) The next act 
would be to sprinkle the x^P VLy l f on the 
sacrificers ; who would then take barley- 
meal (otfXoxtfrcu) in the hands from the 
basket, Kovodv, (3) Then Heracles offers 
his prayer to Zeus. (4) The actual im- 
molation follows; the barley-meal is 
sprinkled on the heads of victims ; hair, 
cut from one or more of them, is thrown 
on the altar-fire; and they are slain. 



(5) The firjpla (Ant, ion), doubly wrap- 
ped in fat, are burnt on the altar. This 
act was in progress, when the agonies of 
Heracles began. 

Several critics alter Kanjv^ero to kcit- 
iJp\€TO. The latter, if used in its larger 
sense, would refer to no. 1 of the stages 
described above (cp. Od, 3. 445 xh vl ^ 
r* o^Xox«Jros re KarrjpxcTo) ; if in its nar- 
rower sense, to no. 4 (cp. Ar. Av. 959, 
Her. 2. 45). The larger sense would be 
best here. 

But Ka/rqvxcTO is an immeasurably finer 
reading. Heracles, standing before the 
altar as he prays with uplifted hands to 
Zeus, is thrown into stronger relief than 
if imagined merely in the brief act de- 
noted by KarfipxcTo. The tXetas <f>p4u, 
too, would be more apparent in the evxv 
than in the rite. 

706 f. ccpvuv 6pyfa>v...$X££, 'the 
flame of the solemn rites' i,e, the flame 
from the sacrifice on the altar. 6pyia 
could not literally mean drjfxara (the word 
by which the schol. explains it) ; but the 
sense is the same. In Ant. 1013, too, 
opyitav are 'rites,' not * victims.' The 
flame is called alfMrrip& 1 because the burn- 
ing flesh was so. It is needless to take 
&t6 with Spy lav. 

irtcCpas 8pv6s: the wood of the pine 
(tciJicit) is resinous {farwibdrit), — a quality 
conducive to the bright flame which was 



TPAXINIAI 



117 



At first, hapless one, he prayed with serene soul, rejoicing in 
his comely garb. But when the blood-fed flame began to blaze 
from the holy offerings and from the resinous pine, a sweat broke 
forth upon his flesh, and the tunic clung to his sides, at every 
joint, close-glued, as if by a craftsman's hand ; there came a 
biting pain that racked his bones ; and then the venom, as of 
some deadly, cruel viper, began to devour him. 

Thereupon he shouted for the unhappy Lichas, — in no wise 
to blame for thy crime, — asking what treason had moved him to 
bring that robe ; but he, all-unknowing, hapless one, said that 
he had brought the gift from thee alone, as it had been sent. 

TpoffTrrfoffCTou. Musgrave: icpotnrrbitoerQ mss. 768 c&rre] Musgrave conj. tSar* 4k: 
Herwerden and Blaydes, u>s 4k. 11 dSay/ibs Brunck (from Photius Lex. 

p. 7. 21): ddayfibs mss. — (poivlas MSS. (<povlat L s ): made from <powLai<r in L. <polvio$ 
Pierson (on Moeris, p. 41) and Brunck. 771 tit Wakefield: ws mss. 

772 'poTjce Brunck : pbifcre MSS. 778 rod rod] Wakefield conj. ro&rov. 

11 '4 iviyKOi L, with most mss. : 4p4yK<u A, and Aid. : 4v4yKcus (or -ott) r. 



prized as an omen (Ant. 1007 n.). The 
original meaning of dpus was simply 
'tree' (schol. 77. n. 86; Curt. Etytn. 
§ 275). In 1 168 and 1195 it means 
'oak.' 

767 ff. ISpds, showing that the irri- 
tant action of the poison has begun. — 
clpriKoXXos, <u<tt€ Tticrovos, closely glued 
to his flesh as if by a craftsman : schol. 
ws inrb t4ktovos kclXus avyKeKoXkrjpJvos. 
The gen. here is not so definitely equiva- 
lent to a gen. with vtt6 as it is in At. 807 
<f>urrbs t fyiraTrjfi4inff t or Eur. Or. 497 ttKvi- 
yeU dvyarpos. It expresses a similar 
notion, but in a vaguer form : ' like 
something from (the hand of) a t&twi>': 
'like (a work) of his.' Some supply 
KoKkrjffcwTos : but this seems difficult, 
and is not warranted by such examples 
as (bs ifAou frivifs w4\as (sc. ofays, 0. C. 

83). 
Some have supposed that the x LT &v is 

compared to (stone or bronze) drapery 
on a statue. t4ktwv could certainly 
mean a sculptor : Eur. Ale. 348 o-o^J 
bk x«tpi reicrbvuv rb <rbv S4fias | cUaffOfr. 
But: (1) There would be little point in 
comparing a real robe to an imitation in 
art. (2) Cp. fr. 430. 4, where Pelops is 
responding, with his eyes, to the glance 
of Hippodameia, and the discreet limit 
which the lover's instinct observes is com- 
pared to the line traced by a craftsman's 
rule ; — taov iierp&v 6<p6a\pu>i/ t wore t4kt0' 
vos I irapA <TTd6p.rjv lovros dpBovrai. Kav&v. 
There, then, as here, the simile is from 



a mechanical process : the riicnav is sug- 
gested there by tcrov fierpuy, as here by 
apriKoWos. 

&irav KttT* £p0pov : the robe clings so 
tight as to show the contour of the body : 
cp. the Homeric phrase, irrvrbs 4v xkalrg 
KCKoXv/ifibos, explained to mean, uxrre 
bib, rod Ifiarlov rod <rup.aros rbv rtnrov 
(palveadcu (II. 24. 163, with Leafs n.). 

forleov might be joined with dvri- 
orn au T OS ( = dvTLcrTQv rb. dor a), but is 
more simply taken with aSayiufe. The 
latter word means 'a biting pain' (rt 
5a*), esp. an 'itching.' Photius p. 7. 
2 1 : &b ay fibs b 6dafr}<T/x6s, ovep iarl 
Kvrp fibs' ovru) 2o0o#r\ip. The forms 
65d£u (act. and midd.) and &da£4w (do.) 
seem both to have been in use; the 
former was perhaps chiefly Ionic. 

771 *x&vtjs...£s: Hyllus does not 
know what Deianera had applied to the 
robe; but, as the venom was that of 
the hydra, his conjecture comes near the 
truth. — tScUwro : cp. 1088 : Eur. fr. 790 
<paytba.iv' del jjlov ffdpica Bow air an irobbs. 

112 fU 'f&Tjo-i: poav riva usu. = 'to 
shout to (or for) one' : Pind. P. 6. 36 pbavc 
waiba op (called his son to his aid) : Xen. 
Cyr. 7. 2. 5 Kvpov ipba. Here it means, 
'shouted for him, (asking) ,'= /Sow -fjpw- 
rrjffe. — IW7K01: for fpeyicov and fyeyKa, 
cp. 0. C. 522. — |nt|xavatt in a bad sense, 
as At. 181. 

778 f\<£cv, sc. ipeyicup. — &o*irtp ij» 
k(TTak\Uvov, as it had been sent; *.*., 
without tampering with it by the way. 



u8 



IO<l>OKAEOYI 



KaKelvos (is yJKOvae /cat Sid&vvos 
(nrapayfios avrov nXevfiopcov cu^i/kito, 
fidpxjjas iro86$ viv, dpdpop y XvyC^erai, 
pnrrei w/065 dp,<f>LK\v<rTov 4k ttoptov irerpav 
ko/jltjs 8c XevKov fivekop iicpaivei, fxiaov 
KpaTOS §ia<nrap4vros awards ff 6/jlov. 
a7ra? 8* dpriv^/JLTjo'ep olfMayg \ecis, 
tov p£p vtxrovvros, tov 8c 8ta7rc7rpay/jicVov' 
KovSels croX/jta rdpSpos avriov fiokelv. 
i(T7raTo yap ir&opBe Kal fierdpaos, 
fioajv, ivtfiiv dfi<f>l 8* Iktvttovp irerpai, 

AoKpCOV T OpCLOL 7Tp6)P€S EvfioiCLS T CLKpai. 

iirel 8* a7rct7rc, 7roXXd //,€!/ raXa? ydovl 
piTTTtav iavrov, TroXXd 8* olixoryy fiocop, 
to Svamdpevpop ketcrpov ip&aTOVfiepo? 
<rov rfjs Takaivrjs Kal top Olpeo)? yd/xop 9 



780 



785 



790 



777 TJKoixre] iJKovee L, the e written small over <r, with traces of a deleted i> t 
over which two dots had been placed. The v may have been made from a. 

778 irKevyMifiav A, L 9 , Harl., and Aid.: *v€vp6inai> L, with most MSS. 770 irodds] 
tto5ui> V s . 780 fsurrel MSS., as in <<4«/. 131, and (except Mosq. b, 15th cent.) in 
At. 239: ^torrei Elmsley. 781 KdpLijs] Bothe conj. pcdpays: Mekler, icoyx^s (as = 
'the skull,' Koyxos op. Lycophr. 1105): Hense, Kowjj: Graff, poXy. — \cvk6v] Blaydes 
writes \uarbv. 782 5ia<nrap4vTos] Meineke conj. diappayivTos : Wakefield, diacva- 



Cp. 622 too" ayyos (as &x €l $«£<" <ptpw. 
— Not, 'as had been prescribed' (^ire- 
<rra\/x4vov). 

778 irXcvji.6 v» v : cp. 1054: for the 
form, 567 n. 

779 f. dpOpov fl Xv^CTas 'where 
the joint is supple,' i.e., at the ankle 
(<r<pvp6v), where the ball of the joint 
(dcrrpdyaXos) plays in its socket. This 
mode of definition is Homeric: cp. II. 
5. 305 Ma re pnjpbs \ laxity ivffrptiperai 
(turns in the hip-joint). 

780 4k itovtov, 'in' ('rising from') 
the sea; i.e., an isolated rock, not part 
of a promontory. This is better than to 
take the words with dpxpiKXvcrTov, ' washed 
on all sides by the sea': ix tovtov would 
then be too weak. 

The name ' Lichades ' was given to some 
rocky islets just s. of C. Cenaeum, in the 
narrow strait dividing it from the pro- 
montory of Cnemldes on the Locrian 
coast. Strabo 9, p. 426 ivrauda koI al 
AtXddes Ka\otip.evai rpets vijcoi irpOKeiVTcu, 
dirb Alga roHvofxa {goi/a-cu. Cp. Aesch. 



fr. 29, quoted on 237 f. Ovid Met. 9. 226 
Nunc quoque in Euboico scopulus brevis 
emicat alte \ Gurgite, et humanae servat 
vestigia format; \ Quern quasi sensurum 
nautae calcare verentur, \ Appellantque 
Liehan. — Alx*s perh. = Xt0os : cp. o/wtxos, 
SpptOos (Preller 2. 255 n. 2). 

781 f. KO|&T|s...|fcvcXov iicpaCvci, he 
causes the brain to ooze out through his vic- 
tim's hair, — at the moment when the skull 
is cloven. Cp. Eur. fr. 388 icdpa re ydp 
aou ffvyxcu Kbfitus dfxov, \ /tavQ 5Z ireoo<r' 
iyictyaXov: id. Cycl. 402 rbv 0" au, r£- 
voptos apwduras &Kpov irooos, | iraluv irpds 
6£vv (ftwvxo- verpalov Xl0ov \ £yKt<pa\ov 
i&ppave (where the verbal resemblance 
to this passage is remarkable).— pucXAv: 
iyKt<pa\os, the proper word for * brain,' 
is merely an adj. with which jxueXSs is 
understood. In Plat. Tim. 73 c, D the 
iyxttpaXos is described as that part of the 
fMveXos which is to receive to delov <rirtpp.a. 

8uunr(xp4vTos : the skull, cleft from its 
centre (\U<rov), is scattered in fragments. 
Other views are:— >{i) The word means 



TPAXINIAI 



119 



When his master heard it, as a piercing spasm clutched his 
lungs, he caught him by the foot, where the ankle turns in the 
socket, and hurled him at a surf-beaten rock in the sea ; and 
he made the white brain to ooze from the hair, as the skull was 
dashed to splinters, and blood scattered therewith. 

But all the people lifted up a cry of awe-struck grief, seeing 
that one was frenzied, and the other slain ; and no one dared 
to come before the man. For the pain dragged him to earth, or 
made him leap into the air, with yells and shrieks, till the cliffs 
rang around, steep headlands of Locris, and Euboean capes. 

But when he was spent with oft throwing himself on the 
ground in his anguish, and oft making loud lament, — cursing 
his fatal marriage with thee, the vile one, and his alliance with 

Oeneus, 

cOivros: Blaydes, Zuurxyrdimot : Heimreich, diappaurdbros. 788 dyijixp^j/xija-cv] 

&i>€v<pd)vr)<T€i> most mss., and Aid. : further corrupted, in some MSS. , to d.ve<fxhv7)C€v y and 
in L to &v€V <t>tavrja h. Brunck restored dpev^firjaep from Hesych. s.v. &v€v<pi}fiJ)<T€i : 
it is confirmed by schol. Eur. Tro. 573, who quotes this verse. As to the 171/ in drrjv~ 
jyfjfirpev, see Ant. 1164 n. on rjtidwe. 787 f, Diogenes Laert. 10. 137 quotes 

the w. thus: S&kvw (Nauck conj. \dfficuv), Ivfav d/u/>l 5* iff rep op T^rpoi, [ AoKpwv 
r' 6petoi vp&pes Evpolas r' &Kpa. The MSS. of Soph, have no t' after Aotcp&v. 
Porson wished to restore it. 792 <rov...ydfxof>. Nauck regards this v. as 

wholly or partly spurious. 



merely ' cloven,' and has been substituted 
for a word like dtappayfrros on account 
of the following aX/xaros. This seems 
impossible. (2) Siappayirros, or the like 
(see cr. n.), should be read. But 5ta- 
cirapiPTOs, rightly understood, suits both 
nouns. Athenaeus (66 a) quotes w. 781 
f., as cited by Apollodorus (e. 140 B.C.), 
without variation from our text. The 
reading, then, is at least a very old one. 

788 avr\vty^\t.r\<r*v ol|u»yn : tne verD 
can bear this sense even without a de- 
fining addition : Eur. Or. 1335 dvev<prjfxei 
dofMos (of wailing) : Plat. Phaedo 60 A dprfv- 
<pj)H7)<T€ (Xanthippe). The notion is that 
of a cry which expresses religious awe. 
Cp. Matthew Arnold, Mycerinus: 'And 
one loud cry of grief and of amaze | Broke 
from his sorrowing people.' 

787 lvj»v: Iv, a shrill sound, ex- 
pressed astonishment or anguish : Aeetes 
uses it in his 'inarticulate' vexation (ti^ep 
y d<l>cwfyr(p vep tpLwas &X €i: Pind. P. 4. 

2 37)- 

788 AoKpwv t 5pcu>i irp<ovcs: the 

heights of the Cnemis range, on the 
Locrian coast, just s. of Cape Cenaeum 
in Euboea. At this point the strait is 
less than three miles in breadth. The 
t after AoKpaiv (cr. n.) seems genuine. — 



aKpai, the cliffs which jut into the sea 
at or near Cenaeum. This fern, form 
is usual when, as here, the ref. is to pro- 
montories, dicpa, the reading of Dio- 
genes Laertius (cr. n.), — meant doubtless 
as neut. pL, — would be rather 'moun- 
tain heights.' The neut. fapov is rarely 
said of a foreland (as in Od. 3. 378). 

Seneca's equivalent for this passage is 
curious: he describes the heros cries as 
re-echoed from Chalcis (50 miles off), 
from Cape Caphareus (upwards of 100), 
and from 'all the Cyclades' ! (Here. Oet. 
803 ff.) 

789 £ dircfrrc...£Cirrciv: the cause 
of weariness is regularly expressed by a 
pres. part.: Ar. Lys. 778 /«fr w oref- 
TUfiep raXaiiruipoij/xevaL: Plat. Legg. 769 
£ ovk dp wore \iyw direlvoi. 

791 f. 8 wrirdpcwo v : for the adj., 
compounded with a subst. akin in sense 
to AAcTpov, cp. 0. T. 518 plov...pa- 
Kpalwpos, and above, 756 n. — Mmitov- 
(icvos: cp. 0. T. 205 n.~ tAv Olvfos 
y&pov : the gen. is most simply explained 
by the fact that yd/xos implies alliance: 
cp. Eur. Ph. 77 KTjdos 'AdpdoTov Xapdv. 
Others understand, ' the marriage granted 
to him by Oeneus,' so that the constr. 
would be as with dwpop. 



120 



Z0<l>0KAE0YZ 



otov KaTaKrrj<raiTo \viiavrfjv fiiov, 

tot €K irpoceSpov Xiyi/vos hido'Tpofov 

6(f>0akfi6p apas clSc fi h> iro)Ck& ot/hxtgJ 795 

SaKpvppoovvra, /cat fie irpocrfiXexljas /caXet* 

Z 7T<U, 7T/0O(rcX^€, flTj <j>Vy[)S TOVflOV KCLKOV, 

firjh 9 el (re XPV Oolvovtl arwdaveiv efioi* 
aXX 9 apov e£a> 9 koX fidkiara fiev fie Oes 

bnavff 07T0V fie flTj TLS Ol/f€T<U fZpOTOJV 80O 

€t o oiktov Loyeis, aAAa //, c/c yc ttjo-oc 777$ 

tropOfievaov c5s ra^iOTa, ft^S* ai5rov Odvco. 

Toaavr eirio'KrityavToSy ev fieaq) cr/ca<^€i 

0«T€s (r<£€ 7T/0O5 y^p r^S* eKekaafiev fiokis 

j3pv)((6ii€i/ov cTTracr/jtotcrt' /cat iw avrt/ca 805 

^ ^cS^r* eao^eaff rj t€0vtjk6t dpruos. 

rotavra, firjTep, irciTpX fSovk€v<ra<r ifiq> 

Kal 8pai(r ikij^frrjs, a>v <re 7rolvifios Ai/07 

r€wratr Epwvs r* ct efe/u? o, €7T€i;yo/jnu' 

0€/u? 8', cTrct ftot r^ 0€/ni> <rv irpovfiakes, 810 

795 tfpas] dpa<r L, with t written over ap. 796 *a\et H. Stephanus : *dX« the 

MSS. (except Vat., from which Campb. cites #raXei). 798 Oavbvri] Oavbvra r. 

799 apov] dXpov L.—fie $h Wakefield : fi4$es MSS. 301 oIktov] Wakefield 



794 f, irpocc'Spov, irepiKexvfi^vrjs : the 
cloud hung around him. — Xiyvtas, the 
smoky flame from the resinous irevKi) 
(766), — just as in Ant. 1 126 aripoxp \iyvfa 
refers to pine-torches. — SioUrrpo^ov, with 
the frenzy of pain : cp. Eur. H. F. 932 
iv <rrpo(pai(Tiv bp.pja.njiv 4<p$appUvot. — orpa- 
t£: though the crowd must have been 
partly composed of warriors (359), orpa- 
r6s has here the general sense of Xecfrf 
(783) : cp. Ant, 8 n. : El, 749. 

798 <rvv6av«Cv: cp. Eur. Suppl. 1006 
adiaros ydp rot ddvaros | <rwOvjpKeu> Op^c- 
Kown (piXois. 

799 £ l£», as the context shows, means 
'out of Euboea': for dpov, cp. At. 545 
alp avrbvy aXpe Sevpo. — pdXurra piy: cp. 
Ant, 327 n. His thought is: 'Take me 
at once to the wilds of Mount Oeta, and 
leave me to perish alone; or, if you shrink 
from that, at least take me out of the 
island.' 

The reasons for preferring Wakefield's 
pc 0*s to the MS. plws turn on these points. 
(1) The act. pueOUvcu, when said of per- 
sons, usu. = 'allow to escape' (O. C. 906 
Arpwrov od fieOrj^ dV: At. 37a fxedrjKa 



rote dXdaropas) : or ' leave ' to some course ; 
as Ant. 653 fitdes \ r^v itcuS 1 iv "Aidov 
Hjvfc vv/u/xfew tipL But this use of the 
verb has no place here. The sense is not, 
'allow me to escape' to some solitude. 
(2) As said of things, pe$i&cu can mean, 
'to let go,' 'release from one's grasp'; 
EL 448 ravra p.kv fUOes: id. 1205 ju/tfes 
t6$' dyyos. Hermann, who retains |U0c$, 
renders it by 'depone.' But that is too 
gentle a word: pUdes here would differ 
from KaT&$a as 'drop* from 'lay down.' 
Cp. 1254 & trvpdv fie 0jp. 

8irov...|Mt Tif S^rrai: cp. O. T. 1410 
^w pA wov I Kakfaf/ar', ij <f>ov€6(rar\ -fj 0a- 
Xda-ffLov | Upi\par\ (v$a p-faror 9 ebrdif/effV* 
h-t (n.). 

801 f. ft 8' oIktov t<rxfts, if thou hast 
no heart to do that. It would be easy, 
but it is needless, to read ft 8* oIktos 
tayjii «r. — ctXXd, 'at least': 201 n.— 
afrov 'just here' (O. C. 78).— 6dv«»: the 
prohibitive subj. is rare in the 1st pers.; 
but cp. O. C. 174 (n.): Eur. Tro. 172 
(pij) d\yvv6<Z. 

8O8 Tocravr", implying brevity. — km- 
o-KTfi|ravTOS, sc. afrrov: cp.P/i. 1033 irXei/- 



TPAXINIAI 



121 



— saying how he had found in it the ruin of his life, — 
then, from out of the shrouding altar-smoke, he lifted up his 
wildly-rolling eyes, and saw me in the great crowd, weeping. 
He turned his gaze on me, and called me : * O son, draw near ; 
do not fly from my trouble, even though thou must share my 
death. Come, bear me forth, and set me, if thou canst, in a place 
where no man shall see me ; or, if thy pity forbids that, at least 
convey me with all speed out of this land, and let me not die 
where I am.' 

That command sufficed; we laid him in mid-ship, and brought 
him — but hardly brought him — to this shore, moaning in his 
torments. And ye shall presently behold him, alive, or lately 
dead. 

Such, mother, are the designs and deeds against my sire 
whereof thou hast been found guilty. May avenging Justice 
and the Erinys visit thee for them ! Yes, if it be right, that is my 
prayer: and right it is, — for I have seen thee trample on the right, 

conj. okvov. 8O0 iff6\f/e<r0'] Meineke conj. £r' 6\f/eff$*. BOB Alicrj] SIkt}l' L. 

8O0 '"Epivfc t 1 ' el 04/us d\ iireOxofMu] Wunder writes, 'E/wfr t\ el Oepdar 1 brevxop-(u. 
810 ivel fioi] iirel rot Pretor, as Bergk and Blaydes propose. — dtfuv] Wunder reads 
tpw. — irpotipakes A, with most MSS., and Aid.: ay>o0XaJ3e<r L. Nauck conj. TrpovceXeis. 



ffavTos (sc. ifjiov) : Xen. An. 4. 8. 5 of 5' 
ehcov, ipum^ravTos, ort k.t.X. — tv |ii<r<p 
oicctyci, recumbent in the middle of the 
vessel. 

804 <r<^€ is prob. governed by itrfk- 
<ra|tcv as well as by OIvtcs. The ace. 
after xlXXoi usu. denotes either the ship 
or the place ; but cp. Ph. 236 Ws <r\ u 
riKvov, vpoaiffxe k.t.\. (n.). — The boat 
would be rowed from Cape Cenaeum to 
the harbour near Thermopylae (633 n.), a 
distance of about eighteen miles ; thence 
Heracles would be carried some six miles 
to Trachis. The shortest sea-passage 
would be across to the Locrian coast 
(788 n.); but the longer land-journey 
would be more trying for the sufferer. 

806 yj twyT*...^ Tf0vtiKOT*: a way of 
saying, *I cannot tell whether his life 
will last so long.' The change to £<2vt' 
It* Sif/ecO 1 would weaken the verse. — Cp. 

807 fL povXcvccur : not only in 
poetry (as Ant. 267), but in prose also, 
fiovKeveiv is said of 'planning' (as dist. 
from 'executing') a crime (Dem. or. 19 
§ 21); and po£\€v<Tis was a legal term in 
this sense. The povXJj was really that of 
Nessus (844 f.). — 8fxtt<r, not ipdaoura, 
since his torments continue. The dat. 
irarpl i/xf can be taken with 5p£)cr\ no 



less than with /SouXetfccur'. For the con- 
struction dpQ ravrd <roi (instead of ere), cp. 
0. T. 1373 n. 

iroCvifios, of avenging deities, as At. 
843. — A(kt) is associated with 'Epurfs, 
since the latter especially punishes sins 
against kinsfolk: cp. Aesch. Ag. 1432 fxd. 
Hlvre'Xeiop T7jp ipLrp iraidbs Mkt)v y \ "Arip t\ 
'Epivvv 0\ ttfo-i rbvd 1 ta<t>a£ £yc6. — &¥... 
tcCo-cut : for the causal gen., cp. O. C. 
229 w*» vpow&O'Q rb rlveiv: Her. 4. 118 
rdaao-Oai TTjs irpbade dovKoff&vrjs /SovXo- 
fxevos. For the spelling, cp. O. T. 810 n. 

iircvxo|uu : he deliberately gives his 
wish {reiaaiT 1 ) the solemn form of an im- 
precation. — ft (M|us...6{|us 8': cp. Ph. 
1035 : fr. 856 et fioi Oifus' 04pus 6i riXtfOrj 
Xtyeiv : Eur. H. F. 141 el xpfj /i\ ipurru ' 
XPV 5*, iirel ye deffirbrris ic.t.X. 

irpotfpaXfs»hast cast from thee, spurned : 
schol. iwel <ri> vpbrepa [read trporipa] rty 
Be'/xw dirtppixj/as kcU wapeides. Cp. At. 
830 jmpBQ Kvalv TrpdpXrrros. Aesch. Eutn. 
215 KvirpLs S* wrifios Ttpd* arippiTTTtu \byip. 
Tac. Ann. 1. 42 cives, quibus tarn senatus 

Eroiecta auctoritas. — pot, ethic dat. ( = ' I 
ave seen thee' do so): cp. O. C. 81 rj 
ptfiTjKev rifxiv b £hos ; 

Others understand : (1 ) * you have thrown 
this very justice as a shield (trpb^Xrjfxa) 
over my action '(Paley); ue. % 'have made 



122 



ZO<l>OKAEOYI 



iravTwv apioTOv avhpa 7W inl ^(dovi 
KTeiv<ur t oiroiov akkov ovk oi/jci 7tot€. 

XO. tl <r2y d<f>€p7r€L$ ; ov KaTOiaff odovveica 
tjvvrjyopels aiy&o'a tgJ Karqyopcp; 

TA. car' ajfyipirtw ovpo% 6<f>da\fL<ov ifitov 
avrfi yivovr airtovat kpiroxxTQ icaXos. 
oyKov yap <xXXg>s ovofiaTO? tl §€i Tp€<f>ew 
[irjTp^ov, ijfrt? iirjhkv o5g T€Kov<ra 8/o£ ; 
aXX* cp-Trero) Ycupova-a* ttjv hk Tdpxjfiv rjv 
Tcoficp OLOOKri, iraTpiy rr/vo avrrj kapou 

arp. a. XO. 18' ofoi', <2 7rat865, irpoaifiei^v a<f)ap 

2 TOV7T05 TO OtOTTpOTTOV T^fUV 

3 rag 7raXat<^arov npovoCas, 

4 o r ekaKo/, 07t6t€ Ttkeopjrivos ifc<f>epoL 

5 ScoScfcaros aporos, apaSoxap rcXct^ itovtav 



815 



820 



825 



818 (tylpxeu] i<ptpTT€is r. 816 f. d^pxety] tytpireiv r. — *aX6s Brunck from schol. 
(ef0e o5pos icaX&s ^xiTrveucretej/ atfrjj): KaXtDs MSS. — Nauck places ipwofoji koK6s in v. 815, 
and bpdaXfuop i/juav in v. 816. 820 t^pS'] tcujttjv 8' Harl. tV 9' Hermann. 

821 — 88O L divides the w. as above, except that the words tws yb.p av 
6 fril XetjaauiPy and the words davuv* XarpeLav, form respectively a separate verse. 



it right for me to do so.' (2) ' You have 
given me the right to do so flit., 'placed* 
that right 'at my disposal'). — Wunder, 
changing Mpiv to Cow, explains, 'you have 
challenged me to this strife. 1 

818 <rty: cp. Eurydice's silent exit, 
Ant. 1244. 

8 1 6 f . The place of tyOdXpav *P* V m 
the sentence is due to the implied thought, 
' So long as / see her no more, she may go 
where she will.' The poet cares not that 
the gen. might seem to depend on o$pos : 
for like cases, cp. Ant. 944 (Aavdaj), Ph. 
598 (rbot $').— avrjj is not emphatic ('of 
her own accord '), any more than airrbv in 
262. 

koX6s seems a true correction of *a\tD$, 
and was probably read by the schol. (cr. 
n.). Cp. Od. 11. 640 KaWtfjtos ovpos. 
The adv. would have a weak effect at 
the end of the v., and would belong to £p- 
xotfcfl rather than to yivotr'. — Cp. Aesch. 
Th. 690 trta /car' ovpov, KVfia Kwkvtov 
\a\6v, \ $olp(p <mryri$fr raM rb Aatov 
yivos. 

817 SL ^dp justifies his unfilial lan- 
guage. — ffyicov, 'importance' (O. C. 
1162 n.), 'pomp' {At. 129 fiyS* 6yKov &py 



fiijdiv 1 ): here, the 'dignity' belonging to 
the name of mother. The adj. agrees 
with Byicov, since Syic. 6v6fMTos=* name- 
dignity': cp. Aesch. Eum. 325 parpyov 
aytHfffw. . . . <f>ovov. — &\Xm$, ' vainly ' {Ph. 
947 n.), *.*., when she is a mother in name 
only. — rptyciv, ' keep,' continue to enjoy. 
— pn&iv, generic, helping the causal force 
of tJtis. Cp. El. 1 194 pfyrqp icaXetrat, 
firfrpl 8* ovfcv il-urdi. 

810 f. dXX' ipir. \aCpoaxra: cp. Eur. 

Phoen. 921 x a ^P u,v W" °^ 7^P a & v M* ^el 
fiavreufmrufv. — flv at the end of the verse: 
cp. O. T. 298, O. C. i+i El. 873.— ^vS*: 
tt)v V would be too emphatic: cp. 23 n. 

821 — 862 Third CTourtfAov. 1st 
strophe (821 — 83o) = ist antistrophe (831 
— 840) : 2nd str. (84 1 — 85 1 ) = 2nd antistr. 
(852 — 862). For the metres see Metrical 
Analysis. 

The oracle given twelve years ago is 
being fulfilled ; Heracles is doomed. 
Deianeira has been the unconscious in- 
strument of fate. And in all this can be 
seen the work of Aphrodite. 

821 18': though several persons are 
addressed, the sing, is used (as in 0. C. 
1463), since IU could be a mere interjec- 



TPAXINIAI 



123 



by slaying the noblest man in all the world, whose like thou 
shalt see nevermore ! [Deianeira moves towards the house. 

Ch. (to Deianeira). Why dost thou depart in silence? 
Knowest thou not that such silence pleads for thine accuser ? 

Hy. Let her depart. A fair wind speed her far from my 
sight ! Why should the name of mother bring her a semblance 
of respect, when she is all unlike a mother in her deeds ? No, let 
her go, — farewell to her ; and may such joy as she gives my sire 
become her own ! 

Ch. See, maidens, how suddenly the divine word of the old 1st 
prophecy hath come upon us, which said that, when the twelfth strophe. 
year should have run through its full tale of months, it should 

end the series of toils 

828 wa\auf>&Tov] After this word, a letter (<r ?) has been erased in L. 824 6 r' 
(or 6t') mss. : Stt* Triclinius : dV Hermann (i.e. a re, = rj re). . Blaydes conj. 6 y\ 
826 du&jcaros] Hartung writes dtideic' trvs ( = kvk\ovs, meaning 'months'): Hense 
conj. T€\\6fJL€vot ('then beginning 1 ). Bergk reads T€\€6firjvov...d(a6iKarov dporov, 
taking the first word as a subst. : ' when the twelfth completed month should finish 
the year. ' — dporos r : dporpoa L. Cp. 69. — dVa5ox&"] L has the letter in an erasure. 
Dindorf conj. dvdXvcriP (tracing dvadoxdv to a gloss avoxv*') ' Meineke, dvaxvodv. — 
TcXeUf] Nauck conj. ireXdv. 



tion ; cp. Od. 3. 332 dye rdfivere : Ar. Th. 
788 iptpe 6$ vvv t I ...ri yafieW 1 ijfiat; id. 
Pax 383 eM a*oi, ri iraerxer', wdpes ; 

irpoai|ui{cv, intrans., as in Ph. 106 
(where see n. on the spelling), ' has come 
to close quarters with us/ instead of mere- 
ly threatening from a distance. As ira- 
Xat^rfrov indicates, the poet was thinking 
of Od. 9. 507 rj /xdXa 5rf /xe TaXaltpara 
dia^a? Ikclvci. 

822 f. 0coirp6irov, ( oracular* : usu. 
connected with irptirw (intrans.), as = * ap- 
pearing from a god'; though Buttmann 
explains it by Oe&s irpitrei (trans.), ( a god 
sends a sign.' Ace. to another view, Seo- 
vpinros is 'one who prays to a god' (as 
though the rt irpor- were akin to Lat. 
prec: Leaf, //. 1. 85). — rds iraXauJxiTov 
irpovoCas, the (divine) prescience which 
was declared (which found utterance) long 
ago: viz., twelve years ago, at Dodona: 
see 44 n. Cp. Eur. Ph. 637 0elp irpovolq., 
'with inspired foresight.' O. C. 454 
(fiavrcta) Ta\oU<f>a0\ 

824 f. 6 t\ neut. of the epic relat. 6s 
re: cp. El. 151 or (^ r). There is no 
metrical ground for reading & t* (fern.) 
here, since the syllable, forming the ana- 
crusis of the verse, is properly short: 
in the antistrophic v., 834, Sv before 
t€K€to is a long substituted for a short. 
— iXaicev, of oracular utterance, Ant. 



1094. — €K<f>^pot, intrans., 'come to an 
end': schol. irapiXdoi. An intrans. iK<f>4p€u> 
occurs elsewhere only as meaning 'to 
shoot ahead' in a race: see on O. C. 
1424 (where iiaptpci is best taken as 2nd 
pers. pres. midd., 'fulfil for thyself). 
But the sense found here is parallel with 
that of the intrans. iicdidtocu and l£tewu, 
as said of rivers, ' to issue.' 

SctSlicaTOS £poro$: the twelfth year 
from the time when the oracle was given 
at Dodona : see n. on 44. Apollodorus 
names the same term, though, ace. to his 
version, the oracle was given at Delphi 
(3. 4. 12). 

This is the only passage of the play 
which mentions the period of twelve years. 
In 44 f. and 164 f., the reference is merely 
to the fifteen months which, when Hera- 
cles left home, were still wanting to those 
twelve years. It may be asked, then, 
whence the Chorus derive their know- 
ledge of the twelve years ; for Deianeira, 
in 155 ff., speaks as if they had not 
then heard of the oracle. The answer is 
simply that this inconsistency of detail 
was overlooked by the poet ; the term of 
twelve years was in his mind, as a fa- 
miliar part of the story; and he forgot 
that, if the Chorus were to know it, 
Deianeira ought to have mentioned it. 

Needless difficulties have been made 



124 



IOOOKAEOYZ 



vt. a . 



6 ro> Atog avT07rator /ecu rao opuojs 

7 e/JL7T€$a K(LTOVplE,€L. 7Tc3s yap &V 6 JX7) XeVO'O'OJV 

8 CTt TTOT* €T iiriTTOVOV < 7T01/(OV > €)((H davcjv Xa- 

TpeCav ; 830 

6t yap cr<^6 Kevravpov <f>ovia vecfxka 

2 x/H€i SoXottchos ai/ay/ca 

3 7r\€vpd, 7rpooTaKcvTo$ iov, 

4 op T€K€to 0araTos, # €Tp€<f>€ 8* cuoXo? hp&KOJV, 

5 7T<3s o8' av aikiov erepov rj toL j/vv iSoi, 835 

6 ScworaTew ftcv v8pa$ irpoa m T€TaKcjs 

7 cfxicriJLaTL ; ^ekoLy^aira *8* ayniiyd viv at/ct^et 

820 £ Xe^craw] In L the first hand wrote Xetfow : another o - has been inserted above 
the line. — Irt xor\..XaTpefru'] L has #ri xor^ [here a space for 7 or 8 letters, but 
no erasure] £r' Mttopop Jfgoi | Oavwv \arpetav. The other mss. have the same text, 
except that a few give tot* for tot^, and *xet for *x<k. Gleditsch inserts irdvw 
after Mwopop. See comment. 881 0op{? ve0Aa] (potvlai p€<f>4\cu L. Most MSS. 
have 0ou/£a ve<p4\a (the reading of Aid., and of the edd. before Brunck), or <povia ve- 
<f>4\a: a few <poivLav ve<p£\av. Musgrave proposed <poviq. ve<pk\q., as Brunck reads. 
For (poviq. Wecklein writes 8vo<p€p$. 888 irXevpd. Triclinius and Erfurdt : irXeupq. 



by assuming that the allusion here must 
be to the fifteen months of 44 f. and 
164 f. Even then, however, it has to 
be supposed that * twelve months' are 
put loosely for * fifteen.* 

dporos, 'year': 69 n. — dvaSoxdv tc- 
Xftv (fut.) irovctv : the subject to the inf. 
is axnbv supplied from Aporos: 'that it 
(the twelfth year) should end the succes- 
sion of toils.' rcXctv could not be in- 
trans., with dvadoxdv for subject. The 
apparently intrans. use of the verb is 
limited to such phrases as the following : 
EL 1 41 9 reXouff* dpai (are doing their 
work) : Aesch. Th. 650, elffdfieaO' dry 
reXei ('how the god will ordain'): cp. 
Ch, 1021, Pers. 225. 

828 £ avrfaraioi : schol. yvrjcrLy tcu- 
5/: cp. avravtyios. — 6p8as, i.e., at the 
due moment (cp. 173): 6p$6s is oft. thus 
said of oracles coming true: 0. T, 853 : 
O. C. 1424: Ant. 1 1 78. — IpircSa, with- 
out fail: cp. 487. — KaTOvp£{ci, intrans., 
are coming into haven before a fair wind: 
schol. cfowep ovpl(p icveijfxaTi Tpocrop/x€i 
ijfuv /car' 6p6bv dwd/xeva. This com- 
pound does not occur elsewhere : but cp. 
Ar. Th. 1226 rp^x* *w **?"& robs tcdpa- 
km iwovplffas. 

829 f. b |&^ Xtvcottv^A ^ p\bcta», 
the dead. Though this absol. use of 



\evaaeiv is found only here, it does not 
warrant suspicion. — 4irCirovov...XaTp€£av. 
The insertion of irrfvwv, due to Gleditsch, 
is made probable by the text of the anti- 
strophe : see on 839 f. For the phrase, 
cp. 356 ic6v<ap I XaTpetiiiar'. And for M- 
irovov along with irbvwv. cp. Ant. 502 n. 
Other views of this verse are given in the 
Appendix on 839 f. 

881 foyiq, v«f>lXa, dat. of circum- 
stance, 'with a cloud of death around 
him': cp. //. 16. 350 Oavdrov 6i n4\av 
pi<pos dpL<p€Kd\wj/€v. There is perhaps 
a reminiscence of Pindar N. 9. 37 <p6~ 
pov I irapTToiiov ve<p£\<w (referring to 
battle). The image might be partly sug- 
gested by the vivid description, which 
the Chorus have just heard, of Heracles 
in his agony, with the altar-smoke hang- 
ing around him : the irpoaebpos \iypfc 
(794) was indeed, for him, a <povla ve- 

Others understand: (1) 'in the Cen- 
taur's deadly net. 1 ve<pi\r) was a kind of 
bird-net used by fowlers : in Ant hoi. 6. 
11. 2 it is called Xeirr6/uros, ' of fine tex- 
ture,' and distinguished from the hunter's 
$oXix&p SUtvov. Cp. 1052 v<pavrdv dfx- 
iplpXrjarpov, and 1057 t^V' But it 
seems doubtful whether this use of vefeXt) 
would have been suitable to Tragedy. 



TPAXINIAI 



125 



for the true-born son of Zeus ! And that promise is wafted 
surely to its fulfilment. For how shall he who beholds not the 
light have toilsome servitude any more beyond the grave ? 

If a cloud of death is around him, and the doom wrought by 1st anti- 
the Centaur's craft is stinging his sides, where cleaves the venom stro P he - 
which Thanatos begat and the gleaming serpent nourished, how 
can he look upon tomorrow's sun, — when that appalling Hydra- 
shape holds him in its grip, and those murderous goads, pre- 

MSS. 884 t£k€to MSS. : creice Hartung. — erpe<pe Lobeck : trace MSS. 886 a/Kiov 
r : aktov L. For a'eXtov, Wunder writes (on a conject. of Hermann's) *ri <f>dos. — 
rh. vvv\ Blaydes writes rhv v\jv. — Hermann, dk\iov krepov 68e ye x«$ tdoi tot' ov. 
888 deurordrtfi] L has in an erasure, from w. — tidpas] Hermann writes dpOpa. 
887 <f>dafiaTL MSS. : see comment. — fieXayxadra 6" Wakefield : fxeXayxaira t' L, 
with most MSS. (but a few have 0' for t', or omit the particle). For fjuXayxalra, 
variants were fieXayxa&Tov (R, with a written above ; the converse in T) : and /*€- 
Xa7xa/ra5 (B). 888 ft. L has dfXfuyd viv aULfri viaov 0* vwo | <f>ctvia 

8o\6fiv0a Kev\rp > iwi^cavra. The space between aULfa and vfoov is equal to 8 or 
9 letters, as if v'ecov 0' vtto formed a separate verse. V 2 has vkeaov } inr<xf>olvta : the 
other MSS. have, like L, vkaov (or vktraov) y vn-o <polvta. Triclinius, keeping Ne<r<roi/ 
0* viro, omitted <polvia. Heath and Brunck, Neccrou <p6vta (omitting 0' vtto)! Her- 
mann, viroQova (omitting N€<r<rov 0'), and 6o\t6fiv0a for do\6fxv9a. 



(2) 'The deadly envelopment,' — i.e., 
the robe, compared to a cloud which 
obscures the sun. 

KcvTavpov...8oXoiroios dvcfryica, the 
Centaur's insidious constraint; i.e., the 
inevitable doom, brought upon him by 
the Centaur's guile. The adj. is pro- 
perly active in sense, 'contriving fraud'; 
cp. Traidoirotos, <tltottoi6s. In 0. C. 698 
the passive sense of afr-oxoiof ('self- 
produced') is exceptional. — XP^ l » ins- 
tates, torments: Aesch. P. V. 567 xpkt 
rts ad fie rav T&Xcuvav otcrrpos. This 
sense, like that of 'anointing,' comes 
from the primary sense, to 'graze,' or 
' rub.' — irXivpd from vXevpov : for the 
second ace, cp. Ph. 1301 fxtdes /*€... 
XeTpa. 

884 The MSS. have lv tckcto 0d- 
varos, trace 0" aloXos dpaKojv. This has 
been explained as if 0&vcltos were the 
father and the dpcucw (hydra) the mother. 
But usage does not warrant such a pointed 
antithesis between tIkto/jhu (midd.) and 
tLktu). The poets apply either voice to 
either parent: see, e.g., II. 6. 154 6 6* 
dpa TXavKov t4k€0* vlov, | afrrap TXavKOS 
iriKTev a/Mjfiopa BeWepixpovrrjv : id. 2. 
728 ireKCP 'Vfyri, and 742 tckcto 
KXvTbs'lTnrodaficia. Lobeck 's correction 
of Itckc to frpc^c is a certain one. — 
atfXos: cp. 11. 



886 dUXtov, with a, the rarer quan- 
tity: cp. Ant. 100 n. 

888 £ tf8pas...<j>d<r|MiTt, the mon- 
strous hydra: cp. 508 <p6jufm radpov. 
irpo<rreraK(p8, ' close-locked ' in the deadly 
grip of the monster. The word came to 
the poet's mind through a consciousness 
of the literal meaning, — viz., that the 
hero's flesh is 'glued* to the robe. This 
very trait, so thoroughly Sophoclean, 
confirms the soundness of the text. (Cp. 
Ant. 117 n.) The context (jicXayx^Ta 
8* etc.) further confirms it. As the 
Chorus picture the torments of Heracles, 
two dread shapes rise before their 
thought, — the hydra, who nursed the 
venom, and the Centaur, through whose 
blood it works. — For the proposed emen- 
dations of tyLoyj&ri, see Appendix. 

|icXayxaCra (gen.): Hes. Scut. 186 
fjLe\ayx<drrfP re Mifxavra. Cp. above, 

557 n- 

888 dp|uya = dvapuya (cp. 519): 
Dem. or. 21 § 52 (in & parrela), Urravai 
dpaiiav BpofxUf) x^P^ a/Mfuya iravras ('pro- 
miscuously,' i.e. of mixed fruits). Here 
the sense seems to be, 'confusedly* ; there 
is a tumult of pangs : cp. 1053 ^ Th e 
objection to taking it as merely 'there- 
with,' or 'at the same time,' is that the 
xevTpa are only the workings of the 
hydra's venom. 



126 



ZO<l>OKAEOYI 



8 Necrcrov # v7ro<£oiaa # 8o\io/x,u#a K&rp hnt > 4<ravTa. 840 

<rrp. ft. &v aS* a Tka/JiCJi/ dotcvos, fieydkav npoaopSo-a So/jmho-i 

fikdfiav vitav 

2 ^aicrcrovcra^ yd/Mov, rd p,kv # avra irpoaefiaXe' ra 8* 

aTT* dXXo#/3ov 

3 yvco/xas /xoXovr oXedptauri avpaWayais 845 

4 -ty 7T0V oXoa OT€l/€l, 

5 7J 7rov aSu/art' yXxopdv 

6 reyyei SaKpvcov dyyav. 

7 a 8* kpyppAva jxolpa 7rpo<f>aiv€L SoXCav 850 

8 /cat /xeydkai/ arai>. 

841 — 861 L divides the vv. thus: — wv afl' — | fieyaKcw — | wktav — | tA fUv — | 
yvtbfMff — I 17 tcov 6\oa — J rj irov ddwutv — | reyyei — | a 5' — | fioipa — | KcU...arav. 
841 doicvos Musgrave: ookvov MSS. 842 xpo<ro/>u><ra] Blaydes writes vpoo- 

pwaa. — dofxouri Triclinius : dofiois MSS. 848 atvcrovcrav Nauck : dur<r6mav mss. 

— yafxuv] Hartung gives kclk&v, thinking that the Schol. read thus: so, too, G. 
Wolff, De Schol. p. 58. — aiJrA Blaydes (Nauck having already proposed ad-Hj) : 



889 £ It has long been the general 
belief that the words W«r<ru (or vwnrov) 
0' Wo, found in the MSS., have arisen 
from a gloss, — the name of Nessus having 
been introduced to explain jicXavxaCTa. 
But otherwise there has been little agree- 
ment. The views of various critics are 
given in the Appendix. 

Here I may briefly state my own con- 
clusions. (1) ncXavxafrra, 'the black- 
haired one,' could probably stand with- 
out a substantive, or proper name, — esp. 
as Kevraijpov has occurred not far back ; 
though it would be somewhat harsh. 

(7) Comparing v. 830 with v. 840, we 
see that the words (x oi Qw&w Xarpetav 
in 830 correspond metrically with ~& 
Khrp ivi^cavra. The words (hi ttot 
tr iirtirovov in 830 ought therefore to 
correspond with what stands between al- 
iclfrt in 839 and the a before k4vtp > in 
840: viz., ace. to the mss., vkcov (or 
viffcov) 0' faro <f>olvia do\6nv$: 

(3) Now, if W«rov 9* Wo were ejected, 
this correspondence would be obtained 
by reading Wtyova SoXopvOa. The form 
faro'^opof, though not extant, is correct 
(cp. air6<povos in Eur. Or. 163, 19 -2). 
The Kivrpa would be far60wa as being 
'secretly fraught with death.' The hiatus 
in aliclfrei \ itTtxpova is not unexampled, 
though it has not the usual excuse of a 
slight pause : cp. 833 f., 846 f. ; Ph. 832 



n. Such a hiatus has been assumed here 
by Hermann and others. It might be 
avoided, however, by reading <jx£via 80- 
XiopvOa. The forms doXo/ivdos and do- 
\i6fiv$os are equally correct: cp. 5o\6- 
fnjTis and doXto/JLrjTtSt do\6<ppu)v and 5o\i- 
6<ppwv. In this case, the origin of Wo 
would remain obscure. 

(4) But a closer adherence to the ms. 
text becomes possible, if, with Gleditsch, 
we read N&nrov Wo^ovia SoXiopvfa 
tUvrp £jri£&ravra, and in 830 Iti wot 
It* orCirovov <irov»v> Iyoi Oavc&v Xa- 
TpfCav. The form iriro<f>ovios occurs in 
the neut. pi. inrcxpovia, as a subst., mean- 
ing the toivt) paid to the kinsfolk of a 
slain man (Harpocr.). The great recom- 
mendation of this reading is that it fully 
accounts for the traditional text here, — 
the insertion in the mss. of 0* before ihro 
being a trivial error of a common type; 
while in 830 wovtov might easily have 
dropped out after Mttopov. 

841 <3v...doKVOS, quorum secura (cp. 
43) : she had no apprehension of such re- 
sults. The ms. dtoicvov, an epithet of 
pX&pap, is explained as 'not shrinking,' 
*.*., 'not delaying,' 'hastening on.' But 

(a) such a personification is strange ; and 

(b) Cn> has then to be taken, somewhat 
awkwardly, with tA per in 843. 

842 irpoo-op&ora is confirmed, as a- 
gainst the plausible irpoopoo-a (Blaydes), 



TPAXINIAI 



127 



pared by the wily words of black-haired Nessus, have started 
into fury, vexing him with tumultuous pain ? 

Of such things this hapless lady had no foreboding ; but she *nd 
saw a great mischief swiftly coming on her home from the new str0 P he - 
marriage. Her own hand applied the remedy ; but for the issues 
of a stranger's counsel, given at a fatal meeting, — for these, I 
ween, she makes despairing lament, shedding the tender dew 
of plenteous tears. And the coming fate foreshadows a great 
misfortune, contrived by guile. 

00 rt MSS. 844 irpocrtpaXcv (not irpwripaXe) L, corrected from irpoaefiaWev : 

vpockpaXe r, and Aid. Wunder writes TpockXapev : Hartung, vpwrcXapc. — dXX6- 
Opov Erfurdt : dXXodpoov MSS. 846 dXedplaiai Triclinius : dXedplous MSS. : 

Hermann conj. crvyvato'i : Wunder, ovXlauri. — truvaXXaycus Wunder : ^uvaXXayaU 
MSS. 846 f. 17 xov, in both vv., L : rj irov A, and Aid. — dbU»(av\ ddivQs 

Harl. 



by the fact that Deianeira had seen Iole's 
arrival. She did not merely 'foresee' 
evil ; she had 'beheld* it coming. 

848 ff. dt<r<rovorav, Nauck s correc- 
tion of dunroVrwv, is acceptable, because 
' swift coming ' should be that of the pXd- 
py, rather than of the ydpoi : since vajiwy 
here means simply the new tie, — not a 
formal marriage which was in prospect: 
cp. 460 iyrifie (n.), Ant. 185 rty drrfv 
bpwv I ffTelxovcav dorois. Wcw dunroVrwv 
yd\uav would be a gen. absol., 'as a new 
marriage was hastening on/ 

tcl |uv avrd irpoo*lpa\c: the remedial 
measures were her own ; their results^ due 
to Nessus, were not foreseen by her. 
vpoaipa\€= 'applied,' as a remedy to a 
disease. Others explain, 'brought upon 
herself [sc. iavrjj) : but this would re- 
quire avrq. in place of avrd. 

The MS. reading, rd pkv otf tx wpoai- 
paXe, is explained to mean, 'part she did 
not comprehend' (schol. otic tyvw, ov avv- 
tjkw) : i.e., she had, indeed, a secret pur- 
pose, but she did not know the deadly 
nature of the unguent. To this there are 
two objections. ( 1) The supposed sense of 
irpocrtpaXe is unexampled: cp. 580 n. (2) 
The proper antithesis is lost ; for rd dx' 
d\\60pov yvtbpas fioXorr' ought to be 
opposed to her own designs or acts; but 
those things which she 'did not compre- 
hend ' were just those which ' came from 
the alien will.' 

dW60pov here merely = dX\orplas: cp. 
PA. 540 n. — 6Xc0p£auri o-vvaXXa*yat$, 
causal dat., 'through her fatal meeting, 
converse? with Nessus at the Evenus 



(562 ff.). — Others explain : (r) 'by a fetal 
reconciliation'; either (a) between Deia- 
neira and Nessus, or (6) between Deianeira 
and Heracles, — in so far as she resolved 
to pardon him. (2 ) * By fatal conjunctures, 
issues': cp. O. C. 410 n. 

dXcOpCawi is the simplest correction of 
the unmetrical 6*\c0p£ais : see Metr. Ana- 
lysis. 

846 ^ irov : Ph. 1 130 n. — 6\od is best 
taken here as adverbial neut. plur., 'des- 
perately ' : though in El. 844 <J\od is nom. 
fem. — ortfvei is metrically suspicious : 
the corresponding word in the antistr. is 
v&/uf><w (857). But no correction is pro- 
bable. Hermann, writing i[ irov dp' dXour- 
raCvci, cites Hesychius: dXaarodvei' ftw- 
iradeT. Arndt proposes rj irov 6X6* dtrraC- 
vci, — another word which the grammarians 
explain by dvo-waBei, but which is wholly 
obscure. The conject. of Blaydes, alct^ci, 
would serve; but then orlvci must be 
viewed as a gloss. 

847 f. xW°^v...dxvav, a fresh, deli- 
cate dew ; the tears fall in pearly drops. 
Eur. Med. 906 dir' 6<r<ru» xXupbv <bp- 
lAifitl ddicpv. Pind. N. 8. 40 xXiapah 
iipffats, 

r4yyti,...&\vav: cp. At. 376 Ipeppov 
oZ/i' idevffa: Eur. /. T. 159 x°d* | ...£- 
dpaLv€u>. 

86O £ The fioipa is still ipxoplva, 
since Heracles is not yet dead. The 
drav is his death, — SoXCav, as wrought 
by the guile of Nessus. — irpoAofrci, * fore- 
shows,' — enables us to forebode. — Her- 
mann understood, 'reveals the secret vil- 
lainy (of Nessus).' 



128 



IO<l>OKAEOYZ 



dvr. p. eppojyev iraya 8aKpv<ov /ce^vrai vo&os, & ironoi, olov 

avapaltov 

2 ov7T0) f'HpcucXc'ovs ayaKkeiTov c7T6/jloX€ irddos oifcrurac. 

3 Id) K€\aiva_KoYK. a ^pofid\ov 80/009, 856 

4 a Tore uodv vvjx^av 

5 dyayes an awr€u>as 

6 raw Olxo^La? aix/ify 9 

7 a 8* a/jMjkt7roXos Kvirpi? avavBos <f>avepd 860 

8 t&vS' i<f>dvrj irpdicrojp. 

HM. A. Trorepop eyoi /xdratos, rj kXvoj twos 
oiktov 81 olko)v dpTicos opiMofievov ; 
tl (foul; 865 

HM. B. VX € ^ rts °^ K & (rr )V'Q v d\Kd 8v<rTV)(f} 
kq)kvtov ctcro), koll tl Kaivitjei (TTeyy). 

868 f. olov dvapaltav \ otivio dyaicXeiTbv \ ijpaicXiovff dirt/xoXe TrdOocr oiKTiaai L, 
with most MSS. Instead of ijpaicXiovs, a few (including A) give ^paicMa. For 
air^/ioXe, Triclinius restored iirifioKe. For olKricai, Lorenz and Wunder give 
aUltrai. 866 X6tx« wpofidxov] Subkoff writes irafx/xdxov \6yxa» 867 Boav 
vTL)fx<pav\ vvfixcpav Boav B, Lc. 868 HM. A.] The MSS. give w. 863 — 870 to 



862 Ippwycv ira-yd SaKpvcov: cp. 919: 
^»/. 802 tffxew & I o«Wn vriydi dfoafjuu 
daicpvwv. The natural sense is, 'The 
stream of tears has burst forth ' ; i.e. , * we 
all weep for this calamity.' The words 
could not well mean merely, * a source of 
tears has been opened'; i.e., a woe has 
befallen, which will claim tears. 

868 ft. Kfyyrai v&ros, the plague has 
been diffused through his whole frame: 
cp. PA. 203 icayov x v ^ VTO h 'spread 
abroad.' — avfaot: O. T. 167 n.— ivap- 
<r(ci>v, foes : //. 24. 365 dwriuvies ical dvdp- 
(rtot. This worst of woes has come to 
him from his own home: cp. 1058 — 1063. 

The doubt as to the reading here is 
confined to the words between irrfiroi and 
MpoXc. The traditional text is, olov av- 
apvltav I ofhru ayaKXeirbp 'HpcurXlovs. The 
v. /. 'HpairXla, found in a few of the later 
mss., was apparently prompted by dya~ 
k\€it6v. In the corresponding w. of the 
strophe, the MS. text is, fieydXav irpo<ropw- 
<ra dofxois ffh&fiav | vtwv dXtrffovrtav yd/nuv, 
rd /xh of) tl : where the only doubt affect- 
ing metre is between 66/jlois and 86fioicri. 

It seems almost certain that 'Hpcuc\c6vs 
was a gloss, and that rd fib 06 tl in the 
strophe answered metrically to dyakXeLTdv 
here. The proposed emendations of this 
passage are classified in the Appendix. 



Those which eject 'Hpa*XA>vs follow one 
of two methods. (1) To read S4pois, not 
ddfioLCi, in 842 : to insert a long syllable, 
beginning with a vowel (as i£) 9 before 
dvapaliav : and to supply something, equal 
to ^ - (as nor 1 dvdp'), between ofcrw and 
ay clkXcitSv. (2) To read 86|u>uri in 842 : 
and to make such an addition to oviroi as 
shall metrically balance cll&o~6vtuv ydfuav. 
On this plan, I suggest < fhr* > oforct 
<tov8c <rw|&'> dyaKAciT6v. The prep, 
goes with dvafxriup, which, without a 
prep., would here be somewhat harsh 
(as = ' from his foes'). 'HpcurXloi/s would 
have been a gloss on roOSe. Sophocles is 
fond of the periphrasis with <rw/xa, which 
would be fitting here: cp. 1194, 12 10: 
O. C. 355 : El. 1233. 

oIktCo'cu, epexegetic, 'for us to pity' 
(rather than, 'for him to lament'): cp. 
O. C. 144 ov vdvv fxoipas evdaifMOPlffai | 
irptbrris (sc. did). 

866 fL KcXatvct, 'dark,' referring at 
once to the colour of the metal, and to 
old stains. This general character of the 
epithet is seen in Eur. Bacch. 628, fercu 
£L<pos k€\olp6v dpird<ras: where no blood 
has yet been shed. — irpo|tdx ov » 'fighting 
in the front of battle.' Others understand, 
'fighting on behalf of men,' 'champion of 
the oppressed' (cp. ion); the sense, 



TPAXINIAI 



129 



Our streaming tears break forth : alas, a plague is upon him * nd any- 
more piteous than any suffering that foemen ever brought upon stro P he - 
that glorious hero. 

Ah, thou dark steel of the spear foremost in battle, by whose 
might yonder bride was lately borne so swiftly from Oechalia's 
heights ! But the Cyprian goddess, ministering in silence, hath 
been plainly proved the doer of these deeds. 

First Semi-Chorus. Is it fancy, or do I hear some cry 
of grief just passing through the house ? What is this ? 

Second Semi-Ch. No uncertain sound, but a wail of 
anguish from within : the house hath some new trouble. 

the Chorus. Brunck first distributed the passage between two hemichoria. — vdrepov 
iyui fiarcuos] Meineke thinks that an exclamation by the Nurse, such as Id fxot, 
preceded these words. Hense would supply a irpoava<f>u)PT]/xa for the Chorus, such 
as rls iixfl > 866 rl <prnd ;] Nauck conj. ri <pu>fj.€t> ; Schenkl, ri <pfy a 6 ; 



probably, in which Heracles was styled 
Updfxaxos at Thebes (Paus. 9. ir. 4). 
But the war upon Oechalia hardly illus- 
trated that character. — aixp$> m the 
sense of * prowess,' 'warlike might,' can 
follow Xo7x a *pona.xov dopos, since the 
latter is really an image for the warrior 
himself. Cp. 355 afx/*d<rcu (n.). — 8odv 
here is merely adverbial, = rax^ws. So 
Od. 2. 257 \0<rev 5' dyoptyp al\f/r)p^p=/I. 
2. 808 alxf/a 5' fKva' ayopty. Od. 8. 38 
0oV dXeytivere 5aira, * quickly fall to 
feasting.' — alircivas: cp. 327 n. 

86O ft d|i4>faro\o$ and dvavSos, both 
epithets of Ktfir/>ts, are to be taken closely 
together, — 'ministering in silence,' — viz., 
to the purposes of the gods, — not to the 
desire of Heracles. Some regard & as a 
pron. , with which Ktjirpis is in apposition, 
('but she,' etc.,) like Ph. 371 6 6' etv* 
'05v(r<rei5s (n.) : but it is simpler to take it 
as an ordinary article. For the order of 
words, cp. O. T. 1199 rb.p ya/j.\f/&pvx<i 
irapdfrov xpyv/Wtiw (n.;. 

The ' silence ' of Aphrodite means that 
the passion of Heracles had not been 
avowed as his motive for the war (cp. 
358). She has been revealed as the 4>a- 
vcpd irpdicrcop, because that motive has 
now been disclosed as supreme. For 
TTpd/cTup fem., cp. O. T. 81 n. 

868—046 Fourth iireiaodiov. The 
death of Deianeira. 

868 — 870 These eight verses form 
an epode to the stasimon ; three persons 
take part in the delivery, viz., the two 
irapacrrdreu, or leaders of r?/uxfy)ta (HM. 
A, HM. B), and the coryphaeus (X0.). 
The third part (868—870) is best as- 

J. S. V. 



signed to the coryphaeus, who usually 
announces a new comer, and who would 
naturally, conduct the dialogue with the 
Tpo<t>6s. Similar epodes to stasima are 
Eur. H. F. 815 — 821, and Hipp. 1143 — 
1 152, in each of which three parts can 
be distinguished. (See W. Christ, Me- 
trik, § 723, p. 653 2nd ed.) 

The motive of the whole passage from 
863 to 898 is the dramatic necessity of 
making an impressive preparation for the 
Nurse's /St^-is. It rests with the Chorus 
alone to do this, since no actor is present. 

Hermann supposed that, after the 
three leading choreutae had spoken (863 
— 870), each of the other twelve in turn 
took part in the dialogue. But this 
seems improbable. 

868 jidratos, foolish, deluded: cp. 
407 n. For this fem., cp. 207 Koivbs (n.). 
In 565 we have fxaralais and in 887 pa* 
rata, but in 0. C. 780 fiaralov...ij6ov7ii. 

866 t( <f>rj|iC; 'what do I say?' i.e., 
' what am I to say?* Cp. 0. T. 147 1 ri 
(prjfjU; I oi> 6i) kXiJw rov. ..;— where, as 
here, it expresses perplexity at a sound 
suddenly heard. It is only a more vivid 
form of ri <f&; (O. C. 315). Hermann 
wrote tI 6t)|&C; i. e. 'do I say anything 
(true)?'— like \4y<a ti; (O. T. 1475). 
But the pron. could not then stand first. 

866 f, ovk dotmov, not doubtful (be- 
tween joy and woe), dXXd Simttuxt)* but 
(clearly) woful. Cp. Ph. 209 dida-rj/xa 
y&p dpoei. — et<r» : cp. 202 n. — Kcuvtyft : 
schol. (olk4 rt ueurrepov tx €iV & ofros : the 
house is experiencing something for the 
first time, — i. e, , is suffering some new 
calamity. So Aesch. Ag. 107 1 Kalvurov 



130 



Z0<l>0KAE0YZ 



870 



875 



X0. £W€5 8c 

Tqvh* c5? faydrjs Kai crvvoxfypvcjfiim) 
-)(Q)p€i irpos yfLois ypata (rrjfiavova'd ti. 

TPO*OS. 

(0 7TCu8€5, CO? ap Tjjxlv OV (TfJLlKpOJV KOLKCOV 

yp£ev to 8<opov "HpaicXei to irofxirifjiop. 
XO. tC 8', <5 ycpata, KaivoiroirjOeu Xeyeis ; 
TP. /Je/fyice AydveLpa rrjv iravuordrrjv 

68cov dira<r(ov e£ dicunJTov iroSos. 
XO. ov St; tto^ cos 0avov<ra; TP. 7raKr' dtcjicoas. 
XO. TedvrjKQ/ rj raXau/a; TP. Sevrepov icXveig. 

ico/i/itos. XO. rdXaiv, 6\e0pCa* rivi Tpoir<j> davelv <r(f>€ <f>ij$ ; 

TP. (TxeTXtctJraTa # ye 7r/oos Trpa&v. XO. ewrc t$ popco, 

yvvai, ijvvrpexei" 880 

TP. avn}i> SirjioTaxre. XO. n? dvfios, rj rives vo&oi, 

869 ctyflijj mss. dq&ps Lond. ed. of 1722 ; the same conject. was afterwards- made 
independently by Ast and by Wunder. 870 <n}fiavov<ra Triclinius : <rnnalvov<ra 

MSS. 871 "hfilv r : ij/uv L. 878 Kcuvoironjdiv] Hense conj. ko.lv d iroV rjfjuv : 

Mekler, kclivov cibcoBcv: Nauck, irrjpja. Kaivbv dyycXeh. 878 rd\ai»\ dXeBpla] 

Blaydes conj. [inter alia) raXatv' ditdpov : Hense, tcl\cuv\ 0\w\e : Gleditsch, rdkaxva 
drjra (which Wecklein receives). 879 axerXidrrara irpds ye vpaj-tv mss. : J. H. 



I . 



$vybv. In Lycophron 530, Kcuvlaet 86pv, 
a v. /. is Kip^cei. 

860 The MS. reading, dij0i)S, cannot 
be right. The word means either (1) 
'unusual,' or (2) 'unaccustomed' to a 
thing. Here it has been taken in the 
first sense, as meaning, 'with strange 
aspect,' 'unlike herself,' — i.e., gloomy, 
instead of cheerful. It seems inconceiv- 
able that a classical writer should have 
so used &-f)Br]s. 

The conjecture cfyStjs has been gener- 
ally received; but this presents almost 
equal difficulties. As applied to persons, 
it regularly means, ' disagreeable ; Arist. 
Eth. N. 2. 7 (p. 1 108 a 29) b..Av ircUriv 
drjdfy dfoepls rts koX 6ij<tko\os: Magn. 
Mor. 2. 3 (p. 1200 a 15) ifTrepoTrras koX 
drjdeh. Here it ought to mean, ' of sad 
aspect'; it never occurs, however, in that 
sense. Hesychius has, indeed, &t]84s' 
(rrvyvdv, \vicT)p6v\ but this paraphrase of 
the neuter proves nothing. In 0. T. 82 
if8fo is not 'joyous-looking,' but 'wel- 
come. ' 

Surely dtfOip was merely a corruption 
of d(y)i)(h(s, which does not seem to 



occur, but which is as correct as ciryridfy 
or voXvyriBiis. — Cp. Eur. Ale. 777 <rrvyv$ 
vpoff&irtj) teal <rvvwppv(i)fiivtp, 

870 <ri||Jkavov<ra, as a correction of 
(nnuUvowa, is not merely recommended 
by usage, but is necessary, unless the 
rpo<p6s be supposed to make signs before 
she speaks. 

872 'HpaicXct r& ir6pLirijiov=r6 ( H/o. 
Tr6p.tr.: cp. 0. C. 714 tmrourur rbv d/ee- 
<rrijpa xaXtr6r: At. n 66 jSporotf rbv det- 
lurqarw I rd</>ov. ir6|&iri|iov here=ire/Mr- 
tov, as in Eur. Hipp. 579 ironiclpa ipdris 
du)fxdT(»)v = i] ix dd)fjL. trefupdelo-a. 

878 icaivoiroiT)0lv : a verb not else- 
where found in writers of this age, but 
frequent later; cp. Polyb. 1. 4. 5 iroXkd 
ykp aflrij (se. ij n&xrj) *cuvoirotoO<ra /c.t.X. 

87ft 4£ aKivTJTOv iroS6s: lie expresses 
the condition; cp. El. 455 i% virepripas 
Xcpbs: Ph. 91 n. This is one of those 
proverb-like turns which a homely speaker 
would use in the desire to be impressive. 

876 £ 0$ 8i| iro0': cp. 668 n. — irtLvr 
dicijicoas : cp. Ant. 402 vdvr' ifrUrraaaiy 
— in a similar answer. — rl6vi)iccv...; They 
are so bewildered that they repeat the 



TPAXINIAI 



131 



Ch. And mark how sadly, with what a cloud upon her 
brow, that aged woman approaches, to give us tidings. 

Enter Nurse, from t/ie house. 

Nu. Ah, my daughters, great, indeed, were the sorrows that 
we were to reap from the gift sent to Heracles ! 

Ch. Aged woman, what new mischance hast thou to tell ? 
Nu. Deianeira hath departed on the last of all her journeys, 
departed without stirring foot. 

Ch. Thou speakest not of death ? Nu. My tale is told. 
Dead, hapless one ? Nu. Again thou hearest it 
Hapless, lost one ! Say, what was the manner of her 



Ch. 

Ch. 

death ? 

Nu. 
Ch. 
Nu. 
Ch. 



Oh, a cruel deed was there ! 
Speak, woman, how hath she met her doom ? 
By her own hand hath she died. 
What fury, what pangs of frenzy have 



Heinrich Schmidt transposes ye and irp6s. Hermann conj. <rx,er\lu>s (or <rx.er\l<p) 
tA vpos ye irpagw : Ph. Wagner, o-xcrXiurdn/i' 7c vpai-iv : Steinhart, axtrh? ci>s too" 
(Nauck axerXubrar 1 ) i^iirpa^ev : Heimsoeth, bewdrara vp6s ye irpa£w : Wunder, 
aKatrra irpos ye irpa^iv. 88O frjvrpixei] Nauck and Blaydes conj. i-vyicvpeti 

Blaydes also Zv/nrlrvei. Wunder rejects the words ybwu y £wrp5?xei. 881 &vq- 

t<rr<a<re\ hvr\l<ma(rev L. 882 ris dv/xbs rj rives v6aoi MSS. The ris was deleted 

by Hermann ; both ris and rives by Erfurdt, whom Wunder follows. Wunder wrote, 
drrj viv jjkrrhxre ; 



question which has been answered: cp. 
184 n. 

878 For the metres of this K0fifi6s 
(878 — 895), see Metr. Analysis.— -£Xf- 
6p£a, 'undone/ Most': a rare sense; but 
cp. 0. T. 1 341 rbv niy' 6\46piov. The 
second syll. is short, as in 845. 

870 The MS. reading, orxcTXtcoTara 
irpos 7c irpdgiv, has been variously altered 
(cr. n.), in order to avoid an anapaest in 
the 2nd foot, on the assumption that the 
verse is an iambic trimeter. The neatest 
of such corrections is Hermann's, o^cr- 
Xfcp to. irp6s 7c irpo£iv. 

Heinrich Schmidt, whose view of the 
metre will be seen in the Metrical Ana- 
lysis, merely transposes vpos and ye, 
writing <r\er\u6rard -yc irpds irpd£iv. 
Simplicity is not the only recommenda- 
tion of this course ; it transfers the stress 
of ye from irpaj-tv to the adverb. For 
this sense of <rx£r\toj, cp. At. 887, and 
n. on Ant. 47. 

By irp8j-iv must be meant here the mode 
of * doing* the deed, rather than the vic- 
tim's * fortune'; though the latter is the 



usual sense of the singular {Ant. 1305 n.). 
After the question, rtvi Tp&np, a strong 
emphasis on irpdgiv would be, however, 
less natural. It might, indeed, be ex- 
plained thus; — 'the rp6vos of her death 
was the sword ; but the mode of infliction 
(irpa£ts) rendered it peculiarly pitiable,' — 
since it was inflicted by her own hand. 

880 gwrpfoci : schol. tIvl Oavdrip 
avv4ire<rev (cp. 0. T. 113 r$de cvfiirlirrei 
<p6v(p). The verb is, in fact, a bold poet- 
ical substitute for evfivlvrei, expressing 
the notion of ' suddenly encountering' a 
violent death. Cp. the Homeric avvi- 
dpa/xov, said of combatants (//. 16. 337). 

881 Siiftcrrwc : the compound oc- 
curs only here. For this sense, cp. Her. 

3. 127 Wo i)p.4wV JjtjTbHTe. 

882 If. tCs fouls, what impulse of 
passion, — rtvcs vocroi, what pangs of 
frenzy (At. 59 <poir&vr' > avdpa fiaviduriv 
vbaois). The words rj rives vdaoi are 
really parenthetical, — suggesting that the 
excited mind (6v/aos) may have been also 
deranged; hence the verb can agree with 
OvfMS, on which the chief stress falls. — 

9—2 



132 ZO*OKAEOYI 

TIM'S* a'x^ct fi eKcos KttKov £vveike ; m3s iptjo-aro 

TT/sos Oavdry Ba.va.rov dvv<rao~a aova; 885 

TP. orovoeuros &* rop.a o~i.ha.pov. 
XO. eircZSes, «2 fi.ara.ia, rdvo* v&piv ; 
TP. eirciSof, ojs Sj) ir\r}o~ta Tra/jacrrcms:. 
XO. Tt? ^f ; mus ; tftep 1 five. 8go 

TP. avrrj irpos avrrjs -^eipOTTotevrai. rd&e. 
XO. ri (fxoveU ; TP. o~aif>7)vfj. 
XO. ereKcv «■€« < 81) > pcyaXav 

a ct'opros dSe vvaifta 

Sojxois tomtS* 'E/uvuk. 895 

TP. aya? ye- /iaXXof 8", €i irapovca TrXrjo'Ca 
eXewo"<7cs of eSpcure, Ka/w aw ^jKT«ras. 

XO. kou Tavr etXtj tis Y e V yueaiKeia ktictcu ; 

TP. Seii'ws ye* 7r«Jo*ci o , wore p.aprvpeiv iuoC. 

«rei -rrapTJXde Bcapdrtav e'cnu aovrj, 900 

S8S & tiwS" nfcrW Hermann : raVi' ai»<4F L, wilh most mss., and Aid.— Tri- 
clhuus, whom Brunck follows, wrote alxjta, giving the words nffJ' aivjid £^\«i! 
taxoO (uyci\e to the Nurse. Wundei, too, assigns them thus, but keeps alxjidr. 
B87 row] TTonai h first hand, with t written over «r by 1 late corrector. — 
m&npav Erfurdt : irii^pou MSS. 8S8 u fi.aTa.la MSS. (ij ftaroia L). Her- 

mann writes, twaiei, <(We»,> u /toron, to**' $fipa>; Wunder, ArtfSet, ui /uiriiif, 
njitft tJji- vjijMi ; Blaydes, ^xtTJej, i3 pa?, dpa tom&i rir Cftm* ; Nauck, imtfei, 
/lamia [without <S], ritS' Spptf, but would prefer, trti&tt /ii-rar t4i<S'; SOO rii) 

ri Harl. — For rit j"* ; irwt ; Wunder writes, rtt rftr; ('who did the deed?') 
•SI siyrij r: aurij (not miri;) L. 898 & L divides thus: tract frEKEv 

guritXf, corripuit, seiied and carried off; bewilderment of the messenger becomes 

cp. Thuc. 1. 51 (6 Xoi/ioi) xdvra {uv^pei. a preparation for the ^nr. 
Not, 'destroyed her along with Hera- rdvE' Eppiv, this deed of violence (done 

cles.' to herself). So in£/. 864 X<i|9a is merely 

886 |iivO means merely that she a fatal accident. 

alone is responsible for the death of 88S (is STJ...irapn<rr<tn$, jc. o'on 

Heracles as well as for her own. It does (cp. 0. C. 83 n.) ; here Sij = 'in fact.' 

not anticipate the statement that she was Elsewhere, when lit iij is not ironical 

unaided in her suicide (891). (as it is in 0. C. 809), Sjj iometimes=4fq 

887 otoviWtoc cp. II. 8. ijo^Aeh (Ph. 1065). Cp. 1191. 

ororoMTii x' ,,, ' , '' , ('dolorous darts'). — iv 880 T(t ijf, .ft. % vftui: what was 

to(i4; the instrumental &>: ^«/. 1003 its nature? «i«* (rfynTo), how was it 

tnr&inai b x^Knvai. executed? 

888 iJ parata. is said with a mixture 881 aur^ wpos afn-fi k.tX. The verb 
of pity and impatience; the aged tbo$As, x E1 P 0,ro ""' occurs elsewhere only in later 
in ner terror and anguish, has failed to Greek — The exclamation which follows 
grasp the scope of the question, run implies that these words add something 
1/tfaaTo (88+), and has replied merely, to the disclosure made in 881, aMf 
'with a sword.' The leader of the Chorus SiijtOruiTf. They certainly state more pre- 
now asks her if she was an eye-witness cisely that the blow was dealt by her 
of the deed, — feeling that she will satisfy own hand (and not by a slave's); also 
their anxiety only if she can be led on that the deed had its origin from her 
to describe what she has seen. Thus the own mind (irpos aiirijt), and not from 



TPAXINIAI 



133 



cut her off by the edge of a dire weapon ? How contrived 
she this death, following death, — all wrought by her alone ? 

Nu. By the stroke of the sword that makes sorrow. 

Ch. Sawest thou that violent deed, poor helpless one ? 

Nu. I saw it; yea, I was standing near. 

Ch. Whence came it ? How was it done ? Oh, speak ! 

Nu. 'Twas the work of her own mind and her own hand. 

Ch. What dost thou tell us ? Nu. The sure truth. 

Ch. The first-born, the first-born of that new bride is a 
dread Erinys for this house ! 

Nu. Too true ; and, hadst thou been an eye-witness of the 
action, verily thy pity would have been yet deeper. 

Ch. And could a woman's hand dare to do such deeds ? 

Nu. Yea, with dread daring; thou shalt hear, and then 
thou wilt bear me witness. 

When she came alone into the house , 

fj.€y&\\cw. For the second Jfreicej', Wunder writes trace (with Triclinius): J. H. Hein- 
rich Schmidt, trace 5^. — a piopros schol. : av toprroa L : avtopros A, with most MSS. , 
and Aid. 806 56/xois Nauck : 86fiot<n MSS. — *BptyiJy] ipivw L : ipiwijv A, 

with most mss., and Aid. — Wunder rejects w. 893 — 895. 896 paXXop 8' el] 
In L the first hand had written n&XXov ij (omitting fl'j: the correction is by S. 
807 iXev<r<res] ZXewrea L. — id pace] In L a final v has been erased. 808 f. koX 

tclvt' er\r) riff (not tut) L. Triclinius omitted rts. The Lond. ed. of 1722 gives 
Kal roDr' dverXri : Reiske conj. £r' trXq: Campbell, &p' frXi; : Schneidewin, irXrj 
By (or ToXfiq). — Hermann rejects these two vv. OOO vapvjXde mss. : yap 

vjXde Schaefer. 



any external influence. But it should 
also be recognised that, throughout this 
passage (871 — 898), the dramatic aim 
is to express profound horror and amaze- 
ment. The messenger can hardly seize 
the full meaning of the questions; the 
hearers, on their part, find it hard to 
realise the answers. 

808 If. Itckcv Itckc 8i\. I read with 
J. H. H. Schmidt (cr. n.), thinking with 
him that the metre is probably ~ ~ ~ \ ~ ~ ~ | 
— - — I — A II- In such a passage the text 
might easily have lost toj. — The firstborn 
of lole, that TnjfMv^ {nr&areyos (376), is 
a dire spirit which avenges the house of 
Eurytus on the house of Heracles. Cp. 
Tennyson, Guinevere: ' Well is it that no 
child is born of thee. | The children born 
of thee are sword and fire'... 

Wopros, simply, 'that has newly a- 
risen ' : not, 4 that has lately sped hither ' 
(schol. i) peuxrrl ivravda bpix-qaaca). 

806 f. avav -yi, sc. /xeydXav : cp. At. 
982 TE. <3 Tcepi<yirepx*s rrdOos. | X0. dyav 
76, TevKpe. — Kapra |iaA\ov dv <j»KTuras, 
assuredly thou wouldst have felt greater 
pity. 



808 »ca\ Tavr ItXtj tis k.t.X. For 
the place of r«, cp. PA. 104 offrw* £x« 
n beivbv Arxtfos Bpdtros; (n.). — ktCoxu im- 
plies that the deed was momentous: 
schol. KaraffKevdffou Kal iroirj<rcu' koKws 
8e ws iirl fxeydXcp ToXfirjfMTi eXvev r^v 
XQiv. When ktI^civ is thus a tragic 
synonym for voieiv, there is usu. a pre- 
dicative adj., as Aesch. Eunt. 17 rcxvys 
8e vtv Zetfs tvBeov ktUtols <f>ptva : cp. Suppl. 
138: Ch. 441. 

Hermann rejects this v. and the next, 
because the Chorus, not knowing the 
nature of the deeds {oV 1 5 pave), ought 
not yet to marvel at them. The verses 
were inserted, he thinks, to soften the 
abruptness of ^irel iraprjXde (000) after 
Kapr 1 fa (pKTuras (897). It may be granted 
that they are not very forcible ; but they 
seem genuine. The Nurse has hitherto 
been led from point to point by ques- 
tions. A direct question (898) is needed 
to prompt her narrative. It would be 
less like her to begin it spontaneously. 

OOO irapTJX0« is confirmed by the 
usage of this compound with ref. to 
entering a house: 0. T. 1241, EI. 1337, 



*34 



ZO*OKAEOYZ 



905 



jrai ircuS* hr avXaZs cISc koiXxl Sc/u'ca 
oroptrwff, ovats aiboppov dirrairq TrarpL 
KpwfHJur eiurrrjv hrOa firj tis eurffiot. 
fipVYOTo (thr /Joi/iouri vpooTriirrovir on 
^ycvourr eprtfjLOi, KAaie o opyavcjv orov 
%ffavcei€v 019 €\pfrfTO SciXoia frapo?- 
aXXi| 8c icaXXip SaifLaraM' crrpaN^aifioa}. 
e& rov 4>ikav /SAc&ew ouccra*' Sc/ia?. 
ejcXatcp ij Sv<m}yo9 europatfLonr), 
avrq rov ajurnjs haipov dvajcaXovfLonr) 
§cal +T019 dirmSac+ es to Agistor oucrta?. 
era 8c raJpS' eXiy^b', c^au^n}? o*<£' o/xU 
top 'HpaicXcioi' dakofiov euTop^uafueyr)^ 

901 acXa] The schoL gives a r. /. nva. Hense con;. roujar^jut. MM arop- 

rw^ L, A: rrpaimW r. — arr^nf Triclinius: amx? L. with mast MSS. (ottoc; 
Ald-j. 90S earrijr] Hense writes epar^r. and pUces ihe verse after 914 

x /mw  in i w ] vporrxTvoie'' Wecklein. 90S y&otrr Ipnam. Xaack : *>crotr 

MSS.— ^m] oxor Had. 909 fccXaia r : fei.Wa L. 907— 911 These 



910 



Ear. Jfe/. 1137, 2r7/p. 108, etc And 
the asyndeton is of a kind which the 
poet often admits; cp. 555, 750. The 
conjecture fmf ^Xlt, which has been 

seems, then, unne- 



901C. mfkaSt, the otfXj of the house; 
a poet. prar. like rvftpom. (920), 
fowre? (Aesch. P. V. 646), etc- 
is not merely a general epithet (as *ot\^r 
of uBreror in Au 1 165), bat means that 
the Utter (+ftcu*) was arranged so that 
the sufferer could lie in it as in a ham- 
mock, — with soft bedding on each side 
of him as well as beneath him. His 
agonies made this indispensable. — vrop- 
vvvv*: Attic prose rarely uses this form, 
except in the aor. crro/wro. — ttytppo* 
•Jr y q . go back to meet him on his way 
from the harbour 1804): cp. EL 53 



Hylms had entered the house imme- 
diately after his mother (8201. His oc- 
cupation reminded her that Heracles 
would soon arrive, and decided her to 
act at once. 

90S Kpvfnr* iumjr. in the women's 
apartments icp. 686 6? iwxois). 

Mm |uj -ns 4wtSot would usu. mean, 
'in any place where no one beheld, ? — 
oblique of M'oV pj Tit ctri&y. But here 
the sense is final; 'where no one should 
behold.' The normal Attic fox this would 



be, £r£a pj ru fccrcu (cp. 800),- 
ftyocro. since, in a final relit- clause, th< 
fat. indie was usu. kept even after t 
secondarr tense. 

In Homeric Greek, a final relat. clause 
can take the subjunct. iosu. with m) aftei 
a primary tense, and the optat. (withoai 
eel after a secondary tense. But this i 
not an Attic construction. Thus th< 
Homeric oy>eW fnv 6s iyyeiXEic (Od 
15. 45S) would in Attic be ayyeW iwc/i- 
yo» or dy)c\cT: it could not be, 5 
dryciXae. The constr. W« fut nt curido 
— a very rare one in Attic — has growi 
out of the 'deliberative* constr. ofc ol5e 
Ma my rtt etri&y. by steps which han 
changed the interrogative clause into 1 
final relative clause. A like instance i 
Ph. 281 «rx orrts apaefcu*, (seeing n< 
one) to aid. See Appendix. 

904 & 0p«x«.T»: for the omissioi 
of the augment, cp. 0. T. 1249 n. — p» 
paScn: besides the altar of Zeus ipmo 
in the ou*\*. there would be other altar 
of domestic gods in a large house; cp 
Eur. A.\\ 170 wurrw 6i ^o#movt, «t m 

col rpoffip ; £aro. 

'yevourr Iptym: she said, cpvpot ey^ 
rorro (or r)<KJi > e>. After her death 
and that of Heracles, these altars wer 
doomed to desolation. Xanck seem 
right in thus amending y fowV Ip^iM] 



TPAXINIAI 



135 



and saw her son preparing a deep litter in the court, that he 
might go back with it to meet his sire, then she hid herself 
where none might see ; and, falling before the altars, she wailed 
aloud that they were left desolate ; and, when she touched any 
household thing that she had been wont to use, poor lady, in 
the past, her tears would flow; or when, roaming hither and 
thither through the house, she beheld the form of any well-loved 
servant, she wept, hapless one, at that sight, crying aloud upon 
her own fate, and that of the household which would thence- 
forth be in the power of others. 

But when she ceased from this, suddenly I beheld her rush 

into the chamber of Heracles. 

five w. are bracketed by Wecklein. 0O8 ef rov L, with most MSS. : ef irov 

A, R, and Aid. — <f>CXwv] Naber conj. <ptXov. OlO a&Trjs A : aMjc L. — dra- 

KaXovfj^vrj] dyKaXov/ifrri Dindorf (as Hermann proposed). — Wunder writes oAry rbv 
a&rrjs daUfiov' tyKaXovfxtvq (* imputing '). The Aldine has aM) vpbs afrrijs dalfxova 
KaXovixtvTi. Oil kclI r&s Avcuias 4s to Xoiirbv oMas MSS. See comment. 

018 elaop/jLw^h>rjv] In L the final v is from a late hand. 



though not for the reasons which he 
assigns. Those words could certainly 
mean, 'that she had become desolate,' — 
nor is the plaint less natural because 
death is so near. But the other reading 
is in truer harmony with the context, 
because she is saying farewell to the sur- 
roundings of happier days. Even in- 
animate objects move her tears at the 
thought of parting. Naturally the altars 
come first ; when they were forsaken, the 
family life would have ceased. 

6py6vwv 8tov \|/av<rci€V : for the optat, 
cp. Ph. 289 fiot /SdXoi (n.). Stov here 
= cf twos. Among the tpyava would be 
sacrificial vessels, and, as the schol. re- 
marks, the implements which she had 
used in weaving the robe. 

007 tL ctXXn. . .8»|uCt»v : for the gen., 
C P* 375* — +&x»>v...ol»c€T«v. The opening 
scene with the rpo<l>6s illustrates these 
kindly relations. Cp. Eur. Ale. 194 f., 
when Alcestis takes leave of her attached 
oUiroxl — ko&tls rp otiru) Kaucbs I 6v ofi 
vpoaeiTre teal vpo<repfrq(hi wdXiv. — cUro- 
p<a\Uvj\: the midd., as El. 1060 foopd)- 
nevoi. 

01O dvaicaXov|j4vt) : cp. 0. C. 1*76 n. 

Oil The MS. text, ical rds ftraifias is 
rb Xomt&v ofoiag, is undoubtedly corrupt. 
Various attempts to explain or to amend 
it are recorded in the Appendix. 

The genuine verse must have had some 
direct reference to the context. She is 
weeping at the sight of attached servants 



whom she is about to leave. The general 
sense ought to be, 'bewailing her own 
fate, and that of the household over which 
a change was impending'; since, when 
master and mistress were dead, the house- 
hold would be dissolved, and the faithful 
slaves would pass into other hands. After 
the death of Heracles, Ceyx, the king of 
Trachis (40 n.), was deterred by Eurys- 
theus from continuing to protect the He- 
racleidae; who sought refuge at Athens. 
(Apollod. 2. 8. 1.) 

I believe that AIIAIAA2 arose from 
EIIAAAOIS when the E had been acci- 
dentally lost or obscured. A similar in- 
terchange of initial a and e, combined 
with fusion of two words into one, occurs 
in 0. C. 550, where 4<f>' dordAij was cor- 
rupted into direardXTj. I would read, koI 
•rijs tar' dXXots Is r6 Xoiirdv ofaCos: 'and 
the fate of the property which would thence- 
forth be in the power of others.' For 
ivt with dat. as=penes, cp. O. C. 66, PA. 
1003. The slaves are part of the ofola. 
Euripides has o&ala, as =' property,' at 
least twice : If. F. 337 varp^ov is /*Aa- 
Opov, ov rijs ovcrLas | dXXoi Kparovei: Helen. 
1253 Cds av irapo&<ni$ ofolas focurro* y. 
(See Appendix.) io-rCas would be an 
easy correction of otiaLas: but, on my 
view of the passage, the change is not 
required. 

018 rdv'HpdicX. : for the adj., cp. 51, 
576. — OdXapov, the nuptial chamber: 
Ant. 804 n. 



134 



ZO<t>OKAEOYI 



I 



/cat 7ra<,o ev avXcu? eloe tcoiKa oefivia 

oropvvvff, onws dx^oppov dvrqir) naTpi, 

Kpv\pacr kavrffv evda firj Tts etcrtSoi, 

/3pv)(aTo fiev ftwfiolo'i 7^po(^7^t7^TOl/(^ , on 

*yivowr €pr)/xoL, /cXaie o opydvwv otov 905 

i/favcrciei/ ot? l\prjro SeiXaia irdpos* 

dXXjj Se icdXXfl Scufidrcov crTpaxfxo/ievrjy 

€1 TOV <f*Ck(t)V f3\€\jJ€l€V 01K€T(UV §6/xa?, 

€k\oli€v rj SvcTrjvo^ elcropwfievr], 

avrfj tov avrfjs Baifiov avaKakovpLeirq 910 

/cat 1"ras a7rai8as"f" es to Xot7roi/ oucrtag. 

€7T€t 0€ TG>1>0 €A^g«/, egaKpVTJS <T<p OpO) 

tov 'Hpa/cXeiop ddkafiov elcropfxajfAevrjv. 

901 KotXa] The schol. gives a z>. /. KotvcL Hense conj. KoiftaHipia. 902 o-rop- 

vtfrtJ' L, A : CTpuvvtivd' r. — cwrtpri Triclinius : dwroLrj L, with most MSS. (airoJtf 
Aid.). 008 &ivr?ji>] Hense writes ifjLavrijp, and places the verse after 914. 

0O4 ir/XMnrfirrow'] vfxxnclTvovc'' Wecklein. 905 yfroivr' ipy/iot Nauck : ytvoir* 

ifdjfirf MSS. — Stov] dvov Harl. 906 SeiXafar: SeiXata L. 0O7 — Oil These 



Eur. Med. 11 37, .ff//^. 108, etc. And 
the asyndeton is of a kind which the 
poet often admits; cp. 555, 750. The 
conjecture ydp tfX0«, which has been 
generally received, seems, then, unne- 
cessary. 

0O1 £ avXats, the avX-rj of the house; 
a poet. plur. like vvfupeia (920), irap- 
titvwves (Aesch. P. V. 646), etc. — KotXa 
is not merely a general epithet (as koIXtjv 
of tuhrerov in At. 1165), but means that 
the litter (<f>opetov) was arranged so that 
the sufferer could lie in it as in a ham- 
mock, — with soft bedding on each side 
of him as well as beneath him. His 
agonies made this indispensable. — <rrop- 
vw6* : Attic prose rarely uses this form, 
except in the aor. iaropeca. — dtyoppov 
dvrqpi), go back to meet him on his way 
from the harbour (804) : cp. EL 53 
drpoppop ijl-ofiep ttoKlv. 

Hyllus had entered the house imme- 
diately after his mother (820). His oc- 
cupation reminded her that Heracles 
would soon arrive, and decided her to 
act at once. 

0O8 Kpin|ra<r' favnjv, in the women's 
apartments (cp. 686 tv fwxois). 

<v0a |atj ri« cUrCSoi would usu. mean, 
4 in any place where no one beheld,' — 
oblique of Zvd'dv ny ns elffl&g. But here 
the sense is final ; ' where no one should 
behold.' The normal Attic for this would 



be, &da nrj rts 6\f/€T<u (cp. 800), — not 
6\f/oiTo, since, in a final relat. clause, the 
rat. indie, was usu. kept even after a 
secondary tense. 

In Homeric Greek, a final relat. clause 
can take the subjunct. (usu. with ire) after 
a primary tense, and the optat. (without 
kc) after a secondary tense. But this is 
not an Attic construction. Thus the 
Homeric dyyeXov rJKav 6s dyyelXeie {Od. 
15. 458) would in Attic be AyyeXov hre/x- 
\f/av os dyycXei: it could not be, os 
dyyelXeie. The constr. ivda firj ns el<rl8oi 
— a very rare one in Attic — has grown 
out of the 'deliberative' constr. ofa otdev 
tvda fir) rts daiSy, by steps which have 
changed the interrogative clause into a 
final relative clause. A like instance is 
PA. 281 ojJx o<rris apicfociep, (seeing no 
one) to aid. See Appendix. 

0O4 JL ppvx&To: for the omission 
of the augment, cp. 0. T. 1249 n. — f3a>- 
jtouri: besides the altar of Zeus ipicetos 
m the auXiJ, there would be other altars 
of domestic gods in a large house; cp. 
Eur. Ale. 170 vdrras Si j8ci>/*otfs, at kclt* 
'Ad/xrp-ou HofJLOVS, \ irpo<ri)X$€ Kd£4<TT€\f/e 
Kal wp<Hrrj&£aTO. 

yivowit lpT)|u>t: she said, iprjfioi £yt- 
vovro (or iyiveoBt). After her death, 
and that of Heracles, these altars were 
doomed to desolation. Nauck seems 
right in thus amending yeVoiT Jpifiu), 



TPAXINIAI 



135 



and saw her son preparing a deep litter in the court, that he 
might go back with it to meet his sire, then she hid herself 
where none might see ; and, falling before the altars, she wailed 
aloud that they were left desolate ; and, when she touched any 
household thing that she had been wont to use, poor lady, in 
the past, her tears would flow; or when, roaming hither and 
thither through the house, she beheld the form of any well-loved 
servant, she wept, hapless one, at that sight, crying aloud upon 
her own fate, and that of the household which would thence- 
forth be in the power of others. 

But when she ceased from this, suddenly I beheld her rush 

into the chamber of Heracles. 

five w. are bracketed by Wecklein. 908 ef rov L, with most MSS. : ef vov 

A, R, and Aid. — <pCK(av\ Naber conj. <f>IXov. 910 a&rijs A : aMjc L. — dra- 

KaXovfj^vrj] &yKa\ovfx4vr] Dindorf (as Hermann proposed). — Wunder writes airry rov 
abrrfi dodfiop* iyKaKovfAivrj ('imputing'). The Aldine has airrii irpbs airrijs daifiova 
KaKovfxtvT). 911 Kcd r&s Awai&as is to \olit6v ofolas MSS. See comment. 

918 daopfuatihfvpf] In L the final v is from a late hand. 



though not for the reasons which he 
assigns. Those words could certainly 
mean, 'that she had become desolate,' — 
nor is the plaint less natural because 
death is so near. But the other reading 
is in truer harmony with the context, 
because she is saying farewell to the sur- 
roundings of happier days. Even in- 
animate objects move her tears at the 
thought of parting. Naturally the altars 
come first ; when they were forsaken, the 
family life would have ceased. 

6pydvttV £tov \|/av<rci€V : for the optat, 
cp. Ph. 289 not /3d\ot (n.). Srov here 
= cf twos. Among the Bpywa would be 
sacrificial vessels, and, as the schol. re- 
marks, the implements which she had 
used in weaving the robe. 

907 tL ctXXn . . .8»|uCt»v : for the gen., 
cp. 375. — ^CX«v...oUfT»v. The opening 
scene with the rpotpos illustrates these 
kindly relations. Cp. Eur. Ale. 194 f., 
when Alcestis takes leave of her attached 
oUircu: — /courts ty otfru kolk6s I 6v ofi 
vpoaetTre teal irpoaepfrqdri irdAtv. — cUro- 
p<a\Uvj\: the midd., as El. 1060 foopd)- 
fievot. 

9 10 dvoicaXov|ilvt) : cp. 0. C. 1376 n. 

911 The MS. text, ical rets ftrcuSas fe 
t6 Xoiir&v ofoias, is undoubtedly corrupt. 
Various attempts to explain or to amend 
it are recorded in the Appendix. 

The genuine verse must have had some 
direct reference to the context. She is 
weeping at the sight of attached servants 



whom she is about to leave. The general 
sense ought to be, * bewailing her own 
fate, and that of the household over which 
a change was impending'; since, when 
master and mistress were dead, the house- 
hold would be dissolved, and the faithful 
slaves would pass into other hands. After 
the death of Heracles, Ceyx, the king of 
Trachis (40 n.), was deterred by Eurys- 
theus from continuing to protect the He- 
racleidae; who sought refuge at Athens. 
(Apollod. 2. 8. 1.) 

I believe that AIIAIAA2 arose from 
EIIAAA0I2 when the E had been acci- 
dentally lost or obscured. A similar in- 
terchange of initial a and e, combined 
with fusion of two words into one, occurs 
in 0. C. 550, where i</>' &ard\rf was cor- 
rupted into direordAi;. I would read, ical 
rfjs to' dtXXois h r6 Xoiirdv ofaCas: 'and 
the fate of the property which would thence- 
forth be in the power of others.' For 
M with dat. as=penes, cp. O. C. 66, Ph. 
1003. The slaves are part of the oMa. 
Euripides has o&rla, as =' property,' at 
least twice : H. F. 337 waTpQov is /tAa- 
dpov, ov ttjs otolas | dXXot Kparovat: Helen. 
1253 Cds &v wapofoys oixrias ^xaaros $. 
(See Appendix.) forlas would be an 
easy correction of otialas: but, on my 
view of the passage, the change is not 
required. 

918 rdv'HpdicX. : for the adj., cp. 51, 
576. — OdXapov, the nuptial chamber: 
Ant. 804 n. 



136 ZO*OKAEOYI 

Kayw \adpaiov ou.fi erreo-Ktao-fievT) 
<f>povpovv 6pb> M ttJv yvva.lm SqxPiois 
rots HoeoeXetois o-Tpatra. fJaWovaav <f>dpr). 
OTT0I9 8 ere\e<T€ row, iirevdopova-' dvtu 
K<tB4fcer ev pttroicriv ewarrjptois, 
kou haKpvtiiv py£ao-a Btppa v6.\w.to. 
eXefef w ^-eyr) re ml wpsj>el' ipJ., 
to AohtoV 17817 •^aipiff, as ea ovttotc 
Sefeo-fl" er h> Koiraun tcuo-o" evvdrpiav. 
T0O"awTa tJHtivytraxra rrwrovat \ € P l 
\vet t6v ai/rijs viir\ov, *■§ ^puoT/XaTos 
VpovKeiTO ftaoToiv wepovti, ix 8' ikwwurtv 
wXevpap airacrav takanjv r tvatvvuov. 
icaytii Spofiaia f3a<r, ocrovjrep lavevoy, 
rep iraioi <j>pd£,oi rijs Teywo/teVr/s raSe. 
icae $ to feeicre 8ev/)d t iioppcup-eOa, 
opOipxv avrffv dp.<ptir\rjyi <f>a<rydvot 
irXevpav wf>* rjirap leal iftpevas ■nerrkqyp.arqv. 
tSw 8' o' ira« (pfuo^ev eyvot yap rdkai 
Tovpyov mr opyrjv <a% i<f>difieiev ToSe, 
ot/i* eK&i&a^Bel^ tcwi* kot* oXkov ovvena 



914 £ Xaflpatov Kji|i', ace. of respect: 650 (Dido, about to die) Incubuitque 

fmo-KUunivi), 'overshadowed, 1 i.e., torn dixitque Mrvhsima -verba. 

'shrouded from view.' Thus the phrase SIB B. pij£ao-c.: so Pint. Per. 36 

means strictly, 'shrouded as to (or in) my K\av9/i6r te ffiltu tat r\i)8oi i-YX.ta* ia- 

secret observation': for 6/i.tUi here implies apian. O. T. 1075 n. — wy^tta. bridal - 

the act of observing. \aBpaiot expresses chamber {Ant. 891}: for the plur., cp. 

the result of twtBKtairpiri). She may have 901 n. — tivd-rpnr: this form is rightly 

watched from behind a curtain, or at a preferred to ifafrptar by Naack, Eur. 

partly open door. — Not, 'with eyes shaded Stud, n, p. 155. 

by my hand' (0. C. 1650 iiipAruir iwt- B2a o-uvrovip, intense, vehement : Eur. 

ni» I X*>£'t- Bacck. 1091 irurroi'oa ipojitfjiao-i. 

Old JMXXowav with dat., in thesense »24 f. A , at the place where. TheMS. 

of ^- or InpiXXovocw (/%. 67 11.).— if doubtless arose from ireVW: it would 

(rrpemL goes closely with the partic, — mean, or TtporiS* (f)t* *«wtiS» •wpotttiUritr : 

spreading them as Coverings, ar/Mi/wr*. — but this is less natural. — wpoifmvro uoir- 

<papi| : the Homeric </>S/wr is not thus ™v : the irs>Xos was fastened near the 

used ; but cp. Od. 4. 197 ff., where the left shoulder by the reports, which is de- 

l>ed (lifina) is spread with fr/ryca ('blan- scribed as lying 'in front of,' iu. 'above,' 

kets'), T&mfTii ('rugs'), and woollen x\a&' tne (left) breast. It would not accord 

veu as coverlets. with Greek usage to imagine the brooch 

•IB «vvaTT]pCois : the foim (jranri|- as placed at the centre of the bosom. Cp. 

plan appears to be a later one (Dind. on //. 14. 180 (of Hera's iartt) xpuirefjp &' 

Aesch. Peri. 160). — Cp. Verg. Am. 4. trtr^et nard, OTijfloj Trtaovaro. O. T. 



TPAXINIAI 



137 



From a secret place of espial, I watched her; and saw her 
spreading coverings on the couch of her lord. When she had 
done this, she sprang thereon, and sat in the middle of the bed ; 
her tears burst forth in burning streams, and thus she spake : 
' Ah, bridal bed and bridal chamber mine, farewell now and for 
ever ; never more shall ye receive me to rest upon this couch/ 
She said no more, but with a vehement hand loosed her robe, 
where the gold-wrought brooch lay above her breast, baring all 
her left side and arm. Then I ran with all my strength, and 
warned her son of her intent. But lo, in the space between my 
going and our return, she had driven a two-edged sword through 
her side to the heart. 

At that sight, her son uttered a great cry ; for he knew, 
alas, that in his anger he had driven her to that deed ; 
and he had learned, too late, from the servants in the house 

026 irXevp&p] irXevpas schol. //. 1. 103. 081 v<p' L, with most MSS., and Aid.: i<f>' 
A, R. 082 6 irous] Omitted in L. — After (yv<a two letters have been erased in L. 



1269 n. — Ik 8' IXwirwrcv: for the tmesis, 
cp. Ant. 1233 4k 5' opfuafUpov: and id. 
427. iicXiOTrLfa (from Acfonj, XQiros, a 
covering) occurs only here. ifcXurrrlo-cu 
has been conjectured in Pollux 7. 44 <bro- 
8v<rai kcU airoXcoirLvai, ws 1>o<f>OKXijs. 

027 f. Spopata: Eur. Or. 45 jrrjdf 
dpofxatos. Thuc. 3. 29 ox ^ " 01 Ko/ua$4r- 
T€s. — We may render, * warned her son 
of her intent'; but the literal sense is, 
* warned the son of her who was devising 
these things': the gen. depends on ry 
rraidi. Others take the gen. with <j>pa£a> 
('tell him about her'). It would then be 
best to govern rdde by <f>pdfa : for in this 
constr. of the gen. with verbs of saying or 
asking, the object is usually expressed, 
either by an ace. (El. 317, Ai. 1236), or 
by a relat. clause (below, 1122, Ph. 439). 
TaSc, however, belongs rather to Tfxvw- 
\Uvr\s. 

020 ff. t6 k€mt€ Scvp6 r : cp. Eur. 
Ph. 315 lire??* ical t6 Bevpo. For the art. 
with the first word only, O. C. 606 t<x/jA 
Kaicdvwv (n.). — IgoppSpcOa might refer 
to the Nurse only, but rather includes 
Hyllus (as bpuj/xev certainly does). It 
suits devpo, therefore, but not K€i<r€. The 
thought is, 'before I could return with 
him.' 

opwjuv avn)v...ircirXTry|ilvt)v, instead of 
TreirXTjKTcu, (bs bpQ>fxev. — d|Mfair\TJyi <j>a<r- 
*ydv<p : adjectives which are properly only 
masc. or fern, are sometimes used in 
oblique cases with neuter nouns : cp. PA. 



19 dfuf>iTp7jTos a6\lov: Ai. 324 fiorots \ <n- 
dTipoKfiTjaa'. 

v<j>* ifirop ical 4>plvas, lit., ' to the liver 
and midriff.' But it was her left side that 
she bared (926), and the fatal blow must 
have been nearer to the heart than to 
the liver. The phrase should therefore 
be understood in a general sense, as a 
poetical way of saying, 'home to the 
very centre of life.' It may have been 
suggested by Od. 9. 301 ofrr&fxcpcu irpbs 
<rTjj$os,d0t <pp£ves rjirap tyowrw, 'stab him 
in the breast, where the midriff holds the 
liver.' Cp. Ant. 131 5 xalaaff' totf rprap 
avrdxetp airr^v. 

088 rovpyov.. .»$ ty<£4' CiCV > tnat ne had 
•fastened,' 'bound' the deed 'upon her,' 
as a burden or doom. Cp. Pind. 0. 9. 64 
fity kcl0£\oi viv alCjv irbrfxov 4<f>a\j/cus \ dfxpavbv 
yeveas, 'having laid on him the doom of 
childlessness.' //. 2. 15 T/>c6e<r<rt 64 mjde' 
^iprrai, 'have been imposed' on them. 

Others explain : (1) 'that he \i2A kindled 
the deed.' But tydirrctv never has the 
sense of iupdirretv. In Eur. Bacch. 778 
our only MS. for that part of the play 
has, indeed) rjdrf t6S* iyyfo wore itvp 
4<pavT€Tcu I bppurfJM: but the true&^anre- 
rai is attested by the Christus Patiens 
2227. (2) 'That she had made fast the 
deed,' — i.e. done the irrevocable deed. 
But KttT* (Jpyijv must refer to the anger of 
Hyllus (734 ff.). 

084 £ t<ov KttT* oIkov : for the simple 
gen. with 4k8., cp. O. T. 117 Srov...iKiw.' 



I3» 



ICWOKAEOYI 



aKovcra irpos tov drjpos eptjeiev TaSe. 
Kavravff 6 7rai9 hvo"rqvo$ ovr ohvpfidrcov 

cA.€t7T€T OvSeVy dfl(f)L VIV yO(6(l€VO^, 

ovt dfifairl'nTcov CTOfiacLVy aXXa irXevpodev 
irXevpdv irapels eicetro iroXS? dt/aoTO'cov, 
<Ss viv fxoLTaicos curia /3aXoi /ca/07, 
Kkauav ouovv€K €K ovoLv ccroief a/ia, 

7TaTDOS t' CK€tI^5 T*, (Op<fxXVL<TIX€VOS *f$lOV. 

^ 9 /) /£9 9 / V 9 ¥ fc / 

Toiavra Tavuao eorw cucrr €t rts ovo 
^ icat *Vi 7rXctovs rjpApas Xoyt^erat, 
/Aaraio? iorw ov yap €<rff rj y avpiov, 
irplv ev 7ra6i[i tis n^ irapov&av yiiepav. 

<rrp. a. XO. irorepa irporepov e7rurre>G>, 

2 iroTepa # /tx€Xea irepaLTepo*, 

3 hvcTKpvr c/xotye Svorapf). 

raSe /*«> expfiev opdv So/txot?, 



935 



940 



945 



air. a 



950 



088 d/A^Tlirrwp] &n4>urlTv<av Wecklein. 041 e/c] Nauck writes els. 042 w/o- 
<t>avL<yfjJhoi\ w made from o in L. — plov MSS. : /Slop Wakefield. 048 TdvtfdS'] 

Nauck conj. r&bov. 044 ^ kcU ti irXetovs Dindorf : ^ icai vXelovc tut L, with most 
mss., and Eustath. p. 8oi, i : 17 icai irXtovs rty T, A (from the corrector), and Aid. 



0a>*'. — trpos tov 6t)oos, at his instigation. 
This pregnant sense of the prep, is some- 
what rare: but cp. //. 1. 238 $4pu<rras\ 
icp6i A(6i elptiarcu (by his ordinance) : 6. 
456 irpbs fXkrjs l<rrbv v<paLvois (at her bid- 
ding). 

086 ft, hv<rrnvtt==dv<jTT)vos <&, 'mi- 
serable as he was. This is better than to 
make it an interjection, 'poor youth!' — 
4Xc£ircT* ot)84v (adv.), 'in no wise fell 
short.' The verb has here a twofold 
constr., viz., (1) with gen. 6hvp\uxr<av, as 
El. 474 yv&fMS Xetirofifra cro<f>as : (2) with 
partic. A|A$iir£irT«v : cp. Xen. Oecon. 18 
§ 5 ravra p&v toIvvv, Z<pr], ovdtv 4/jlw Xclwei 
yiyvAfficwv^yovL understand these things 
just as well as I do'), — where i/xov is pa- 
rallel, not with ddvpfidroy here, but with 
tG>v u)v t£kv<j)v in 266. 

dpfyt vtv : the ace. with d/x<f>i, as= ' con- 
cerning,' is somewhat rare: but cp. Pind. 
P. 2. 15 iceXadtom pkv &n<pl Kivvpav. (In 
77. 18. 339 dfupl 54 <re...KXati<rovT<Ut the 
sense is 'around.') 

dtuJHirtirruv otojmwuv: Eur. Ale. 404 
ttotI aqiat tItvw <rr6fM<riv ( = x^Xeai). 



ir\tvp60cv, 'at' (or 'near') 'her side.' 
The ending Bev properly denotes the 
point from which motion sets out. Hence 
a form in $w is equivalent to a genitive 
expressing source or starting-point. By a 
stretch of that analogy, vXevpbdev does 
duty here for the genitive of place, which 
is only a special kind of possessive 
genitive, — 'belonging to,' and so, 'in 
the region of: El. 900 Arxanys d* 
bp£) I irvpas...p6<TTpvxw: 77. 9. 219 t$a>... 
I rotxov rov ir4poio. A somewhat similar 
example is 77. 15. 716 irp\jp.vr)$ep iwcl 
Xd/9ev, oirxl fiediet, where the form in 
06*= the gen. after a verb of seizing 
('took hold by the stern ').— Cp. Eur. 
Ale. 366 vXevpd r' iicreivcu wtXas | irXeu- 
poiai tois <rots. 

040 airiq, f&Xoi, as with a missile : 
At. 1244 i)nas...KaKois paXeire : Eur. El. 
902 p-i) pA tis <f>66v(p paXy. Ar. Th. 895 
rovfibv G&pja. (HaKXovaa xf/bytp. 

04 1 4k 8votv. . .<op<|»avur|fc4vos pCov (ace. 
of respect), 'orphaned as to his life,' 
having his life made 6p<t>avbs f ' on the part 
of both parents at once': cp. the lament 



TPAXINIAI 



139 



that she had acted without knowledge, by the prompting of 
the Centaur. And now the youth, in his misery, bewailed her 
with all passionate lament; he knelt, and showered kisses on 
her lips ; he threw himself at her side upon the ground, bitterly 
crying that he had rashly smitten her with a slander, — weeping, 
that he must now live bereaved of both alike, — of mother and 
of sire. 

Such are the fortunes of this house. Rash, indeed, is he 
who reckons on the morrow, or haply on days beyond it ; for 
to-morrow is not, until to-day is safely past. 

Ch. Which woe shall I bewail first, which misery is the 1st 
greater ? Alas, 'tis hard for me to tell. stro P he - 

One sorrow may be seen in the house ; 

Herwerden conj. 17 k&ti irXeiovs: Hartung, rj irXeiovas ftp: Dindorf (Poet. Sc. 5th ed.) 
conj. ij koX fxlav t«. 047 ir&repa wpdrepov iwi<TT4pu> Dindorf: ir6re/>' &v irpbrepa 

imarfrw L : wbrepa irp6re/>' &v imarfrbi T : irbrep' &v vbrcpa iiriar4v<a A, and Aid. : 
worep 1 av tAtc/)' bnarivb) r (B, etc.). 948 fxiXea Musgrave : r4\ca MSS. (t£- 

Xcua R, ret reXevrata L 2 , ace. to Subkoff): <J\od Hermann. Blaydes conj. ir&dea. 
950 rdde fifr...T&5« W] rdde /i^...rA M V 2 , whence Hermann r& fxkv...Ta d£. 



1st anti- 
strophe. 



of Eumelus for his mother Alcestis (Ear. 
Ale, 397), irpoXtirowra 5' dfjJbv filov \ up<p6.- 
purev rXa/iwjr. pCov (Wakefield) is a ne- 
cessary correction of ptov, with which the 
sense would be either (a) * deprived of 
life,' as in Ant A. 7. 483 fwas wfpriop wfxpa- 
viaas: or (b) 'deprived of subsistence.' 
Nauck, keeping pCov, changes 4k to cts, 
understanding, 'bereaved of the life of 
both parents. But eU is clearly unsuit- 
able here; and the phrase ufxp. dvour 
plov would be strange as well as weak. 

048 f. S60, i.e. to-day and to-morrow. 
— 4 leal it irXfCovs (Dindorf) is the best 
correction of -q ical irXiCovs Tit (L), which 
may have arisen from n being accident- 
ally omitted or transposed. The v. /. r\ 
kcu irXlous its was an attempt to recon- 
cile that reading with metre. In lyrics 
we find the gen. irXtovos (O. C. 121 1; Ph. 
1 100, if sound): but in the iambics of 
Tragedy there is no certain instance 
(apart from vXtov) of the shorter form. 
(In Aesch. Ag. 1299, o&c for' A\u£t?, w 
\kvoiy XP^V *tet»t the text is doubtful.) 
A further objection to irXlous is the re- 
peated TIJ. 

The sense is : — ' Men often reckon on 
the morrow, or even, perchance (n), on 
more days to come ; but this is rash. A 
man can never be sure that his good for- 
tune (i.e. immunity from disaster) will 



last even to the end of to-day.' Cp. O. C. 
567 ££otd' arty <2v, X^* *"?* ^* atiptov \ 
ovUv trXtov fxoi <rov yjhtGTiv ijfUpas. For 
ij atipiov (without yfxtpa), cp. Alexis "Tirvos 
fr. 3 els rijv atipiov. — XoyCgcrai, Com- 
putes,' i.e., 'sets down in his calcula- 
tions,' as something upon which he can 
count. 

947 — 970 Fourth <rreuri/*ov. 1st 
strophe, 947 — 949, = ist antistr., 950 — 
952: 2nd str., 953 — 961,= 2nd antistr., 
962 — 970. For the metres see Metrical 
Analysis. 

One blow has fallen, and another is 
impending. Heracles, in his dying 
is borne silently towards the 



agonies, 
house. 
947 JL 

words, as 



irfocpa irp&npov : these 
Schneidewin remarks, are 
often found in juxtaposition; e.g., Ar. 
Eccl. 1082 irortpas ir port pas... atra.XXa.yQ); 
— Svfncpira (i<m) t irSrepa wporepov hrurri- 
v« (delib. subjunct.), iroripa pJXea vcpai- 
ripc* (i<rrl). For MffKpira, instead of 
dfoKpirov, cp. 64 n. This is better than 
to place a note of interrogation after iiri- 
arivu), and another after ircpaiTepu. 

\UXta, : the MS. rikta would mean, 
'which woe is the more complete'; but 
this is less fitting here, since the second 
calamity is still prospective (951): nor is 
reXea irtpairepw a natural phrase. We 



140 



I04>0KAE0YI 



Tp. fit. 



ivr, 



:fg. 



07TGJ9 



955 



2 raSc 8e * fxevofxev in ekrrio'w 

3 kolpoL 8' *x* lv T€ teal fiikXeiv. 

v/n » / / 

ci0 aP€fio€<r<ra n? 

2 yivoir inovpos €0TI<3ti5 av/oa, 

3 ijTis /a* a7roi/ctcrct€i/ CK TOITCOV, 

4 toi> # Ztji/os akKifiov yovov 

5 /£?} TapfiaXea ddvoifit 

6 fxovvov etcrtSovcr* a<f>ap* 

7 CTret €i> 8v(ra7raXXafCTOt5 oSwcus 

8 -vwpeiv irpo Sofuov \£yovcrw 

9 a(T7r€Toi> ti davfia. 

dyxpv 8* a/oa /cov fiaKpdv 

2 irpovKkaLov, 6£v<f>CDVO<Z (OS drjho&v. 

3 i*ivtov yap e^o/uXo? iJSe tis jSacris. 

961 fiivo/JLev Erfurdt: fjJWofiev MSS. : fieXo/iev' Hermann. 0ft2 kow& 5'] icotvd 

r' Harl. (omitting re after ^civ). 9ft 4 tirovpos ieri&rit] Frohlich conj. awovpos 
(this with Erfurdt) ^orfas tis. — atfpa] afy>a L. 955 ^k t&twi'] Herwerden 

conj. iKTroddw. 956 t6i» Z^ds Triclinius : rd? A*6s MSS. : rbv Ai<w> Nauck. 



960 



cannot well take it adverbially ('which 
woe I should mourn more completely'). 

951 TtCSc is governed by \Uvo\uv : 
hr 4XiK<nv = ' with forebodings': cp. 
Xen. Mem. 2. 1. 18 6 fiiv ticovalus raXat- 
irwp&v ivr 1 dyadrj iXirldi irovCov eu<f>palv€~ 
rat. — Hermann's \uX6)uv (sc. 4<ttI) = 
* are cares to us': El. 1436 rdvddd' A? fie- 
Xoir ifjLol. 

952 ^x <lv > t0 nave (troubles), pAXciv, 
sc. ^eiv (cp. 75), to be in expectation of 
them, icoivd, sc. iarlv, are kindred 
things. For this sense of koip6s, cp. 
O. T. 261 n. : similarly 'cognate' things 
can be called avyyevrj. — Others explain : 
(1) 'It is all one' whether sorrow is pre- 
sent or prospective. (2) * There are 
woes on both parts' (that of Deianeira 
and that of Heracles), 'for us to suffer or 
apprehend. ' 

958 If. clvcpocotra (Doric for ty-) 
atfpa, a strong breeze : cp. Aesch. Ch. 
591 dvendevr' av \ alyidcov <ppd<rai kotov 
(* the stormy wrath of whirlwinds '). For 
lirovpos, * wafting', cp. 0. T. 194 n. : 
4<TTuoTts, 'of the hearth', i.e.,, 'coming to 
our home' at Trachis. The word occurs 
only here. Schol. et$c (*>s formica wet- 
<reiev aj>€nos otipios iirl rrfs oUias, iVa fxe 
Xafiwv ra&rris dvaydyoi rrjs ^arfas.— diroi- 



tcfcrcicv: 0. C. 1389 koXQ> rb Taprdpov | 
(TTuyvov irarpQov tpe&os ate a* diroLKl(ry. 
The optat. in the relative clause is due 
to the optat. of wish in the principal 
clause : cp. 0. T. 506 n. — Cp. the wish 
of the anxious Chorus in 0. C. 1081 etd' 
deXXala raxvpp<a<yTos ireXetds | alBeplas 
v€<p€\as K&paain'. Eur. Hipp. 732 dXi- 
P&tois inrb Kevdfiuxri yevoluav k.t.\. 

956 ff. It is doubtful whether the 
MS. Ai&s, instead of which we require 
-~, should be corrected to (1) Zi)vds, or 
(2) Aiov. I incline to (1), because it 
seems unlikely that the poet should have 
preferred to make four consecutive words 
end in ov. It is also worth noticing that 
Aibs, 'belonging to Zeus,' though used by 
Aesch. and Eur., is not extant in Soph., 
who has only ttos, ' divine ' or * godlike.' 

fiovvov (adv.) €t<ri8ov<r &^ap, ' at the 
mere sight of him anon. ' &pap might be 
' suddenly,' as in 821: but is rather 
'anon,' 'forthwith' (cp. 135): his arrival 
is close at hand. The schol.'s words, 
fi^l Trapaxpwa- diroddpu) deaira/xevT} rbv 
'H/xi/cXea kolk&s dtaxelficpov , have 
caused a surmise that jiovvov has arisen 
from some word meaning 'weak' (see 
cr. n.). But there is little probability in 
|i£\w (Hipponax fr. 60, perh. akin to 



TPAXINIAI 



141 



for one we wait with foreboding : and suspense hath a kinship 
with pain. 

Oh that some strong breeze might come with wafting power 2nd 
unto our hearth, to bear me far from this land, lest I die of terror, strop e * 
when I look but once upon the mighty son of Zeus ! 

For they say that he is approaching the house in torments 
from which there is no deliverance, a wonder of unutterable 
woe. 

Ah, it was not far off, but close to us, that woe of which my 2nd anti- 
lament gave warning, like the nightingale's piercing note ! strophe. 
Men of an alien race are coming yonder. 

068 /jjovvop] G. H. Miiller conj. fiQXvp: Nauck, Kavpov. 060 trpd 86fuop X4- 

yovaip] Hense conj. ddfAov rrpoXiyovaip : and so Wecklein writes, but with 66/xovs (re- 
taining davovra in 969). For vpb 86fi<av, a few of the later MSS. have vpbs 56/xcov (B), 
or irpbs 86/iop (Vat.) : Hermann conj. vpodofiop. 061 aaverop n 6av/Aa] Schenkl, 
Herwerden and Blaydes conj. daverop dea/xa. 063 drjdwv] drjd&p £evot L, with most 
mss., and Aid. : Triclinius first deleted thot. 064 jScurts] Meineke conj. <rrd<rts. 



/MtXaKOs), Kavpov (a word which, ace. to 
Photius Lex. p. 181. 14, Sophocles used 
in the sense of kcuo'j), pavov (properly 
opposed to ttvkvov), or pavpov (found 
only in grammarians). We might ra- 
ther suggest ddwoifi', a-|fwtvpov, were 
change needful. The schol.'s kcucws 5to- 
Kelfxevov may, however, be a mere com- 
ment; and fiovvov seems well fitted to 
emphasise the terror of the sight. Cp. 
Ph. 536 olfiat yap oird* dv 6fx(xa<nv fAovrjv 
dkav I <£\Xoy Xafiopra vXty 4/jlov rXfjv at 
rdbe. 

060 4ircl, ~~, with epic hiatus (cp. 
650 d 5e ol). 

060 x»ptiv vp6 Slpuav, advancing 
(so as to come) in front of the house. 
The phrase is correct, though it would 
more naturally suggest a movement from 
within the house, as in Eur. Hec. 59 
dyer\ t3 TCuSes, t^p ypavp irpb dofxwv. — 
Xiyowriv: the Chorus may be supposed 
to overhear murmurs of astonishment 
and anguish from servants of the house, 
who are watching the approach of the 
litter. — As to the proposed changes in 
this v. (cr. n.), see on 969. 

061 Oavpa has been needlessly sus- 
pected: it is often said of persons (cp. 
1004, and Od. 9. 190 dav/j? irervKro irc- 
Xibfxov, of the Cyclops), and is here far 
more forcible than Ofoita. 

062 f. dy\ov 8' apa k.t.X. At this 
moment the bearers of the litter, — first 
descried by the servants of the house 



(960), — become visible to the Trachinian 
Maidens; who say, in effect, 'It seems 
that the woe presaged by our voice is 
(evenj^ closer at hand than we knew.' 
dy\ov kov paicpdv irpotiicXaiov is a short 
way of saying, * the subject of our boding 
lament is near and not distant.' We 
might supply ofoa with the verb : but it 
seems better to supply Iv with the ad- 
verbs. Similar, though less bold, is Ph. 
26 rotipyov oi) fmxpdv Xeyets, 'the task of 
which thou speakest is not distant.' 

<$£v<j>a>vos »s drfiiav refers to irpotiKXouov 
only : i. e. the point of comparison is 
merely the clear, sad note. Cp. 105 n. : 
Theocr. 12. 6 dij8&v \ ...\iyti<f><apos. 
Here 6£ti<f>(apos well suits the context, 
since 6£vs and its compounds so often 
refer to tones of grief: Ant. 424 6ppi0os 
6£i>p </>06yyop : id. 1316 6£vku>kvtop : El. 
244 6£vt6p(op yocjp. — It would be forced 
to explain the simile by olyxov (because 
the nightingale often sings close to dwell- 
ings), or by |uucpdv (because its note is 
far-reaching). 

064 ffvwv k.t.X. It should be ob- 
served how the poet has marked succes- 
sive stages in the approach of the litter. 
When it first comes into view, the Chorus 
note the foreign aspect of the bearers. In 
another moment, they are listen ; ng for a 
sound (vqi 5' ad <f>opet pip) ; and the silence 
dismays them. — {^c»v...fkuris=££i'ot /8a- 
dlfrPTes : cp. Ph. 868 olKOvpTjfxa...^evuy 
(n.). The conject. <rrd<ri* ('company'), 



142 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



4 tt£ 8* av fopel viv ; o5s <f>ikov 965 

5 7rpoKr)8o/JL€va fiapeiav 

6 a\ffo<f)ov <f)ep€i fidaiv. 

7 atcu, 08* dvavSaros <f>epeTaL 

8 ti XP 7 ?? davovra viv> rj Kdff 

9 vtrvov ovra Kpivai \ 97° 

TA. 01/4,01 ey<J cov, 

irdrep, oifioi eya) arov /txe'Xeo?. 
ti 7ra#G> ; ti 8c fXTJcrofiai ; oi/xoi. 

nPESBTS. 

o"tya, t4kvov> pr) Kivrj<rns 

dypiav oZvvtjv rrarpbs a)p6<f>povo$* 975 

CTopa <rov. TA, 77(3? <f>ijs f yipov ; rj tfi ; 
IIP. ov /it) 'ijeyepels rov vavq) Kdro^ov, 

066 irj y a8 <f>opet viv] For ir$, Triclinius wrote vat. For 0o/*t, Harl. has 
<f>povei. — Wecklein writes vaiBbs <popetov u>s <p(Xov k.t.X.: Blaydes, ireXas <f>opel viv 
X&s <pi\ov. 066 irpoKrjdofieva A, Harl., and Aid. : vpoKydofUvav L, with most 

MSS. : Trpo<JKT)dop.€vav T. — papeiav] Hartung writes ppadeiav $'. 667 arf/wpov] 

a\po<t>os Wecklein. 068 alai] The MSS. give at (as L), or at (as A), four 

times : Hermann reduced this to a? a? (afterwards preferring & at). — dvatidaros 
Erfurdt: AvavSos MSS. 060 f. ri XPV 9av6vra vip rj icad' \ vtrvov 6vra Kpivai 

MSS. (Kpivai L). For Bavovra Bothe conj. ddvarov: Hermann, <f>6lp.cvov: Nauck, rl 
XPV icd? virvov viv 6vra \ rj 0av6vra Kpivai. For /cct0' vrrvov Reiske conj. mdvwvov. 



though specious, seems less fitting here. 
It would be unsafe to argue against f3a<ris 
from the fact that (3d<rtv closes v. 967. 
Cp. Ant. 76, where Keiao/Aai stands at 
the end of a clause, though it occurs also 

in 73- 
4{6iu\os, living out of our 6fii\os, i.e.., 

4 foreign.' Cp. Eur. /. A. 735 otf KaXbv 
iv &xk<p <r' itopukeiadai (midd.) <rrparov 
(said by Agam. to his wife), *to live 
abroad (out of thy proper bpuXLa). 

066 If. ira 8' a$, 4 and then in what 
manner... V — popclav, heavy with sorrow, 
slow ; as Ko^<fnj pdais would be a joyously 
light step. — <^P CI pa<"v, lit., 'carries the 
step forward,' 'moves on its way.' pains 
(964) is subject to <p4p€i, but there is little 
real harshness in this, since ££vb>v pd<ris is 
a mere periphrasis. Schneidewin well 
compares ,4/. 14 w <f>Biyp? 'Addvasy fol- 
lowed by t^j ebivadh <rov... \ <p&vrjfi* 

&KO&U). 

068 dvavSaros, 'without speech,' — 
either from his own lips, or from those of 
his bearers. Cp. the comprehensive sense 



of oi <TT€vaKToi in 0. C. 1663. ^ n Ai. 
713 avatidaros has its pass, sense. 

060 £1 rt xpif , k.t.X. In order to ob- 
tain an exact metrical agreement with 
960, x w / >e ' 1 ' *pb 56/Kwy Xtyovciv, 0av6vTa 
has been changed (1) by Hermann, to 
<^6C|&cvov : (2) by Bothe, to ddvarov. The 
latter seems preferable ; for, though Kara 
suits tiwvov better than Bdvarov, that turn 
of phrase may be regarded as an after- 
thought. 'Death, is it, — or sleep?' But 
I refrain from altering 6av6vra, because 
it is doubtful whether metre requires that 
the dactyl should hold the same place here 
as in 960: see Metrical Analysis. 

A comma should follow XP^» since the 
constr. is, ri \pn/\ (Kpivai) ; (irbrepov) 0a- 
vtfvra viv etc., as in El. 766 ri raura, v6- 
repov etrvxy \4y<a etc. 

071 — 1278 Exodos. Heracles be- 
wails his doom, and gives his last com- 
mands to his son. — Anapaests, which mark 
the entrance of the mournful procession, 
are succeeded by lyrics dvb cicrfvijs, in the 
nature of a KOfifids (1004 — 1043). Iambic 



TPAXINIAI 



143 



And how, then, are they bringing him ? In sorrow, as for some 
loved one, they move on their mournful, noiseless march. 

Alas, he is brought in silence ! What are we to think ; that 
he is dead, or sleeping ? 

Enter HYLLUS and an Old Man, with attendants, bearing 

Heracles upon a litter. 

Hy. Woe is me for thee, my father, woe is me for thee, 
wretched that I am ! Whither shall I turn ? What can I do ? 
Ah me ! 

Old Man {whispering). Hush, my son ! Rouse not the 
cruel pain that infuriates thy sire ! He lives, though prostrated. 
Oh, put a stern restraint upon thy lips ! 

Hy. How sayest thou, old man — is he alive ? 

Old Man (whispering). Thou must not awake the slumberer! 

071 £ &ipoi £yu <rov warep | dU/ttoi £y& <rov piXcwr L. Brunck wrote eov in 
both places: Dindorf, ot/xoi. As to further corrections, see commentary. Din- 
dorf would delete the second otfioi iyu <rov, substituting «, and combine the 
two vv. into one, thus: otpuoi £yu> <rov, ir&rcp, J fjiiXcot. 078 ri & fvfyrofuu;] 

Frohlich conj. ri ywtpofHLi ; 077 y4pov] y4pw L. Brunck has been 

cited as the first ed. who gave yipov. but it is in the Aldine text, which de- 
rived it from A. Some of the later mss., as B, have « yipov. — For ydpov; rj $}; 
Meineke conj. ^ tfj ydp ; 078 firj 'fcytpeh Dawes : fi^tyipeur L, with rji 

written over et by the first hand : pii 't-eyeipys A, with most mss., and Aid. 



dialogue follows, down to 1258 ; and ana- 
paests then close the play. 

Hyllus, detained by the events within 
(928), cannot have been far on his way 
towards the harbour (902) when he met 
the sufferer. At the side of the litter 
walks the T/»&r/3us, whose experience in the 
symptoms of the malady indicates that he 
has accompanied Heracles from Cenaeum. 

071 f. The traditional text, otfioi iyu 
aov, I irdrep, otfioi £y& <rov fUXeos, gives 
an anapaestic monometer, followed by an 
anapaestic dimeter in which the third foot 
lacks a syllable. The first four words, 
otfioi iyCu <rov, rare/o, are clearly sound. 
As regards the rest, the choice is between 
two remedies. (1) To omit the second 
otfioi iyu) ffov, and substitute w, as Dindorf 
does. Verses 971 f. then shrink into 
one anapaestic dimeter. (2) To supply 
the defect in 972 by substituting an ana- 
paest, or its equivalent, for the second 
(rod. Thus we might write t^tc/o, otfioi 
iydjj <.ir6.T€p, <S> fUXeos. I incline to 
this second course, because the monome- 
ter in 971 otfioi iyu <rov seems right as a 
prelude. 

078 ri irdOw; ri 8i |uj<ro|uu ; the 
delib. subjunct. is combined with a rat. 



ind., as in Eur. Ion 758 efawficv rj aiyw- 
fj.€v ^ ri dpdffofiev ; For /ifoofiai (devise as 
a remedy), cp. Aesch. Th. 1057 ri irdOta; 
ri 5Z dpQ ; ri dt fi-fyrtafmi ; 

076 (au6$povos does not refer to his 
general character, but means that he is 
exasperated by these torments: cp. 1035 

&xos y <f fi ^x o ^ w<rc, '• 

076 f. irpoirenjs, lying prostrate in the 
litter, — in a deathlike swoon. (It may be 
doubted whether the word here implies, 
'lying on his face? as the schol. explains 
it.) Others understand, ' verging on death. ' 
But, when wpoverifs = ' on the brink of, ' M 
(or eft ri) is usu. added, as in Eur. Ale. 
908 ToXiAt M x**raf I rjdri TpoweHft. It 
seems impossible that, without such help, 
irpoTrenfc, should express 'moribund.' In 
Eur. Ale. 143 if 89 TcpoviarH\% fori ical \f/v- 
Xoppayei, which Paley compares, the 
adj. = ' drooping.' 

oaKc&v, as by biting the lips, — a prover- 
bial phrase: fr. 811 ddovn TpU rb arofia: 
Od. 1. 381 68hl- iv x c & e ** 0tf»T«: Ar. 
Nub. 1360 rbv 0vfx6v Sclkuv. 

078 ov |i^'{ryfpcts, a sharp prohibition: 
Ar. Ran. 462 oil yd\ Siarpixf/eis : cp. n. on 
O. C. 177. — kAtoxov with dat., as Eur. 
Hec. 1090 "Apei K&roxov yivot. 



144 Z0*0KAEOYX 

rpoiTaBa Setfiji' 98 

votrov, (2 tckvqv. TA. aXX* ivi pot, /leXe'w 
fidpoq SarXerov tp.pJ.pavi ^/nff- 

HPAKAHS. 

co Zev, 

ttoI yds t$k(o ; irapa tokti fiporuv 

Ktifiai w€7rQvr}fi.£i>os aXXjjicTOis 98 

o&vvais; olpoi <poi> iy<a rXa/xwc- 

7} S* (iv fiiapa. fipvKti. <f>ev. 
IIP. a/)* *££$&} <r* o<rov t/v k&oSo? 

(riyfl kcv&u', Ktu /iij (nccSaerai 

tojS' (xtto Kparos 99 

f3\ctf>dpcov & virvov ; TA. ou yap «^a» tt(3s aV 

orepfai/xi Kcucof toSc XctMTO'aH'. 
HP. t2 Krjvata Kprjwh ficopcZv, 

Itp&v olav oloiv eirl pot 

/itXe'&i X^P IV V"v<r<ii, <2 Z«J. 99 

979 nUsirV'ff icdvaimjffciir L: K<£iwu'4< r l>* *<i>'iW7Tjff]|i A, with most Mss., an 
Aid. (a reading adapted to the corrupt pi) 'frytlms). 980 — 992 L dividt 

the w. thus: fmriSa— \ a\V— 1 f3aj»ir— -*pi)». Vauvilliers first placed tl 
point after ArXcrw. 981 rti] Shilleto conj. (ti. 988—989 L dividi 

the vv. thus: u feu— roi|<ri— u'\|Xn<t™ir— t\£pm 989 dAXi)«™r] Subko 

Conj. 1M7M, 989 af/Mu /ux Brunck ; otnoi (or u/«>i) mss. 987 ^ J'] iji' L 

W Aid.: Jo" Blaydes. 988 c^oti it' Wecklein: ^jjSijir L, with) most MSS., an 



ling at intervals: or still join it with |um. 

is said in this sense of intermit- 988 B. <t Ziu: the hero's utteranc 

tent diseases : see n. on Ph. 758 ij™ yip begins, — as the play ends, — with h: 

aSrn Ji4 xpjroti, rXaWt fout | (in rlferXijo'- father's name.— ntnsTin, comrade 

0i|. Not merely /lartiUhi, as the schol. from the Ionic riourt (Her. 1-3;}. — xtw 

explains it. vr\pivo% : cp. Aeschin. or. 1 § 36 to? Ofli« 

981 £ dXX' fer( |u», jc. fttrl. Cp. i%. Ka.T*Te*ornutvt>v (' exhausted ').— dXXijn 

806 Tori irol erirur tmtd (the ills which tow, the regular form of this epic word 

lie upon thee). — &-rXrrov = aV[ipo», 'im- S\i)Krot is very rare (C. I. G. 6303). Fc 

mense'; a Word of doubtful origin, some- the XX, cp. £W. 11. 134 aToXX^feia*. 

times connected with the root of rMMj 988 oCpoi <|ioi>. The addition < 

as meaning (1) 'which cannot be tilled'; jioi, Brunck 's remedy for the metrical dt 

or (i) 'what exceeds measure,' a sense feet, is better than Berglt's insertion, aft*. 

which Lobeck sought through r\H)por. iSSiyaw, of ilS', which would have a wea 

The word occurs in Attic prose.— If no effect there. 

stop is placed after dirXirov, then 0dpoi 987 ^ 8', the personified rdtror: cp 

dVXeiw becomes an ace of the 'inner 1084 : so PA. 807 $Sc, and it. 758 aln 

object' with iy^ifum: 'is wild lailk an Blaydes writes d8' (Doric), which accord 

infinite weight of woe.' But M is then with 7S1 and rXujidip, but not with rnrc 

very awkward, whether we assume tmesis, MjMtVoi or «X\i)ktoh : the Doricism c 



TPAXINIAI 



145 



Thou must not rouse and revive the dread frenzy that visits 
him, my son ! 

Hy. Nay, I am crushed with this weight of misery — there is 
madness in my heart ! 

Heracles {awaking). 

O Zeus, to what land have I come ? Who are these among 
whom I lie, tortured with unending agonies ? Wretched, wretched 
that I am ! Oh, that dire pest is gnawing me once more ! 

Old Man {to Hyllus). Knew I not how much better it 
was that thou shouldest keep silence, instead of scaring slumber 
from his brain and eyes ? 

Hy. Nay, I cannot be patient when I behold this misery. 

He. O thou Cenaean rock whereon mine altars rose, what 
a cruel reward hast thou won me for those fair offerings, — 

be Zeus my witness ! 



Aid. (iZydeis T, B: gettip Harl.): ^8^0' Cobet. 000—903 L divides 

the w. thus: — r#8' — ] oil ydp — | cripi-at/Jit — XeiWow. 991 {}\€<pdpo)v 0'] 

p\€<pdpuv Wecklein. 092 <rrl/>£cuiu] <rrl£cu/u Valckenaer and Brunck. 

994 f. Upujv olav &v0 y ottav \ Ov/a&twv 4tI fiot fie\4<p x&P LV ^|wfo« w Zed MSS., and Aid. 
Triclinius inserted vvv after dtcw. Brunck changed Ovimltm to OwnQv, and (like 
Wakefield) tyfota to fyvaas. Instead of&vO' ottav Bvpjdrwv, F. J. Martin conj. cZw (so, 
too, Seidler, Wunder, and Hermann). — c3 Zeu] In L the first hand wrote feD, but 
added u> above the line. 



tragic anapaests is not always consistent ; 
see Appendix to Ant. no. — ppvicci: so 
Ph. 745 fipiJKOfAai. 

988 f. dp' iftfjSi) toov Ktpbos r\v <rc 
<riyy KedOetv; 'Did I not well know,' etc., 
— referring to 974 crfya, t4kvov % k.t.\. Cp. 
Ar. Av. 1019 ME. ot/xoi KaKodalpuav. IIE. 
KfbK tXeyov £y& TaXat; iccvBfiv is really 
trans, in sense, 'to hide (thy grief),' 
though the object is not expressed: cp. 
Ant. 85 Kpv(f>xj Si kcvOc (rotfpyov). The 
rare intrans. *c«J0w='to be hidden' (0. 
T. 968 n.). 

4£gSi) <r is Wecklein's correction of 
the MS. t£t)Si)$, instead of which we 
must at least write 4jjj8t|<r0' (Ant. 447). 
Two explanations of a-yoyo-d' have been 
given. (1) 'Did you well know' (as 
soon as Heracles began to speak, 983), — 
i.e. j 'have you now learned?' Such is 
the schol.'s view: apa...8<rov rjv icipSos 
rb ffiwrav tyvws; He classed the plu- 
perf., then, with those aorists, referring 
to a moment just past, which we render 
by a present tense (Ph. 1289 dw<bfio<r\ 
n.). This is possible, but awkward. (2) 
'Did you not well know (beforehand), — 
i.e., 'had not I clearly told you?' (Paley.) 
The tense has then its usual force; but 
the words lose their special point, — 

J. S. V. 



which is that the result must have shown 
him the value of the neglected advice. 

kcvOciv — tnccSooTu: for the pres. inf. 
(of a continued act), combined with the 
aor. inf. (of a momentary act), cp. Ph. 

95» 1397- 
990 £. KfM&Tds pXc+dpwv 6': the 

phrase suggests a movement of the head 

at the moment when the sleeper opens 

his eyes : cp. Ph. 866 kivu yh.p M\p 6fifm 

K&vdyet K&pa. — Wecklein, omitting 0*, 

takes pXwjxtfwv tiirvov as 'sleep of the 

eyelids.' 

992 <rr4p{ai|u: cp. 486: Ph. 538 
ffripyetv Koucd. 

998 Ki)va£a, instead of Krjvaluv : cp. 
818 /JLTjTpyov (n.). — Kprprls, the substruc- 
ture, basis, of the altar; Eur. H. F. 984 
d/JL<pl fitofilav I iwrrji-e Kprfvtd\ ' at the altar- 
steps.' The word has a picturesque force 
here, as recalling the moment when the 
altars were founded by him (237). 

994 f. Up»v oW, gen. of price. — 
tori poi, lit., 'in my case': Ph. 1384 
\4yeu 8* *Arp€ldous 6<f>e\os if V ifiol rode; 
Others explain, ' against me,' 'to my 
hurt ' ; but this suits the irony less well. — 
The MS. 7Jvv<r« has been altered by many 
recent edd. to ^vwras: but the proper 
force of the midd., 'to obtain,' 'win' 

10 



OTp. a. 



146 ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 

olav ay! p edov kcofiav, olav 
rjv fit] nor eya> 7rpo<ri&eiv 6 raXas 
a><f>e\ov oo"0"ot5, roS* ataj\r)TOv 
fiavias avdos KaTah^p^Oyjvai. 
ri5 yap dotSo?, rU 6 yciootcwtjs 
taro/ota?, 05 rqvo arqv 
vco/ol? Z?/i>o$ KaTaK7jkrja'€L ; 
uavfi av iroppwdev ISoCfirjv. 



OTp. p. 



IOOO 






2 care //,\ care //,€ hv&fiopov ^vorarov, 1 005 

3 ca^P vararov evva<rdai. 

2 a7T0X€t5 //,', a7roXct5. 

3 ai/arer/oo^a? o n Kat fivoy. 

OOO KaradepxOfjvai] Hermann (3rd ed.) conjectured that the poet wrote KaTaSepxBr^aL 
< run Ovrrrwv > . He formerly approved Erfurdt's conj ., KaT*8cpx0ds. Frohlich would 
delete KarafcpxPfyaA. IOOO 6 xctpor^p'qs] Erfurdt deleted 6. lOOS IdoL- 
fArfv A, and Aid. : I80lp.au T : tSoipt om L, with 17 written over a by an early hand. 
1006 f. iM fi* iart (sic) fie* \ dfoftopov evvdaai \ iari /ie dfoTcwov e&vaacu L: 
with yp. tiarcLTov in the left margin, opposite tifofiopov evvacrai. A, with most MSS., 
and Aid., has efoaaat in both places; Ellendt conj. eivacrBai. T omits the words 



(Ar. Plut. 196 etc.), seems fitting here, 
since the sacrificial altars may be said 
to have earned the recompense given by 
Zeus. Tjw<ras would be simply, 'hast 
effected. — <S Zcv at the end of the sen- 
tence: Ph. 1 139 n. 

006 I8ov \u Xaf3av = Aw/frprw jj.€ : cp. 
0. C. 123 n. 

007 ft. 4|v, referring back to KprfirU 
(993) ; cp. 358 (n.). Wunder needlessly 
placed Hv... 5<rcrois immediately after 
993. — UT] iror' belongs to irpociSctv, not 
to <2<(xXov, though the latter might have 
come between them; cp. Ph. 969 fuf) tot* 
<2<pe\op \tireiv (n.). — <£kij\i)tov : schol. 
dvlcLTOVf aKaTavpavvTOv. — &v6os = dK//.rjv : 
cp. Ant. 959 ras pavlat detvbv... \ avOrjpSv 
re i*4vos(n.). — KcvraScpxOtjvai, inf. express- 
ing result, without wore: cp. Ant. 1076 
\ij<pdi]vou (n.). Though the malady is 
his own, he can be said ( to look upon 
it,' in the sense of experiencing it: cp. 
O.T. 832 vp6<r0€V i} row? Ideiv \ KTjXld 1 
ifiavrtp <TVfM<popa$ a<f>iy/xiv^. 

IOOO ff. &o\.$6s=£iri l )d6$ } one who 
uses iw<fi8al, incantations, in healing : see 
on 0. C. 1 194. — tCs 6 x <t P OT ^X v1 15» sc - 
iariv. (There is no art. before foidds, 



because the insertion of 6s was an after- 
thought.) This is a climax; since, when 
gentle iircpdal failed, the next resort was 
to drugs or surgery: At. 581 0$ wpbs la- 
rpov <ro(pov I dprjvuv itrydas trpbi TOfiwvn 
iTTiixaTi. x <t P 0T ^X VT l s laTop^as does not 
mean definitely, 'one who uses a skill- 
ed hand in healing,' i.e., a x €t P° v pyfo* 
surgeon, as distinguished from a phy- 
sician; it rather means properly, 'a 
practical artist' (as dist. from an ama- 
teur) 'in healing'; but, at the same 
time, the x €i P° m the compound serves 
to suggest the ropuaX employed by the 
surgeon. This is quite Sophoclean. 
Cp. Thuc. 6. 72 18 l wraj, is eliretv, 
Xci/>OT^x , ' ats &vTay(jwuraij.4vovs, 'hav- 
ing been pitted like amateurs, as one 
might say, against masters of the art' 
(where the dat., and not x €l P 0T ^X vas i is 
clearly right). 

X»pls Zt|vos-= 4 with the exception of 
Zeus': not, 'without the help of Zeus' 
(schol. el p.r) 8 Zei>s povXoiro). 

IOO 3 6av|t* dv irtfppa>6cv lSo£|ii)v: 'I 
should look upon him, from afar, as a 
wonder,' — £*., 'I should marvel as soon 
as he came within my ken.' He means 



TPAXINIAI 



147 



Ah, to what ruin hast thou brought me, to what ruin ! Would 
that I had never beheld thee for my sorrow ! Then had I never ' 
come face to face with this fiery madness, which no spell can 
soothe ! Where is the charmer, where is the cunning healer, 
save Zeus alone, that shall lull this plague to rest ? I should 
marvel, if he ever came within my ken ! 

Ah ! 1st 

Leave me, hapless one, to my rest — leave me to my last strophe. 

rest! 

Where art thou touching me ? Whither wouldst thou turn *nd 

me ? Thou wilt kill me, thou wilt kill me ! If there be any stro P he - 

pang that slumbers, thou hast aroused it ! 

tart fie dv<rravov etivdcr ai, and so Brunck. The reading in the text is that of Wunder 
and Hermann (3rd ed.). The correction of 1005 was made first by Wunder, and 
that of 1006 by Hermann. 1007 t§ mss. : t£ t£ Seidler : t£ to? Weck- 

lein. 1008 After the second curoXeit, a letter (fi* ?) has been erased in L. 

1009 dyar^Tfxxpas Erfurdt: dvrtTfxxpao- L, with most MSS., and Aid. : dvr4- 
<TTpo<pat r (as B). 



that he might scan the horizon long 
enough, in the vain hope of such a pro- 
digy appearing. — Others join irrfppwOcv 
with 6a vita: 'I should behold him as a 
wonder from some distant region': i.e., 
the place which contains him must be 
distant indeed. Hermann further sup- 
posed a question: 'am I likely to see 
such a wonder coming from afar?' — The 
phrase ttj\6$€v elaopwv in Ph. 454 is not 
similar : see n. there. 

1004 — 1043 This passage consists 
of lyrics delivered by actors (dirb (TKjjpijt). 
As the Chorus takes no part in it, it is 
not technically a K0fi/x6s, which is a dprj- 
vos Kw,vbi x°P°v *ai ^t6 <tkt)vt)s. 

The lyric structure is complex, but not 
obscure. The passage falls into two main 
parts, separated by the five hexameters 
in 1018 — 1022 (tS Tat Todd* dvdp6s...vi/xet 
Zetfs). I. The first part consists of 
1004 — 1017, in which the first three 
verses correspond metrically with the last 
three. II. The second part consists of 
1023 — 1043. (It i s equal in length with 
the first part, though the traditional num- 
bering makes it appear longer.) Here, 
the first four verses correspond with 
the last four. Then the central portion 
of part I. corresponds with the central 
portion of part II. Thus : (1) 1st strophe, 
1004 — 1006, = 1st antistr., 1015 — 1017. 
(2) 2nd str., 1007 — 1009, = 2nd antistr., 
1027 — 1030. (3) 3rd str., 1023 — 1026, 
= 3rd antistr., 1040 — 1043. The dactyls 



in ioio — 1014, and 1031 — 1040, could 
also be regarded as forming a fourth stro- 
phe and antistrophe. — For the metres 
see Metrical Analysis. 

1006 £ fori |t', 4&TC...cvvdV6cn. A 
restoration of this corrupt passage turns 
chiefly on the following points. (1) The 
corresponding verses of the antistrophe 
(1016 f.) may be taken as showing the 
true metre. (2) L's variant for cvvdcrot 
in 1005, viz. forroTov, may therefore be 
received. cvvdVot (a), from evv&fw is 
impossible, since, like ctfvaVai (tfivdw), 
it could only be transitive. (3) In 1006 
the MS. Swrravov is clearly wrong; it 
may have been either a gloss on Svo-po- 
pov, or a corruption of forraTOv. (4) 
Hermann's reading in 1006, 4&6* fco-Tarov 
ciivaViku, is strongly confirmed by the 
metrical correspondence with 1017, jw>- 
\wv tov o-rvycpov; ^cv $cv, — a verse of 
undoubted soundness. 

1007 f. irqL..i|/a4cis : a remonstrance 
against being touched at all. Cp. Ph. 
817 air6 fj! dXets, rjv TpocOlyys. Hyllus 
seeks to place him in a more comfortable 
position, — as Heracles himself soon re- 
quests (1025). — A comparison with the 
antistrophic verse, 1027, $py<ric€t d' at, 
OpyoKu detkaia, shows the loss of a syl- 
lable here. Hermann follows Seidler 
in repeating ir£, which is the simplest 
and most probable remedy. 

1009 dvaTtrpo^x&s, from dvar pivot: 
schol. 6 rt far ipuxdo-y rod kcikov rofrrov, 

10 — 2 



avT. a 



I48 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



rjirrai fiov, tototol, 770 avtf epirei. irouev ear, cj 
irdvrwv 'EXXai/coi/ aSucajrarot (wipes, ov? 817 101 1 

7roXXa //,«> «> 7TO^ro) Kara r€ 8/oia ndvra icadaipwv 
cokeKOfiav 6 raXas* Kal iw C7rl tijJSc poctoviti 
ov 7r5/o, owe eyxps tis oitjcti/lioi/ ouk €7rtr/oc^ct ; 



C €, 



IOI5 



2 ovS* dirapdtjai Kpdra */3Cq. de\ei 

3 fio\a>v tov orvyepov ; <^€i; <£«;. 

IIP. (3 7rat rouS* cu>8po9, rovpyov rdSc /i€i£o*> dvrjKei 

>/ Kar €/xa*> pcofiav, <tv 0€ orvAAapc, crot yap crot/ia 
# €? 7rX€oi/ ^ Sl ifiov (Tiitfiiv. TA. i/rava> //,€*> eywye, 1 020 



L divides each of these five hexameters into two shorter verses. 
The first hexameter is divided after rb rb to? : the second, after iWdvcov : the 
third, after t6vtui : the fourth, after rd\a<r : the fifth, after £yx<xr. IOIO roro- 
roi appears also as tototoI, brrorol or 6tto to?, rb to to? (L), and rovrb toc 
(R, etc.), which last is the reading of Aid., retained even by Brunck. Triclinius, 
omitting tototo?, wrote ^irrcU ftov <vbaos>* ^ id' avO* fynrer <tou> icbdeir £ot\ <S.- 



i}5' mss. : ^ 5' Schaefer. — wbOev] Kochly conj. wb$t 6 } . 



IOII 'EXXdywiO 



Wunder writes avdp&icw. — ofls mss. : ofr Wakefield. 1012 iv vbvr(p\ iv t tovtui 

L. — /card re MSS.: kcltcl 5$ Wakefield. — vovtcl] Blaydes writes iroXXa. 1013 oitic 



ird\u> Kiv^aas dvirpe^ai. Cp. Arist. 
Hist. An. 8. 24 (p. 605 a 11) #raV y kolB- 
apa (ra tbara), avarpivovaiv airrb. ol ftrirot 
rats 6irXeus, 'trouble* them. For the 
perf., cp. Andoc. or. 1 § 131 dXiT'ffpiov 
avrtf &rpc<p€v, 6*s dvarirpo<p€v iicclvov rbv 
ttKovtov (* overthrown'). Aeschin. or. 1 
§ 190 t6X«s avaTerpocpdras : or. 3 § 158 
r^v ir6\iv apdrjv aMaTerpwpbra. In 0. C. 
186 T4rpo<f>€v is from Tp4<pw: but the 
classical use of that perf. is ordinarily 
confined to the intrans. sense (Od. 93. 
237 rirpo^ev aX/xr]). 

o ti Kal |ivo"Q, anything that has closed 
the eyes, i.e., any part of the pain that 
has been lulled to rest. This is simpler 
than to supply voaov with dvartrpoipas, 
and to take ti as ace. of respect (' in 
so far as...'). Cp. Ar. Vesp. 92 rjv 5' 
ofo Karafidan kSm b\"xynv. 

IOIO ifi': cp. 087 n.— ir6©cv Iot', 
'whence are ye? Of what stock? Can 
ye be indeed of Hellenic race, and yet 
so heartlessly ungrateful? Cp. Od. 17. 
373 trodey ytvos etixercu elveu ; — Her- 
mann explains ir60cv hrri as =' whence 
do ye appear to aid me?' (unde mihi 
auxilio adeStis?): — a complaint that they 
do not appear. He compares Od. 2. 267 
axebodev 64 ol rj\dev 'Adfyrj : but might 



better have cited //. 16. 800 oxedb- 
Oev 84 ol rjev 6\e0pos. The version is 
tenable in itself, but is not well suited to 
the context. Heracles is addressing the 
men who are actually around him, — the 
Greeks (some of them his own merce- 
naries) who have brought him from Eu- 
boea. Cp. the very similar passage in 
Ph. 1 203 ff. : aXX', (3 l-frot, h yi fiot 
evxos 6p£i;aTe....£l<t>os 1 d Todev, | 1} yivw, 
rj peXtov ti, TpoTrtfiiJ/aTc. He is not 
making a merely rhetorical appeal to the 
absent, — k all those who had been bene- 
fited by him,' as the schol. says. In that 
case, he would not say, trcun-tav 'EXXavctv 
ddiKurcLToi dvbpcs: he had toiled for all 
Hellenes. 

1011 oOs refers to 'EXXdwi', not to 
avdpes. If the ace. be right, KaOatpcty 
here =' ridding of pests.' In this sense, 
the verb is properly said of places (1061 
yaicw KaOalptav) : but the bolder use here 
seems possible, and is not excluded by 
iv romp, since the thought is of the gain 
to seafarers. I hesitate, then, to receive 
the tempting ots ('for whose good'). 

1012 £ kv iroVnp: cp. Eur. H. F. 
222 ff., where Amphitryon denounces 
the ingratitude of Greece towards Hera- 
cles: — 0&6' *EXXad' flpecr', ovb' av^ojxal 



TPAXIIMIAI 



149 



It hath seized me, — oh, the pest comes again ! — Whence are 
ye, most ungrateful of all the Greeks ? I wore out my troublous 
days in ridding Greece of pests, on the deep and in all forests ; 
and now, when I am stricken, will no man succour me with 
merciful fire or sword ? 

Oh, will no one come and sever the head, at one fierce 1st anti- 
stroke, from this wretched body ? Woe, woe is me ! strophe. 

Old Man. Son of Heracles, this task exceeds my strength, 
— help thou, — for strength is at thy command, too largely to 
need my aid in his relief 

Hy. My hands are helping ; 

iirLTp4\p€i V 2 (as corrected), Vat.: o$k dvorpc^ei L, with most MSS., and Aid. — 
Wecklein writes avrnrapefrt : Nauck conj. otitev dpefci (Frohlich 6pi£ai) : Blaydes, 
ov xcpa rpdiftet (but in the text he has rptyai). 1016 Kpara] Wecklein 

writes tropica. — pia Wakefield: filov MSS. 1018 — 1022 L divides the first 

hexameter after avbpba : the second, after fxb/xap : the third, after ifiov : the fourth, 
after ddrjvav : the fifth, after l£airf<nu. Further, <rtaifcw stands in a line by itself. Thus 
the five w. form eleven lines. 1018 dvrjKei A, with most MSS., and Aid.: avelicei 

L (with rj above, from a late hand) : hence Nauck writes dv drj. 1O10 £ <ri> 

8£] <n$ t€ B. — (rot re yap 6/j.fxa | (fiirXcop ij BC iftov \ ffwlfrw | L. The only variant 
in the MSS. is (/atXcuv (B, T, and, ace. to Subkoff, Lc). See comment. 



?*> 



wore I criyutr, KaKlcrrjv Xafjfidvwi' is t<u<5 
i/xov, I r\v XPV V veoffffdis rotffde vvp, \6y- 
X«s, 8ir\a \ <p£pov<rav i\de?v, vovrltav 
KaBappaTtap | x^P ff0V T ' d/*oi/3ds, 'as 
a reward for purging sea and land/ Cp. 
ib. 400 : 'he went into the uttermost parts 
of the deep, making peace for the oars 
of men.' Pind. N. 1. 63 (of Heracles) 
6<T<rov$ pev iv xl/xnp icravuv, \ 6<r<rovs 6e 
worry dijpas aXdpodlicas. 

Kara tc after xoXXd piv: cp. Ant. 1162 
(Toxraj fUv... I \afiuv re (n.). — 8pCa, from 
the same rt as 5pvs, dpvftos, tiivhpov, 56 pv 
(Curt. Etym. § 275): the only sing, found 
is (rb) dplos. — cSXcicrfpav, impf. of 6\£kw 
(Ant. 1285), expresses the wearing effect 
of continual labours: cp. Ph. 252 5twXX«J- 
ixrjy : id. 686 (JSWvd '. 

Kal vvv...ovk invrptyfi; 'and now will 
no one turn fire or sword upon me,' — 
i.e. t 'come to my rescue* with it? The 
repetition of ovk with the verb gives a 
passionate emphasis: see n. on Ant. 6 
(o&k 6vtiiir\ after ovdtv yap otif akyewbv 
etc.)* — The reading diroTptyci has better 
authority (cr. n.), but seems untenable. 
It has been explained as, (1) 'not-ozvrf,' 
= ' apply': (2) ''divert (from other uses),' 
'turn wholly against me.' — T<p8c = ^tu>{: 
cp. 305 n. — irup: thus Philoctetes prays 
to die even by fire (Ph. 800). — lyx * 
=£L<pos: cp. 1032, Ai. 95 etc. 

1016 f. The MS. reading, airap&i-ai 



Kpara pfov, is explained as, 'to sever 
the head from life,' — i.e., to destroy life 
by striking the head from the body. 
This extraordinary phrase is surely not 
Greek. It has been supported by a 
corrupt verse of Eur., Helen. 302, c/wepbv 
(fffiucpbi Badham) 5' 6 Kaipbs ipr* aira\- 
\d£cu plov : where Keil reads &pdp\ Nauck 
Kpar\ and Hermann rdpic'. But, what- 
ever be read there, aira\\d£ai plov is 
widely different from airapd£ai filov. I 
hold, with Paley, that Wakefield's £la 
ought to be substituted for filov, which 
might easily have arisen from toO «ttuy€- 
po$. — Cp. //. 14. 497 aT^pai-ev tie 
Xa/xafr I airryj <rinr ir^XrjKt K&prj. 

1018 ToCpyov t4Sc, the task of lift- 
ing the sufferer (who is lying Tpowerfa 
976) into a position of greater ease (1025 
wpoo-^ape KowpUrat). — |&ci£ov is proleptic 
with dviJKci, 'has risen, so as to be 
greater': cp. Dem. or. 2 § 8 JjpOri ftiyas. 
The usu. constr. of oHikcw, as = * to reach* 
a certain standard, is with els, as if here 
we had els petlfiv n. 

1019 f. Vj KaT tydv {xowxv, with fiei- 
$ov: 0. C. 508 fi.€i£ov rj /car' avdpvrwov (n.). 

crol *ydp croCjta, sc. ji>una, ' for strength 
is at thy command,' Is irXiov ij Si' 4|m>0 
<r^&civ, 'in too large a measure for the 
saving of him by my means,' i.e. 'so 
largely, that you have no need to save 
him by my means.' 



ISO ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 

Xadlirovov 8* 68vvav ovr evhoOev ovre dvpadev 
ecrrt fiOL cfaw/oxu fiiorov rotavra vifiei Zevs. 

<rrp. y. HP. <o iral, irov tror el ; rq,8e fte t$$€ fie 

2 TrpocrXafie KOv<f>Ccra$. I €, tco Salfiov. IO25 

dvr. /P. 0pco(TK€L 8* av y 0pa>crK€L SctXcua 

2 8toXoi;o■ , >)/xa9 

3 a7rort)8aT05 dypCa i/ocros. IO30 

to IlaXXa? IlaXXa?, roSe //,' av XwySarat. u» 7rat, 
roi> # <AvTop , oiKrtpa? averri<f>dovov etpv&ov eyvos, 
irawrov €/xa9 vtto karoos, aicov o a^os, $ //, e^oXaxrcv 

1021 £ 65wav...pioTov Musgrave: 68vv<w...Pi6tov MSS. — dvpadev \ iari /xot B: 
0vpaf ft'-lecrW jtot L, A, with most MSS., and Aid. In L the accent of fr is so 
high up (under the first a of a gl. ifxtpfidicov) that it might be overlooked ; the 
first corrector (S) has added the apostrophe after dvpaf, and deleted a smooth 
breathing on ecrl. The first hand had already indicated 06 pad w by writing over £. 
— vtfiei] vifun B. 1023 w rot Seidler (and so, ace. to Subkoff, L*): <3 

tcu ttcu L, with most mss., and Aid.: J tcu w irat R: tou tou Hermann 
(omitting w). Nauck conj. w ybvt (=1041 u Aids). 1026 £ £ to] 

^ I /w to L. Dindorf writes alcu, to (the second to is wanting in K, Harl., 



The mss. give <ro( tc ^dp tf|i|ut | Iji- 
irXcov $ Si 4|m>0 <r<pt€iv. The correction 
of Z/jltXcov ('full') to & v\£ov is due to 
Meineke, and is confirmed by the follow- 
ing r\ with the inf.: cp. 0. T. 1293 
fxti^ov rjcptpeiv: Eur. Hec. n 07 KpeUrcov' 

fj <p£p€W KCLK&. 

The MS. words, crof tc y&p Spy*, are 

unquestionably corrupt. This is shown 
by two things: (1) 6\k\ua is incongruous 
with the context ; strength, not keenness 
of sight, is in question; and, even if it 
were suitable, it could not be reconciled 
with any probable emendation of the 
following words. (2) tc is unmeaning 
and impossible. I believe that I have 
found the solution by the slight change of 
<roi tc *yelp tf|i|ia into <rol ydp croC^a. 
The corruption began by ol\ua passing 
into 6\i\La. How easy this would have 
been, may be judged from //. 21. 252, 
cUtrov otfiar' tyta** where Phiietas read 
o^i/xar, as in 77. 8. 349, Topyovt Sfi/xar 7 
tyw, Aristarchus read otfmr\ 

In the Appendix are given the pro- 
posed explanations of the vulgate, and 
various conjectures. 

1021 £ XaOCirovov 8' <J8wav : cp. 
El. 1002 dkxnros an;$ : Eur. /. T. 450 8ov~ 
Xelas... I ...irav<rlirovos. The adj., found 
only here and in Ai. 711, recalls the 



epic \a$iKT)5fy> It is proleptic predicate 
with tgavuo-ab, 'to effect that his life 
shall forget,' etc. The reference of PCotov 
to Heracles would be clearer if we could 
read fori oi (not toriv ©I, cp. 650): but 
|M>i is confirmed by IvSoOcv, 'from my own 
resources' (cp. 730 oticoi n.).— MpoOcv, 
by the help of others : cp. Eur. H. F. 713 
u>? OtipaOev eUdtrat {i.e. without personal 
knowledge). — The MS. 6S6vav...pt6rov is 
tenable, but less probable, and much less 
forcible. — TOtaOra vc*|&ci Zcfc, i.e., so 
grievous a doom. Not, * such healing is 
of Zeus alone.' 

1023 £ t£Sc : he indicates the place 
at which Hyllus is to take hold of him. — 
t$8c* |ic...irp6<rXapc Kov^fcras, literally, 
' lend a helping hand in raising me thus ' : 
the pron. depends on the partic. only. 
For this sense of the verb, cp. Plat. Legg. 
p. 897 D koX ipk ttjs dvoKplaetas vfuv... 
bUcuov Tpo&kafipdvciv, 'it is right that I, 
too, should help you with the answer.' 
Trp6<r\afU |ic could not mean literally, 
'lay hold on me,' which would be TpoaXa- 
/Sou fu>v (cp. Ar. Lys. 202, etc.). icoitylo-as 
denotes the act in which, when done, the 
help will consist. For this quasi-pro- 
leptic use of the aor. partic, cp. Plat 
Gorg. 516 B r66e toIvvv /jloi xdpurat dTo- 
Kpw&ncpos. 



TPAXINIAI 



I5i 



but no resource, in myself or from another, avails me to make 
his life forget its anguish : — such is the doom appointed by Zeus ! 

He. O my son, where art thou ? Raise me, — take hold of 3^ 
me, — thus, thus ! Alas, my destiny ! strophe. 

Again, again the cruel pest leaps forth to rend me, the *nd anti- 
fierce plague with which none may cope ! strophe. 

O Pallas, Pallas, it tortures me again ! Alas, my son, pity 
thy sire, — draw a blameless sword, and smite beneath my collar- 
bone, and heal this pain wherewith thy godless mother hath made 

etc.). I027 — 1043 L divides the vv. thus: — OputtcrKec — | deiXala — | avorl- 

Paroff — | vbaoiT — | rbbe p? ad — | rbv Maavr* — I dveiri<p6ovov — | tcucov — kXtj'C-\ 
doer — I <r& pArt\p — | oj> «$' — | afrruxr — J u> bibc — | w yXviciXr — | etivaabv p? — | t&icu- 
Tlra — I rbv pAXeov <p$Lo~a<r. 1031 w IlaXX&s IlaXXds Dindorf : ICo IlaXXd? MSS. 
The correction of l&> to a was made by Seidler, who wrote the v. thus : c3 IlaXXas, 
rbbe pf ad Xw/3aTcu* to vat <.vat rbv>, the next v. then beginning with QOaavf. 
Hermann similarly inserted <& rbv>. Bergk gives lu /o> IlaXXcfc. 1033 rbv 
<f>{rrop' oUrelpas Dindorf: rbv (frfoavr' oticrip' Frohlich : rbv <f>&aavr' oUrelpas MSS.: 
ipvaavr* oUretpas Campbell. Blaydes conj. rbv irartp 1 oUrelpas. 1036 f. ifias] 

r\pJa.tr L. — icXfldos] icXy'iSocr L : icXrfidos r, and Aid. — dicov] okov L. — $ pf Ix^Xcixre A, 
and Aid. : 6 /u,' ixbXwrev L, with an erasure after 8, perh. of e : in marg. , yp, i%6- 
Xrfaev otov x°^V ^XP iff€ T ^ v X* T ^a. Blaydes conj. ikkxwr** : A. Spengel, ihbXiaaev. 



1026 l» 8at|iov : the movement 
causes a new access of pain. Cp. Ph. 
1 1 86 alai, alai, \ ba.lp.uv balpuav. 0. T. 
131 1 lu daifiov. 

1027 ff. 0p<po>KCi denotes the shoot- 
ing spasms: cp. 1083 ftj&c: PA. 743 
SilpXerai, | dtlpxerot.— -SciXata : the at is 
long here, though sometimes short (Ant. 
1 3 10 n. ).— dirorCpaTOS = carp6ff(3aros : cp. 
1 2 14 Tcvntywbwv (n.). The personified 
v6<ros is 'unapproachable' in the sense 
that no healer can successfully cope with 
it. Cp. 1003 aw\arov...Kavpoff'^yopov. 

1031 IlaXXds. Athena was always 
a guardian goddess to her half-brother, 
Heracles ; of whom she says in //. 8. 
363 ff., reipb/xevov auxcKOP far' Etipvcrdips 
AiOXtav* \ 7) rot b pev KXalecrice irpbs otipa- 
vbv, avrdp i/xe Zei)s | rep erraXe£T)crovo~av 
dw' oipavbOev vpotaXXev. She was con- 
stantly represented in Greek art as pre- 
sent with Heracles during his labours, 
or as honouring and comforting him in 
seasons of repose. Sometimes she gives 
him a flower or a wreath; sometimes a 
refreshing draught. And, after the close 
of his mortal toils, it is Athena Nike who 
escorts him to Olympus. (Cp. n. on PA. 
728.) The art-literature of the subject 
will be found in Roscher, Lex., p. 2215. 
Attic black-figure vases often illustrate 
this relationship,— -one which was the 
more welcome to Athenians because 
Heracles was essentially a Dorian hero. 



1032 +vTop', Dindorf 's correction 
of (pfoavr', gives an incomparably better 
verse than Frohlich's r6v ^voxurr* otmnp'. 
It is very improbable that oticrip' would 
have been corrupted into the aor. partic ; 
but a rare word, such as ^6rof>', would 
easily have become +ii<rarr\ Dindorf 
is clearly right in holding that the v of 
cpvrup would be short, though metrical 
convenience might sometimes cause it to 
be lengthened in such compounds as 
a/j,T€Xo<p\jropa (Anth. 6. 44), which could 
not otherwise come into a hexameter. 
He might have added that the verse, 
dddvaroi be Ilrlpwra, bta vTepotfrtirop* 
av&yiajv, is prefaced by Plato with the 
remark that it is ov <r<f>68pa tl tppierpov, — 
a comment which, as W. H. Thompson 
observes, may apply to the u no less than 
to the be (Phaedr. p. 252 c). Hesychius 
has <f>6ropes* yevvrjropes. For the spell- 
ing oUripas, cp. 464 n. 

dvcirtyOovov : schol. avepActfrov, i<f>* $ 
ovbcls ere pAp.\f/erai ws Tarpo/crbvov. 

1036 f. 4|ufe faro kXjjSo*: l under 
the collar-bone' must denote a stab in 
the upper region of the breast : it cannot 
mean decapitation. For vrb with gen., 
in a local sense, cp. Ant. 65 n. — t\6X«- 
<rcv, an epic word (//. 18. in), here 
partly suggested by the thought of the 
venom working in his veins. Cp. 1142 
e'Kfxijvai. The v. /. ix^ T | <r( v (schol.) was 
intended to mean, 'has used the hydra's 



152 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



era fidrrfp aideo? 9 rdv cSS* emSot/u 7T€<rovcrav 1038 
aureus, (oo aureus, cos )jl (okeo'ev. (0 yAu/cus Aidas, 

co At09 avOaCjjLcov, evvaaov oivaaov fi 1041 

2 taKvirera /xopco roi/ fiikeov (frdicas. 



XO» icXi^o*' €<f)pi£a racrSc <rufL<f>opd$ f <^tXat, 
ai/a/cros, otat? ofos cJV eXaui/erat. 

HP. <3 7roXXa 87} Kal deppd *kov Xoyco Kaica 
*al x c /°°"^ Ka * ^^rotcri fio\drj(ra^ eyco* 

KOV7TQ) TOIOVTOV OVT atCOlTl? Tj AlOS 

TrpovOrjKtv ovff 6 orvyvbs JLvpv<r0€v$ e/xoi, 

Kadrjxjiev cJ/1019 rot? e/xois 'Epivvwv 
v<f>avTov diA<f>Cfi\r)OTpov, <a SioWvfiau 



I045 



1050 



1038 rdv Seidler and Erfurdt : ov MSS. (^ B). 1O30 £ <5 7X1*1)$ "AiSay, | 

w Atds afflcUfuav Seidler. w Aids avdaL/xuv, | w 7X1/*!)* 'Afc5as MSS. In L the words 
u> dibff atidcUfitav, which bad been omitted from the text, have been added (by the 
first hand, not by S) in the right-hand marg., in line with (S\€<rev : they were meant 
to form a verse preceding Co yXv/ckr dtdcur. 1041 etivaaov etivavov Turnebus, after 
Triclinius : ttivaabv /j.' etivcurov L, with most MSS., and Aid. 1042 ctawr^rp] 

(JjKVTT^ra L. 1044 rdade avfufnpds r : raade ffv/upopcUr L. 1045 dais B, 



gall against me': but the Attic sense of 
Xokav was ' to be fiekdyxoXos, 1 

1O30 £ aCTos : for the smooth breath- 
ing, see n. on O. T. 931. — vXvkvs; cp. 
0. C. 106 tr* 9 (3 y\vKWU wattes dpxalov 
S/c6rou (n.). 

1041 av6aC|td)v : nom. for voc, like 
<3 rXd/xuv (O. C, 185). This adj., found 
only here, = 8/j,ai/JLos, d/ialficov (O, C. 330 
n.)» ai06fAoufioi {id, 335), as denoting the 
fraternal tie. But atidaifws, as used in 
0. C. 1078, is merely 'kinsman.' — It is 
as the son of Zeus that he invokes 
Hades. 

1042 £ (okvu^t^, an epic epith. for 
a horse (II. 8. 42), or a bird (Hes. Op. 
a 10). — $6£<ras(0; 709 n. 

1046 of ais, not otas, is clearly right 
here. iXavveiv can take a cogn. ace. de- 
noting the course on which one is driven, 
as Ar. Nub, 29 toXXoi)s rbv Trwritf i\ati~ 
*e« 5p6(jLov$: but when it means 'to vex' 
or 'harass,' the troubles inflicted are ex- 
pressed by the instrum. dat., as in the 
examples cited by Dindorf: Ai. 275 
XtfT0...AijXaT<u: Eur. Andr, 31 *a/cotj 
iXafoofiai : Ion 1620 IXatfrerat aupucpopait. 

1046 £ voXXd &) x.r.X. This 



speech, down to v. 1102, is translated by 
Cicero in Tusc. 2. 8, where the fact that 
the poets recognise pain as an evil is 
illustrated by the laments of Philoctetes, 
Heracles and Prometheus. 

Cicero's version is essentially that of 
an orator; the true test for it would be 
declamation. But even a reader can 
feel its sonorous vigour, and its Roman 
gravity; Cicero succeeds as Lord Derby 
succeeded in much of the Iliad. The 
rendering of the Greek is very free, some- 
times inadequate, but always manly, and 
highly terse; indeed, the 57 lines of the 
original become 45 ; in one place, eleven 
verses (1079 — 1089) are reduced to four 
(vv. 30—33). 

6cp|id: dep/xds was said (1) of a hot or 
rash temperament (Ant. 88) : (2) of a rash 
deed, as in Ar. Plut. 415 w deppAv tpyov 
Kavbaiov ical Tapavofiov \ To\fi&vTe 5 pay. 
Here OepfiA is not 'rash,' but expresses 
intense conflict with deadly peril ; as we 
speak of 4 a hot fight.' 

kov X<Sv<p icaicd fitly follows Ocp|&d, the 
word which recalls the moment of dire 
stress. His trials had been fiery, and 
grievous, not in report or name alone. 



TPAXINIAI 



153 



me wild ! So may I see her fall, — thus, even thus, as she hath 
destroyed me ! Sweet Hades, brother of Zeus, give me rest, give 3rd anti- 
me rest, — end my woe by a swiftly-sped doom ! strophe. 

Ch. I shudder, friends, to hear these sorrows of our lord ; 
what a man is here, and what torments afflict him ! 

He. Ah, fierce full oft, and grievous not in name alone, 
have been the labours of these hands, the burdens borne upon 
these shoulders ! But no toil ever laid on me by the wife of 
Zeus or by the hateful Eurystheus was like unto this thing 
which the daughter of Oeneus, fair and false, hath fastened upon 
my back, — this woven net of the Furies, in which I perish! 

T, Vat.: ota<r L, with most mss., and Aid. 1046 kov \6y(p ita/cd Bpthe: kclI \6y(p 
KCLtcd. mss. : Kal \byuv Hpa Wunder. Hense would write kol\ \b<p<p /ca/cd, making 
those words change places with /*ox^<ras iyd>. 1047 x € P ff ^l X €i pl A, R, 

Harl., and Aid. — ical vurroiai] Wecklein conj. koX aripvourt: Hartung writes k&v- 
volauri : see comment. 1061 iftots] iyuoii L, with <r added above by a late 

hand. — ipun&tav L : Ipwvfaav r, and Aid. 1062 dibWvpmi] L has o in an 

erasure, from w. 



No \byos could express to others what 
the tpya had been to the doer. In EI. 
761 ff. a similar antithesis is implied: 
Toiavrd <roi ToCr , iorlv, c&s yukv ivXoytp 
dXyeivdy roTs 6' ldov<riv t otirep etdofiev, 
fUyiara w&Tiav ta» &r«inr' &y£) kclkQv : 
grievous enough to hear; but far worse 
to see. For ov X6y<p, cp. At. 813 ko6 
X6y<p 5el£w puovov : El. 1453 Kairtdeii-ep ov 
\6y<p pubvov. Thuc. 6. 18 d/ubveadai ov 
X6y<p dXX' (py<fi pAXXov. 

The MS. reading, Kal \6yy icaicd, is 
certainly wrong, for two reasons. (1) 
When the required sense is, * grievous to 
tell/ kclk& becomes, for Greek poetical 
idiom, too weak; we need such a word 
as deipa or dXyeivd. This objection does 
not apply to a phrase of ironical form, 
such as oti \6y(fj xam. (2) Idiom would 
require xaX X^yeu/ rather than /cat X6yy. 
Cicero, no doubt, read koX X6y<p (*0 multa 
dictu gravia, perpessu aspera 1 ); but that 
proves nothing. In Ant. 4 otir' &ttjs drep 
was the only reading known to Didymus 
(c. 30 B.C.). 

1047 \qxrX refers to deeds of prow- 
ess: voJtowti to feats of sheer strength, 
as when he took the place of Atlas, or 
carried the Erymanthian boar to Myce- 
nae. — Cicero's version, Quae corpore ex- 
anclavi atque ammo pertuli, has caused 
the inference that his text contained an 
equivalent for animo. Wecklein sug- 
gests that he read ortfpvoio'i (cp. 1090), 



but misunderstood it. Perhaps, however, 
Cicero felt his rhetorical antithesis to be 
warranted by the idea of anguish implied 
in |M>xOij<ras. 

1048 f. Kofarct: koU here =' and ne- 
vertheless'; cp. Ant. 332 n. — aKoins ij 
Aids (for the place of the art., cp. 762), 
since the dpyaXiot x^Xos "H/W7S (//. 18. 
119) was the prime source of all his 
troubles. Hera caused Eurystheus to 
be born at Argos a little before the 
birth of Heracles at Thebes (//. 19. 
114 ff.), and afterwards gave the hero 
into his power. But she also persecuted 
Heracles directly, as when she sent the 
serpents to his cradle (Pind. N. r. 40), 
or drove him by storms to Cos (//. 14. 
253 ff.). — irpotf9i)Kcv, of setting a task: 
Ant. 216 n. — Evpv<r0€vs is not elsewhere 
named in the play : cp. 35. 

1060 ff. otov T6$\..dfupip\. KaOtj- 
t|rcv = olov rbV d/j.<plfSX7i<rrp6v Amp, 6 
Kadrjrf/ein cp. 184.— SoAariris, 'with de- 
ceitful face,' smiling on him while plot- 
ting evil. — 'Epivvctv . . . a'lKf^pXijoTpov : 
cp. At. 1034 a/> ottK 'E/xi'ds tovt' ^x^- 
k€v<t€v #0os; The epithet tyavrdv marks 
that the * net ' is the robe; just as, in Aesch. 
Ag. 1580, ir<f>avrois iv t4vXois 'E/wtfwi', 
it marks that a real robe is meant. (So 
an eagle is im)vbs kAwv, Aesch. P. V. 
1022.) A net would properly be de- 
scribed as irXeicrdv rather than ixpamov 
(cp. Pollux 7. 139 6iktvoit\6kos). 



154 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



7r\€vpal<rL yap Trpocrfia^Okv €K fikv icr^dras 
fiefipcoKt crdpKas, irXevftovo? r dprrjpias 

pO<f>€L JJWOLKOVV €K 8k )(k<0p6v aXfld flOV J 055 

TreircoKev rj8r), kcu 8i€<f>0apfL(u §€/xa,9 

to irav, d<f>pdoTO) rgSe x^P^^ flrc8#. 

kov ravra Xoyyrj TreSids, ovff 6 yrjyarqs 

orparo? Yiydvrtav ovre. Orfpetos /3Ca, 

ovff 'EXXds ovt ayXaxrcros ovff oarjv iy<b 1060 

yaiav KaOaipcov iko/xt^, eSpacre rrw 

yvvrf Sc, dr}\v$ *<f>vo m a kovk dvhpos <f>vo m w 9 

fiovrj fie S17 KaOelke <f>aoydi/ov St^a. 

& ttol, ycuov fioi 7rat5 ctt^tv/jio? ycycJs, 

zeal firj to p,rjTpo<; ovopa irpeafievoyi*; irXeov. 1065 

805 fiOL x € P°^ v <rau> avro? i£ oIkov Xafiwv 

€5 X € V a T V V T€Kov<rav 9 C05 ciSco <rd<f)a 

1063 £ l<rx<iras...<r(£/>jras] Wecklein writes £y/caTa...<ra/Ntds (from Cicero's morsu 
lacerat viscera). — irXev/iwoV t' L, with v written over X by the first hand (cp. 
567) : wv€vfiov6s t' r : irXevfJiovds t' A, Harl., and Aid. 1066 Wmw] 

rArrcMrer A, Harl., and Aid. — ditydapfuu] 8U<f>0apr(u B. 1068 — 

1060 Koi) raOra was altered by Elrasley to Kotir' afro, because otire follows. 
Blaydes and Wecklein, keeping Kod raOra, change o&re to ovdt in all five 



1063 £ irpoar^ja,\9kv, 'plastered* to 
his sides: cp. 768 ApHicoWos. — ifr\dra$ 
...crdpicas, i.e., not only on the surface 
of the body, but to the inmost parts. 
Cicero renders the phrase by viscera. 

irXeujiovos t' dprrjpCas : « the suspend- 
ers of the lungs/ i.e., the bronchial tubes 
which convey air to the lungs. For the 
sing. irXetfytwv in a collective sense cp. 
Plat. Tim. p. 84 D 6 twp wevfidnav r<£ 
(Tu/xcLTi TCL/das T\€Vfj.u)v. As to the word 
&pn)pta, see Appendix. 

1066 £o<}>ii, 'drains,' 'empties' (of 
air): his breath is arrested by the spasms: 
cp. 778 <rvapayiJubs...7r\€vii.6v(av drO^x/taro, 
Though the grammatical subject is dju/>l- 
(3\ri<rTpov, the agent is properly the ve- 
nom itself; (woucovv, since this inter- 
ruption of the breath is frequent. For 
this use of t>o<p€iv y cp. Ar. Ach. 278 /to- 
<fyfl<Tei Tptifikiov (empty it). Cicero well 
renders, Urgensque graviter pulmonum 
haurit spiritus. 

xXopov, fresh, vigorous; cp. Theocr. 
1 4. 70 wotew rt Set, as (=ews) yovv xXw- 
p6p ('youthful'). — Not 'discoloured' (de~ 
colorem sanguinem, Cic). 

1067 ctypcUmp, 'indescribable,' un- 



utterably dreadful ; not, ' inexplicable,' 
/'.if., of unknown origin. — yjaQvfo&%\ cp. 
279 n. 

IO68 £ kov... o^O*. It is unneces- 
sary to change oW to ov$\ The se- 
quence od...otire is foreign to Attic prose; 
and an Attic poet would presumably 
have avoided it where ov was followed 
by only one negative clause: e.g., in 
O. C. 702 oti veapbs 06M yifaa, etc., otire 
is improbable. In Theognis 125 oti yh.p 
dv eldeirfs dvdpbt voov o#5e ywaiKos, where 
the mss. have otire, oMi stands in Aris- 
totle's quotation of the verse (Eth. End. 
7. 2). But when, as here, several clauses 
with otire follow otf, an Attic poet might 
imitate the frequent Homeric usage : 
e.g.y Od. 4. 566 06 vnperbs otir* dp x €i P& v 
iroKits oUre wot 1 6n(3pos. So ib. o. 136 f. 
ofl is followed by two clauses with otfre, 
and in //. 6. 450 f. by three. 

Xo^x 1 ! «8»ti the spear of the war- 
rior on a battle-field ; as when Heracles 
fought with Laomedon of Troy, with 
the Amazons, or with Augeas king of 
Elis (Apollod. 2. 7. 2). 

o-Tparos rVydvTwv: after sacking 
Troy, and ravaging Cos, Heracles went 



TPAXIIMIAI 



155 



Glued to my sides, it hath eaten my flesh to the inmost parts ; it 
is ever with me, sucking the channels of my breath ; already it 
hath drained my fresh life-blood, and my whole body is wasted, 
a captive to these unutterable bonds. 

Not the warrior on the battle-field, not the Giants' earth-born 
host, nor the might of savage beasts, hath ever done unto me 
thus, — not Hellas, nor the land of the alien, nor any land to 
which I have come as a deliverer : no, a woman, a weak woman, 
born not to the strength of man, all alone hath vanquished me, 
without stroke of sword ! 

Son, show thyself my son indeed, and do not honour a 
mother's name above a sire's : bring forth the woman that bare 
thee, and give her with thine own hands into my hand, that I 

may know of a truth 

places. 1069 (fypeios ftta] Orjpioa plat L. 1062 $rj\va ofoa 

Koi>K av&pbs <pv<rtv mss. : for ovaa Nauck writes (f>v<ra (after Steinhart, who, however, 
read BrfKv). Blaydes adopts this, but with drjXvv. Reiske conj. Orjkw <TxoOua : 
Mudge, 0ij\vs ko&k *x owr ' dvdpbs <pvaiv (received by Hermann). 1067 L has 

etfu>, made by S from efifa : Nauck writes t8<o. 



to Phlegra (sometimes identified with 
Pallene, the westernmost headland of 
the Chalcidic peninsula), and helped the 
gods to vanquish their Earth-born foes. 
In Pind. N. i. 67 Teiresias predicts what 
Heracles shall achieve, 8rav Oeoi 4v tc- 
Sly #X£ypas Tiydrrecfftp p.dx av I dm&- 
fa<nv. In the Gigantomachia on the 
pediment of the Megarian Treasury at 
Olympia, Heracles fought at the right 
hand of Zeus (cp. Ausgrabungen, vol. iv. 
pi. 20 b). Early Attic vase-paintings of 
this subject associate him with Zeus and 
Athena (Roscher, Lex., p. 2211). 

(Hjpuos pia seems to be a general 
phrase, including both the Centaurs ($tj- 
pwv, 1096) and the wild beasts (1092 ff.). 
Cicero understood it of the former only, 
turn biformato impetu \ Centaurus. 

1060 £ dy\OT<ros profits by the 
suggestion of yrj in the adjective 'EXXds 
(Ph. 256 'EXXdfos yfc). The p&ppapos 
has no ' language ' properly so called : to 
the ear of the Hellene, he merely twit- 
ters like a bird (n. on Ant. 1002). Cp. 
Pind. /. 6. 24 oi)K tffriv oUtw p&pfiapos 
otire iraKlyyXwnrof t6\is, 'barbarous or 
strange of speech.' — 0U8' '6<rr\v: the di- 
vision of mankind into Greeks and bar- 
barians is exhaustive; but the range of 
earth tra/ersed by Heracles extended 
beyond the dwellings of men (cp. 1100 
he* fox&rois rdvots). It seems unneces- 
sary, then, to regard this third clause as 



merely a rhetorical summary of the other 
two. — yautv : antecedent attracted into 
relative clause : O. C. 907 n. 

1062 t. OtjXvs for 6jj\eta, as in the 
Homeric 0i)\vs i4p<nj (Od. 5. 467): 0. C, 
751 n. — Nauck's correction of ov<ra into 
4>v<ra is indispensable, if dv8p6s be re- 
tained ; the alternative would be to read 
otvr]p, which is less probable. For the 
cogn. ace, cp. Ai. 700 avdpdnrov <pti<riv | 
fiXcuTTwv. — uovi)...Sq: Ant, 58 n. — koO- 
ctXc, brought low, destroyed, as in Ai. 
517 (of death). — tyuryavov Bi\a: the 
warrior laments that he has not fallen in 
combat; cp. Aesch. Eum. 627 (of Aga- 
memnon's death) koI ravra irpbs yvvaitcds, 
oH tl Oovptois I robots iicripokounv iatrr' 
'Afiafivos. 

1064 f. ycvov, show thyself: Ycyiff 
and fn(TV|ios cohere, making an equiv. 
for yrfyrios : hence there is no awkward- 
ness in having two forms from yiyvo/Mou. 
Cp. 1 1 58: Ai. 556 5ci <r' 0TUf TraTpbs I 
5e/£ets iv lx0potf °to* Q <& ov 'Tp&Qi/t. — Td 
|it|Tpds Svopa : she is such in name only 
(817). — irp€o-|i«v<rns, prefer in honour: 
Eur. Hipp. 5 to5$ fj.h <r4povras ra/xa 
*Y>«r/3eiJw Kpdrjj. — irXiov is, in strictness, 
redundant; cp. Plat. Legg* 887 B Tpo- 
Tifxdv ppaxvXoylav fxdWov rj /jljjkos. 

1067 £ cl8«5, which Nauck changes 
to tSct, is in accord with usage (cp. e.g., 
678, O. C. 889 «Twt etow: Ph. 238 ws 
elSQ). 



1 56 



ZO<t>OKAEOYZ 



el rovfibv akyei? fia^Xov rj KUinqs opcov 

Kcj/SrjTOV €T8os iv 8l/Cfl KCLKOVfiePOV. 

iff, c5 T€ia/ov f rokfirja'OP 9 olicnpov ri pe 1070 

iroWoio'LV olicrpov, ootis (Sore irapdevos 

ftefipirva kXoluov koX to8* ovS* av €19 7T0T€ 

Toi/d avopa (pair) irpocru loew oeopaKora, 

aXX* doT€V<LKTOs aikv t\mopn)v kolkoIs. 

vvv 8* Ik tolovtov dfjkv? rjvprjfiai raXas. io 75 

ical w irpocrekdw (rrfjdi ttXtjctCov 7rar/oo5, 

crK€\pcu 8* o7roia5 ravra (rvfi<l>opas viro 

Treirovda* Setfw ya/o raS* ck KaXvfi[iaT(ov. 

iSov, deacrOe 7rcu>T€9 ddXiov Se/ia?, 

opart roi/ Svarrjvov, cw? oltcrpais €)(G). 1080 

atat, a> raXas, atat, 

idaXxjieu drrjs (riTacr/ios aorta? oS* av, 

tjjfc irkevpojv, ovo ayvfivaaTov \l eav 
€OLK€v rj raXaiva Sta^Sopo? i/ocros. 

IO68 rj KcLvris] ^ 'Kelrqs T. 1069 Nauck brackets this v. 1071 uxrre] 

(Sorter L ( = c3s t«). 1074 eltrdfirju schol. on ^i. 317, where this v. is quoted: 

4<nr6firiv L, with most MSS., and Aid. [Ace. to Subkoff, elirdfxrjy is in A, B, T.j 
Meineke conj. e'x^w: Blaydes, also Inotjfirjv. 1076 ifipif/uu] evprjfxai MSS. 



cl tovjjlov k.t.X. The constr. is, el 
fxaWov AXycts, bp&v robpubv XttifZitrbv etdos, 
ij (rb) Kcbfrp (Xuprjrbv etdos) iv SUy KctKoij- 
ficvov. For the omission of rb before 
KeLvrjSt cp. 929 rb K€i<re fcvpo r (n.). — 
KaKovfuvov as in Ph. 228, O. C. 261. 

Cicero represents this passage by a 
single verse, lam cernam, mene an illam 
potior em putes. Hence Nauck rejects 
v. 1069. But the inference is most un- 
safe, as another instance will show. The 
passage beginning with Idov (1079) an( * 
ending with i^iopp-VKev (1089) shrinks, in 
Cicero's version, to three lines and a 
half, viz., Videte cuncti : tuque, caeltstum 
sator, I lace, obsecro, in me vim coruscam 
fulminisl \ Nunc, nunc dolorum anxi- 
feri torquent vertices: \ Nunc serpit ar- 
dor. Thus Cicero wholly ignores vv. 
1085 ff. : he ignores vv. 1080 — 1084 also, 
except in so far as their general sense is 
blended with his version of 1088 f., daL- 
pvrou...i^copfJi7}Kev. Yet the Greek text 
there is clearly sound. 

1070 £ t0*, expressing entreaty, is 
similarly combined with T^Xjit|<rov in 
PA. 480 f. : t$\ ij/iipas rot, fibxOos oitx 



5X7/5 /uas, I TbXfArfffov, k.t,X. — iroXXottriv 
olicrpov : cp. 0. T. 1 296 otov Kal orvyovrr' 
tiroiKTlcai. Cicero : Miserere! Gentes nos- 
tras Jiebunt miserias. — &ttc irapMvos: 
the schol. compares //. 16. 7, where 
Patroclus weeps ^vre Kovp-q \ vrfirlrj. — 
p^Ppv\a might seem strange in such a 
comparison ; yet cp. 904, where ppvxa.ro 
is said of Deianeira. The fitness of the 
word is more evident in 805, as in O. 7*. 
1265, and Ai. 322, ravpos u>s ppvx&fjxvos. 
For the perf., cp. p^pvica {fivKdo/xai) t 

fUflTIKCL (fJ.7]KdofJLai). 

1074 cUnrcVaKTos : as Ajax was 6.^6- 
</>rfTos b&w Ku>KVfjutr<av (Ai. 321). — ciiro- 
\kx\v, not efrrero, though t<5v8* &v8pa pre- 
cedes: cp. O. C. 6 n. The imperf., 
which was read here by a scholiast of 
the Ajax (cr. n.), is certainly prefer- 
able to &nn$|iijv, though the aor. would 
also be right, if he was viewing the past 
as a whole. If iavbfirjy were read, aUv 
would go with doreVaicros : though Aet is 
not necessarily incompatible with an aor. 
(Ph. ii4on.). — clir6ui)v kojcoCs: cp. Eur. 
Phoen. 408 tws 8' qXles "Apyos ;... | ojVc 
old* • 6 dalfMoiv pf iK&keff«p Tpbs r^v r&xW* 



TPAXINIAI 



157 



which sight grieves thee most, — my tortured frame, or hers, when 
she suffers her righteous doom ! 

Go, my son, shrink not — and show thy pity for me, whom 
many might deem pitiful, — for me, moaning and weeping like a 
girl ; — and the man lives not who can say that he ever saw me 
do thus before; no, without complaining I still went whither 
mine evil fortune led. But now, alas, the strong man hath been 
found a woman. 

Approach, stand near thy sire, and see what a fate it is that 
hath brought me to this pass ; for I will lift the veil. Behold ! 
Look, all of you, on this miserable body ; see how wretched, 
how piteous is my plight ! 

Ah, woe is me ! 

The burning throe of torment is there anew, it darts through 
my sides — I must wrestle once more with that cruel, devouring 
plague ! 

Cp. 0. T. 546 n. 1077 <FKty(u 5' mss. : <™tyat V Nauck. 1078 rdP] t66> B. 

1080 5\j<ttovov L, with 77 written over a by an early hand. 1081 alcu, w rdXas, 
alat] aX at' «3 roXair al al L, with e e written over the last two syllables by a 

later hand, at at...i t r: at* at w TaXar t' i* Aid.: a/at, a TaXas Dindorf 

(Teubner ed., 1885) ; formerly aiat raXas (ed. i860). 1082 tda\\p€v] 

Hermann conj. (0a\\j/4 /*'. — apricot 68* aff,] dprlw 6 5* ad L: aprlwr 55' av 
most mss., and Aid. 



So oKoXovBeuf r(p \6ytp (Plat Phaedo 
107 b), rots Tpdy/jLaaip (Dero. or. 4 § 39), 
i.e., to follow their lead. 

1076 Ik rourfrov: cp. 284 n. 

1076f. KalvQv...crrij9i..., oxtyaiS*. 
The first clause is introduced by kclL, the 
second by 84 (instead of re), as in Ant. 
432 xVf^i* ft&vres UfucBot <ri>v 84 viv | 
$ripd>pe0' e6$6s. The effect of 84 is to 
throw the second clause into relief by a 
slight rhetorical antithesis (as if iUv had 
followed <rrij0i). This expressive 8' should 
not be changed to 0\ 

1078 ScCfo yap: the ictus on ydp does 
not spoil the rhythm, because the chief 
stress falls on the verb: cp. O. C. 1540 
X&pov 8\ iirelyet ydp fie roifK Oeov irapbv. 
Below, in 1247, ^ e case of °®" * s s * m *' 
lar. — Ik KaXv|i|u£r«»v = 4KKeKa\vfAfUvov 1 
since Ik here=££ci>, * outside of: cp. Od. 
15. 272 otirw toi koI 4yCav 4k warplbos (sc. 
elfd), ' I am an exile.' The sense is 
different in Aesch. Ag. 1178, 4k icakvp- 
fidruw I ...dc8opK<te, where &c= 4 forth 
from.' 

107 O IS06: cp. 821 «' (n.). 

1081 It is best to retain alat, <5 
rdXas, alat, L's reading. Hermann and 



others, taking alat <2 rdXar as a dochmiac, 
read 44 or £ £ instead of the second alat, 
placing it in a line by itself. Dindorf 
formerly read alat rdXas (deleting J and 
the second alax) y as an iambic di podia: 
but his latest text gives alat, 3. ra'Xas (as 
a dochmiac). Nauck requires bacchii, 
and suggests l& pun, roXat, <p€v. A brief 
interjection of this kind could take almost 
any metrical form; and, in the absence 
of a lyric context, the metre here can- 
not be defined with certainty. 

1082 ff. !6a\t|rcv is trans., fie being 
understood, as after tpwp^aov in Ph. 801 
(n.). — drip : cp. 1 104. — 08' aZ should be 
taken with f6a\t|rcv, because (1) 88* fitly 
stands in the first clause, and (2) 8i$j-e 
thus gains force by its abruptness: cp. 
1088 f. If a point were placed after 
dprlws, 68* would still be better than 6 8\ 
— 8i*nt«» a word used by medical writers, 
as Wakefield pointed out ; e.g., Hippocr. 
Morb. 1. 5 {*/>' iuvrQv dduvat 8iata<rownv 
aXXore &\\y rod (rayxaros. — dyvjivao-Tov : 
cp. Eur. fr. 683 fiw kdv/jAs afrrrjt wXevpd 
yv/xvapEi Xo\rji ; — 8iap<5pos : distinguish 
bidpopov (pass.) in 670. Cp. PA. 7 vbay 
...dta/96/xp (n.). 



158 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



(ova£ *At8r) t Se^at fi, 1 085 

a> Atos d/crts, iraicrov. 

h/creicrov, aW£, h/Kardcricq^tov /JeXos, 

irarep, Kepavvov. Saii/vrai yap av irakiv, 

rjvOrjKev, i^dpfiTjKev. (2 W/° cs X*P € *> 

a> i/aJra /cat crrepv, co <^i\oi jSpa^tb^cs, 1090 

V/X61? 0€ K€LVOl OT/ KaU€CTTaU , OL 7TOT€ 

Ne/xeas evoiicov, fiovKo\(ov dkdorropa, 

\4ovTy aifkarov Opefifxa Kairpocrrjyopov, 

j8ta KaretpydcraorOe, Aepvalav ff vhpav, 

Sw^va t* dfiucrov iTnropdfiova crrparov io 95 

dijpoiVy vfipLcrrqv, avofiov, v7T€po)(ov {iCav, 

*EpVfldv0LOV T€ ^/Oa, TOP 0* V7TO xOovos 

*Ai8ou rpiKpavov crfcvXa/c 5 , a7rpoo"/xaxor rcpas, 
Seii^s 'E^to^s Opefifia, rov re ^pvcrecou 

1086 wra£] 'wvaf (jiV) L.— tefcu m'] &£<u m* L- 1087 w^afl c&a£ L. 1091 bfteta 
Be (sic, not &) Kcivoi. L : tyuety Irctpot A, with most mss., and Aid. — KadiffraB'] 
Dindorf, Campbell and Subkoff agree in reporting L as having kcltcotolO': but it has 



1086 £ &{<u |i': cp. Ph. 819 J 
7cua, fl^£at Bav&nyJbv /*' &rwy $xw. — Din- 
dorf is probably right in regarding these 
two lines as anapaestic dimeters, each 
short of a foot (BpaxvKaTaXTfKToi). Her- 
mann, writing AiSt) instead of *At8r), 
made them iambic verses with spondees 
in the second place (Urxioppwyucol). 

1087 £ Ivo*turov suggests the force 
with which the brandished bolt leaves the 
Thunderer's hand; kyKaraucrmftyov, its de- 
scent upon the victim's head.— -ScUwreu, : 
cp. 771. 

1089& t[v0vikcv: cp. 1000 &r0os(n.): 
Ph. 258 ij 6' ifiV vbcos \ del rfflfjXe (n.). 
For this rare perf., cp. Thuc. 2. 49 i£rjv- 
Otjkos. 

<u Xjtpcs: cp. Ph. ioo^l w X € Lp € * : ib' 
1354 u...kijk\ol (n.). — « wra ical orlpv'. 
Quoting from memory (with Co aripv 1 in- 
stead of these words), the rhetorician 
Apsines (c. 240 a.d.) cites this passage 
(Speneel Rhet. 1. 400) as an instance of 
pathetic apostrophe, — subjoining it to 
another example from Sophocles, viz. 
O. T. 1 391. Dindorf notes this (ed. 
i860). 

1091 vjuls Si Kctvoi : for U cp. O. T. 
1097 (n.). This reading is not better 
than v|Mis ticttvob, but has better authority, 
because the Se in L (cr. n.) was not likely 
to have been interpolated. — KaWora0 , 



not merely 'are,' but 'have come to be.' 
For KaSeoravai in this sense, see on Ant. 
435. The form of expression is due to 
the emphasis on vjicCs: ' yours is the 
plight to which those arms have come.' 
It is a compressed way of saying, roiovrot 
vfxeh Ka04<TTar€, iiceivoi Mj (fores) etc. 
For incur os referring to the past, cp. O. C. 
1195 <ri> 5' els ixeiva, fiij rd vvv, diro- 
ffKoirei: for its juxtaposition with vfieTs, 
id. 138 55' txetvos £yc&. 

1092 f. Ncpias, a valley in Argolis, 
about three miles s. w. of Cleonae, four 
and a half s. £. of Phlius, and eleven N. 
of Argos. The lion is described by 
Hesiod (Th. 331) as icoipave'wv TpriroTo 
Ne/xeLys ^8' 'Air^<roin-os, Treton and Apesas 
being mountains which partly enclose the 
valley. It was in TpTjrov ('the caverned') 
that the monster had his den. Pindar 
calls Nemea the x^P™ "Morros (01. 13. 
44); also Aids dXcros (N. 2. 9), from its 
temple of Zeus, in a cypress-grove. 

dXcurTopa (O. C. 788 n.), as Hesiod 
calls him in}/*' dvOpdywois (Th. 329). — 
dirXaTov = diriXaarovj unapproachable : 
cp. Pind. P. 12. 9 airXdrois 6<ploiv Ke<f>a- 
Xots. — dirp<xnJ70pov, lit., 'not affable,' — 
boldly applied to the intractable beast 
with which men can establish no rela- 
tions. The word has here much the 
sense of airpScroLarov : cp. O. C. 1277 rd 



TPAXINIAI 



159 



O thou lord of the dark realm, receive me ! Smite me, 
fire of Zeus ! Hurl down thy thunderbolt, King, send it, O 
father, upon my head ! For again the pest is consuming me ; 
it hath blazed forth, it hath started into fury ! O hands, my 
hands, O shoulders and breast and trusty arms, ye, now in this 
plight, are the same whose force of old subdued the dweller in 
Nemea, the scourge of herdsmen, the lion, a creature that no 
man might approach or confront; ye tamed the Lernaean 
Hydra, and that monstrous host of double form, man joined 
to steed, a race with whom none may commune, violent, law- 
less, of surpassing might; ye tamed the Erymanthian beast, 
and the three-headed whelp of Hades underground, a resistless 
terror, offspring of the dread Echidna; ye tamed the dragon 

KaOearaO' (p. 77 A, line 3 from bottom). 1096 6i<pvd Dindorf : dapvrj MSS. 

See on Ph. 1014 a<f>va. 1096 inrtpoxov Bentley, and S. Clarke on //. 2. 426 : 

vwdpoxov mss. 1097 t6v 0' L : the first ed. who gave this was H. Stephanus 

(1568). rbv 3' or rovd 1 r : tov8' Aid. 



SvaTpovoKTrov kcltt poo-fry opov (TTOfxa. Ver- 
gil's description of the Cyclops has been 
quoted {A en. 3. 621), Nee visu facilis nee 
dictu affabilis tUli; but Polyphemus could 
speak. 

1094 fttq, KaTctpydo-curik: Heracles 
throttled the lion, which was invulner- 
able: Eur. H. F. 153 tv iv fipoxois £\&v | 
ppaxtovos <pr)ff* ayx^vauatv ifctetv. This 
was the first of his labours ; and thus he 
won the lion-skin (Pind. /. 5. 47). 

Afpvatav 6' tf8pav: see 574 n. Eur. 
H. F. 419 t&v re /xvptdKpavov, \ woXixpovov 
kOvo. Alpvas, I D8pav i&irvpaxTev, \ fteXecrl 
t &n<pipaX I6v. This 50Xos— usually 
made the second — is closely connected 
with the first ; it is wrought in Argolis ; 
and it completes his equipment by giving 
him the poison for his arrows. In both 
these labours, as in others, he is the 
dXei-UaKos. 

1096 f. The next two exploits are 
also linked. Sent by Eurystheus in quest 
of the K&TTpos (ftjpa 1097) that haunted 
Mount Erymanthus in north Arcadia, 
Heracles passed over Pholoe, a wild up- 
land district on the borders of Elis. 
Here he was entertained by the Centaur 
Pholos, and routed the other Centaurs 
who flocked to demand a share of his 
host's wine. 

Su^vd : Diodorus (4. 69) applies this 
word to the Centaurs. Cp. Pind. P. 2, 
47 : Ixion and Nephele begat a son Cen- 
taurus ; fls | liriroixri Mayvfirldetrtrtv ifd- 
yvvr* iv HaXlov \ <r<pvpoh' ix 8' iyfrovro 



(TTpards I 6av /Macros, dfuporipots \ 6- 
fxoloL TOK€v<ri, rd /xarpodev fxkv /cdrw, 
to. 8' Ihrepde Trarpds. — duuerov, with 
whom it is impossible to hold humane 
intercourse ; Eur. Cycl. 429 apuKrov avdpa : 
cp. dfju£ia (Thuc 1. 3). — tinropii|iOva, 
usu., 'mounted on horses,' and so some 
take it here as- mounted on horses' legs'; 
but it is more simply explained as ' moving 
#& horses.' — 0t|p<5v: cp. 556. — vppumjv, 
£vo)iov : intemperance and violence were 
essential attributes of the Centaurs (ex- 
cepting Cheiron): cp. 565. Eur. If. F. 181 
TGTpoffKtkis $* DBpifffia, Kevravpwv ytvos. 

1098 fL " AiSov Tpfcpavov oxvXaK* : 
a three-headed Cerberus seems to have 
been the usual type in early Ionian art ; 
while on Attic black- figure vases of the 
middle and later style he is two-headed : 
see Roscher, Lex. p. 2205. Hesiod, the 
first poet who names Cerberus (Th. 311)* 
gives him fifty heads. 

'Ex&vtp 0p£|ipa> as in Hes. Th. 310: 
but in O. C. 1574 he is the offspring of 
Tartarus and Earth. In //. 8. 366 ff. 
Athena saves Heracles when Eurystheus 
sends him ^£ iptfieus &£ovra kvvol o-rvyepov 
'AWao: cp. Od. 11. 623. — Pluto said that 
Heracles might take Cerberus, if he could 
do so without using any weapon. The 
hero succeeded, and having shown his 
living prize to the terrified Eurystheus, 
restored it to the nether world. (Apollod. 
2. 5. 12 § 8.) 

Xpvo-fov: in tragic dialogue xptfereos 
usu. suffers synizesis, but there are several 



i6o 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



hpaKovra iLTjktav <f>v\aK iw ccr^arots T07rois. I IOO 

aXkojv re fioxOcou [LvpUov eyevcrd/JLT/v, 

/covScts rpoirai eorrjcre raw ificiv \epHv. 

vvv 8' cSS' avapdpos /cat KareppaKco/jLevos 

Tv<f>\r}s vir an?s itarenopdy) fiat, raXas, 

d r^s apiarr]? iirjTpos Gjvonacrfievos, 1105 

d tov kolt acrrpa Ztjvos avhrjOels yovos. 

aXX ev ye rot too tore, kclv to fvqoev a> 

k&v firjheu epirco, rrji/ ye hpdcracrav raSc 

^eipdcrofiai /cd/c rawSe* irpocrfiokoi fiovov, 

Iv €k8l8ox0v irdcnv dyyek\eiv ort iiio 

/cat £(Sj> /ca/cous ye /cat Oavav ireLcrdfirjv. 

XO. (2 Tkrjfiov 'EXXas, tt4vQo% oiov eicropai 
itjovcrav, dvSpos rovhe y el cr<f>akijcreraL 

TA. c7T€t 7rapcb"X€S dvTL<f>a>vfjcrcu, wdrep, 

criyfjv irapa(r)(Qiv k\v0l /xov, rocralr ojjlqjs. lll 5 

aLTTJarofiat ydp cr <&v St/cata rvy^dveiv. 

IIOO £*■' Arxafois] &re<jrx<£Tow L. For &r' ^a-x^rots roirots Hense conj. y^$ &r' 
iox&Tois: Nauck, iv' itrx^TOun yrjs or ^ir' e<rxarois x^ ™** 1102 rpoircu' 

L: rpoircu 1 r and Aid. Cp. 751. 1106 atopleis] ai d7j0elff L, the 



exceptions, such as fr. 313: fr. 439: Eur. 
Ion 1 175. 

The golden apples, brought from the 
garden of the gods, originally meant the 
winning of immortality. Hence this adXos 
properly comes after the Cerberus, though 
the latter is sometimes made the last (Eur. 
H. F. 427). 

SpaKOVTa |iqX.«»v <j>4\aK. The garden 
was in the far west, where Atlas supports 
the sky, beyond the stream of the Oceanus 
(Hes. Th. 215). When Zeus espoused 
Hera there, a wondrous apple-tree (firjkta) 
sprang up. This tree was committed to 
the care of maidens called Hesperides, 
daughters of Night (Hes. Th. 211), sweet 
singers ; and it was guarded by a terrible 
dragon, coiled round the stem (Eur. H. 
F. 397, Paus. 6. 19. 8). Heracles slew 
this dragon with poisoned arrows (Apoll. 
Rh. 4. 1396 ff., where the monster is 
named A&5uv). 

4ir* 4o*xaroiS t6ttois : for M, cp. 356. 
So Hesiod Th. 518 irelpacrtv iv yaUrfs. 
Eur. Hipp. 742 "Ecircpldw 6* twl firj\6- 
airopov &KTOV dvvcraifu rav &oi5u>v, \ tv 6 
irovTO/xtdw irop<pup£as Xl/xvas | vavrais oj)- 
k46* 666* vtfxei. The garden was some- 



times placed among the Hyperboreans 
as by Apollod. 2. 5. 11, and prob. by 
Aeschylus in the nponrjdcte Avdfieros, 
Strabo 4, p. 183 : sometimes in Libya, or 
in Spain. 

HOI \16\Qav, a general word, in- 
cluding both the tasks done for Eurys- 
theus (the o0\oi proper), — such as the 
five just enumerated, — and other enter- 
prises, such as the warfare against Lao- 
medon and the Giants (1058). In the 
temple of Athena x a ^*l°'*o? at Sparta 
Pausanias saw iroXXd fxh tw &B\<av 
'HpaicXlou?, iroXXd 5t teal uv iOeXovrijs 
KCLTLopBuxTe (3. 1 7. 2). As to the cycle 
of the * twelve labours,' and its probable 
origin, see Introduction, § 2. — tyeu<rd|iT)v : 
schol. iireipddrjv. Cp. Ant. 1005 ^M*"tfp«* 
iycvdfiTjv (n.). Eur. H. F. 1353 koX ybp 
vbviav drj /j.vpl(av iy€V<rdfl7JV. 

1102 x € P** v » valour (488); for the 
gen., cp. Andoc. or. 1 § 147 rpoiraua rw 
iro\€fii(j}v...diri5ei^av. Cicero well ren- 
ders, Nee quisquam e nostris spolta cepit 
laudibus. 

1103 £ AvapOpos, like iKvevevpta- 
fjJvos, since his whole frame has been un- 
hinged and unnerved ; so Eur. Or. 22 7 6rar 



TPAXINIAI 



161 



that guarded the golden fruit in the utmost places of the 
earth. 

These toils and counties^ others have I proved, nor hath any 
man vaunted a triumph over my prowess. But now, with joints 
unhinged and with flesh torn to shreds, I have become the miser- 
able prey of an unseen destroyer, — I, who am called the son of 
noblest mother, — I, whose reputed sire is Zeus, lord of the starry 
sky. 

But ye may be sure of one thing : — though I am as nought, 
though I cannot move a step, yet she who hath done this deed 
shall feel my heavy hand even now : let her but come, and she 
shall learn to proclaim this message unto all, that in my death, 
as in my life, I chastised the wicked ! 

Ch. Ah, hapless Greece, what mourning do I foresee for her, 
if she must lose this man ! 

Hy. Father, since thy pause permits an answer, hear me, 
afflicted though thou art. I will ask thee for no more than is 

my due. 

letters Bt\ (which are still traceable) having been erased after ab. avdijdijs A, R. 
1108 fiT)5$v tpwu] Blaydes writes /j.7)k40' tpwu. 1111 kclkoijs ye] Cobet 

conj. KdKovpyovs. 1113 cnpaXrpeTai] Meineke and Nauck conj. (r^aXetcr' 

#<r«. 1114 iraptaxes] Wecklein conj. irapeUeis: Blaydes, irapt-rjs (as Heim- 

soeth), or Traprjuas. Wunder wrote etirep irdpecrTw. 



fi dvy p6<tos I /Acwlas, AvapSpbs el/ii ica- 
<T0€rw fjUXr). — KaT€ppaK<D^vos: cp. Aesch. 
P. V. 1023 (the eagle rending the flesh 
of Prometheus) SLaprafxrjeei cruifxaros yukya. 
/kuco? : Lycophron 1 1 1 3 koX vqlp Xaiclfovff' 
iv <povcus \f/vxpbv SifULS. — rv<|>Xfj$, caeca, 
unseen : fr. 533 rb 6' is atiptov del \ rv<p\bv 
ZpTrei. Cp. Eur. Med. 1200 (the fatal 
robe consuming Glauce's flesh) crdpKcs 5' 
dir bcriiav were veOiuvQV 6&Kpu \ yva$ jxois 
dd'fjXois (pappAKuiv dirtppeov. 

1 106 f. dpUrrr\s, since Alcmena, daugh- 
ter of Electryon and Anaxo, belonged on 
both sides to the Perseidae, and so traced 
her descent from Zeus himself. — wvo- 
|uur|i4vo$: it is not necessary to supply 
y6vos from 1 106 : cp. fr. 84 Karapxei rovSe 
K€K\7)a$ai TdTpos. — ovSnCicls : cp. 736: 
PA. 240 a&du/jLcu W ircus | 'Ax*XX^ws. 

1107 to \krfikv <5: cp. At. 1275 ijdri 
rb fJLTjtitv 6vras : Ant. 234 n. 

1108 tc&v prfikv cpira: the adv. is 
emphatic; cp. 773: El. 1014 crSevoixra 
firfdiv. Powerless as he is to seek her out, 
he is still able to execute his vengeance 
if she be brought to him. 

1109 tL vcipfifcropat : 279 n. — kcU 
twvSc : Eur. Med. j.58 6/mvs di kolk t£>p8' 
otitc direiprjKus <f>L\ois \ iJKtai also u>$ itc rwbe 

J. S. V. 



(At. 537, etc.). — tv licSiSax0tJ...dYy&- 
X.€tv, with grim irony: see on 0. C. 1377. 
— Koicofa 7c is far better than Cobet's /ca- 
Kotpyovs, which, indeed, would mar the 
point. The yc is very expressive: it 
means, 'when guilt is to be chastised, I 
am strong even in weakness, — even unto 
death.' — Sovdv, since he things of his life 
as already closed : cp. 1 137 Krclva<ra. 

1112 £ <5 tXthwv 'EXXds: cp. Eur. 
If. F. 877 fU\eos 'EXXds, a rbv etiepytrav | 
diropaXets : and ib. 135. — o-<^aX^<renu, not 
<r</>a\77<7€t, since J t\t)(jlov 'EXXds is rather 
an exclamation than an address. o-^xxXcur 
Io*ct would be an easy correction (cp. 
O.C. 816 Xinrrjdels Itrct), but is needless. 
— The poet may have preferred this verb 
to the more natural arepfyrenu as more 
forcibly expressing a disaster (cp. 297, 
719). Elsewhere the genitive after <r<f>d\- 
\ofuu always denotes, not a person, but 
a thing (56£qs, rxr/yih XPV/^drw, etc.). 

1114 & irap£rxcs followed by irapa- 
oy&v is somewhat inelegant, but it should 
not too hastily be pronounced spurious: 
cp. 967 (jScuw, after fidais): Ph. 12 19 
arelxw followed in the next v. by arel- 
Xovra (n.). — voo*wv 8|uk: cp. O. C. 666 
n. — SCkoio: 409. 

II 



1 62 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



HP. 

TA. 

HP. 

TA. 
HP. 
TA. 
HP. 
TA. 
HP. 



80s fiot creavroi/, /irj toctovtov <as haicvei 
0vfi<S 8vcropyo$ 9 ov yap av yvobqs iv ofs 
^aipetv irpoOvfiel Kav orots aXycis fidrrjp. 
cliraw o XPVC €L $ Mj£ov cis eyco voo'Sdv 
ov8kv £wLr)/i &v (tv 7rot/ctXXet9 7raXai. 

Tfjq ILTjTpOS rJKQ) TY)S ifirj$ <$>pOL(T<i)V €V of<? 

vvv icrrw, ots ff rjfiaprev ov% e/covcria. 
(3 7ray/ccuaoT€, /cat irapeiivrjarQ) yap av 
ttjs 7rarpo<f>6vrov /utT/rpos, cos kXiJcw' cfte'; 
cv€i yap ovrcos cuotc /11) artyav Trpiirziv. 
ov &7ra rots yc irpocrdev ruiapTqfievoi^. 
aAA ovoc /utci/ otj rots y €<p rjfiepav epeis. 
Xey', evXa/Jov 8c /u/r) <f>avg$ jca/co? yeyafs. 
Xeycw r46vy)K€v apruos V€0cr<f>ay7]$. 
irpos rov; rcpas rot Sia kolkcov idicriricras. 



1120 



1125 



"30 



1117 too'oOtoi'] Mudge conj. toiovtop, and so Brunck reads. — This v. is omitted 
in A and Harl. 1118 av yvolrjs h ots] Hense conj. ev yyotrp <£* ots. 

1119 x a ^ ty ] Wecklein writes -)(\Uiv. 1121 £w{wi'] £wefy/*' L, 

with i' over ci from a later hand. — n-ourlXXets] Nauck writes kutCKKcis (=Xa\ci$), 



1117 86s £ot ccavrov, give thyself 
to me, f.t., listen to what I would 
say, |iij itxrovrov SvVopyos (<2v) <fa 
Sducvti 0v|&$, without being wrathful in 
the degree to which thou art (now) stung 
by passion; *.*., in a less wrathful mood 
than that to which thy present anger 
excites thee, dticropyos agrees with the 
subject to $os, rather than with ceavrov, 
since 56s /tot aeavror {Ph. 84 n.) is equi- 
valent to iridov fxoi. $vfju} is best taken 
with d&Kvei only, though it might go 
with dfoopyos also. For Sdicvei, cp. 254. 
— Prof. Campbell, reading the subjunct 
SdicvQ, construes cos ^ tocovtov d&KVQ 
k.t.X., 'that you may not be so exceed- 
ingly vexed with rage, being grievously 
distempered.' But cfcj should then pre- 
cede fiy. 

With the conjecture toiovtov (masc), 
the sense would be, 'not in the mood to 
which thou art stung by anger.' This 
would be simpler, but is unnecessary. 

1118 £ ov Y<ip av yvoCtjs: the sup- 
pressed protasis is el prj Solrjs : cp. O. C. 
98 n.— 4v ots \aiptiv irpo0v|ict, in what 
a situation, under what circumstances, 
you desire a triumph, — the intended 
victim being already dead, kv ots is used 
as in 1 122: for ots, instead of oVois, in 
the indirect question, cp. O.C. 1171 n. 



There is no class, example of xcUpecr 
tv run as = *to rejoice in a thing,' the 
regular constr. being gal/Kir rurl or M 
tlvi: in Aesch. Eum. 996, xalpcr' iw 
aUrifdaurt irko&rov, 4v= 'amidst.' rpv<par 
iv rivi occurs, but is not exactly similar. 
— kcLv otois dXyrtt |u£ri|v, and under 
what circumstances you are bitter with- 
out cause, — i.e., against one who is really 
innocent 

1121 itoikCXXcis, of riddling speech, 
as in 412 rl wore n-ouriXas £x«s; He does 
not understand the allusions in xalpety 
and aX7€ts. — iraXat expresses impatience : 
cp. Ph. 589 n. 

1 iaa t. ttjs UTrrpds. . .fodow k .t.\. : 

cp. n. on 928 : Ph. 439 dj>a£lov ^ forrbt 
i£€/yfi<ro/Juu f \ ...rl vvw icvpci. — vvv fonv: 
some edd. give vvv tfcrov: but the verb 
is here merely the copula, not substan- 
tive ('exists'). — ots 0* ftuifrrfv: b> is 
carried on from the first ofe to the second, 
as in 423 to iroXXouw from irolois 4r 
dvdpwTroiviv. 

1124 Kal Trap€jJivTf <r« : kcU gives an 
indignant emphasis to the verb, — *hast 
thou indeed... T cp. Ant. 726 (n.) ol tj- 
Xacolde Kal diSa^6fuff$a Si) | 0porecy...; 
It could also mean, 'even,' 'so much 
as' ; but this would be hardly so forcible. 
— For -ydp in an angry question, cp. O. C. 



TPAXINIAI 



163 



Accept my counsels, in a calmer mood than that to which this 
anger stings thee : else thou canst not learn how vain is thy 
desire for vengeance, and how causeless thy resentment 

He. Say what thou wilt, and cease ; in this my pain I un- 
derstand nought of all thy riddling words. 

Hy. I come to tell thee of my mother, — how it is now with 
her, and how she sinned unwittingly. 

He. Villain ! What — hast thou dared to breathe her name 
again in my hearing, — the name of the mother who hath slain 
thy sire ? 

Hy. Yea ; such is her state that silence is unmeet 

He. Unmeet, truly, in view of her past crimes. 

H Y. And also of her deeds this day, — as thou wilt own. 

He. Speak, — but give heed that thou be not found a traitor. 

Hy. These are my tidings. She is dead, lately slain. 

He. By whose hand ? A wondrous message, from a pro- 
phet of ill-omened voice ! 

1123 vw e<rriv t oh 0'] w itrr* ev ots $' Harl., and so Blaydes (with tci*). Nauck 
writes vw iartv ufc 0\ As to accent, most MSS. and Aid. give vvv i<rrw : L, vw early 
(and so Hermann). 1128 ipets.] ipcur; L. 



863.— irap€iivij<ra>, of incidental mention ; 
Her. 7. 90 r(av iyw, ov yty dray Italy 
i&pyofxai is Urroplris \6yov, 06 TrapapA- 
pvrjfiat, 

1126 iraTpo^vTov, fern., as the poets 
use ffurrfip (0. T. 81 n.), (povetjs (Eur. 
/. T. 586), x t ^ tova ^ T V i (#• I4*)> "EXXi/i' 
(Heracl. 130), etc. The word ought to 
mean, 'slayer of her own father ; but 
here its reference is decided by the sub- 
ject of the principal verb, as in Od. 1. 
299 (^KTOve Tarpoipovrja). A still bolder 
use occurs in Eur. Or. 193, where the 
sense of trarfxxpdvov fiarp6s is relative to 
i)fids in 191, while the subject of the 
principal verb is 6 $ot/9os. 

«s kXvuv l\U, the last person who 
ought to hear it. The emphasis on the 
pron. is, however, very slight; cp. 1220: 
O. T. 1045 wot Idea* ifii: PA. 299 (n.). 

1126 I^Ci Y<ip ovt«»s, sc. iKeivrj. This 
suits the context better than to make 
?X" impersonal ('the case stands thus'). 

1127 ov StJTa (crtyav n-pliret), Tot$ -yc 
irp6<r6cv tjjiapT., by reason of them, in 
view of them: for the caus. dak, cp. 
Thuc. 3. 98 rots irew pay pivots Qopotipevos 
toi>$ 'A$T)valovs. 

1128 d\X* ovSi |0v ^ Ipcfe (6rt ayav 
vpivei) Tott 7* ty' ihUpav, by reason of 
this day's deeds. Heracles has said, 



bitterly, ' Silence is indeed unfitting, in 
view of her crimes.* Hyllus replies, * It 
is so also in view of her deeds to-day, — 
as you will admit, when you know all.' 
His father must learn that she has died, 
and that she was innocent. — dXX' ov8$ 
|Uv 81), rejecting an alternative, as in Ai. 
8jj. (Cp. dXXd, fUv dj in 627.)— rots... 
&p i\\Upav=ToU ir/j/xepov warpayfUvois, 
The sense of i<J>* ripUpav is usu. 'far the 
day,' as in Her. 1. 32 rod iir' ijfUprjv 
Ixoptos : Eur. El. 429 rrjs itf ijftipav fto- 
pas. Here the phrase is perhaps tinged 
with a sad irony, — 'this day's portion of 
evil.' Cp. 0. C. 1079, where icar' &fw.p 
= 'to-day,' though id. 682 kclt fjfiap 
means, as usual, ' daily.' 

1129 kclkos, by defending her; he 
is a true son of Heracles (1064 ff.) only if 
he abhors his mother. 

11 SO X£yo» : cp. Ph. 591, Ant. 245. 
— dprfos vcoo-tfxryijs : the same phrase 
occurs in Ai. 898: cp. Ant. 1283 (rtO- 
VTjKc.) dpTi veordfwuri trX^y fxacriv. 

1181 406nruras, as having announced 
what no human wit could have foreseen, 
— since Deianeira, as Heracles supposes, 
is happy and triumphant. So Theseus 
says to Oedipus (O. C. 15 16), voXXA, ydp 
ffe 0e<jirl£ov0 bpu \ tcoti \f/ev56<jyijpxi. — rlpas 
implies incredulity. — Suit kcucmv, ' in ill- 

II — 2 



164 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



TA. avrfj 7r/)os avrijs, ovSe/os 7roos ^ktottov. 

HP. otjfiot* 7r/)u> ok X/ )1 7 ,/ ^^ ** c/x^s daveiv x*pos\ 

TA. k& crov (rrpafabq dv/ios, el to irav /utadots. 

HP. Setpou \6yov Karf}p£a$' elirk 8' $ poets. IJ 35 

TA. a7rcu> to xpvjli, rjiiapre yjyqoTa [Mo/ievr). 

HP. XPV " 7 *' to ^aKiore, iraripa crov Kreivaora 8p$; 

TA. arepyrjiia yap hoKovora irpocrfiaXeLv oreOev 

dirTJiAirkax, cos 7rpocrci8c rovs cpSop ya/iovs. 
HP. /cat rts rocrovros <f>ap/iaK€vs Tpa^vpuou ; 1 1 40 

TA. NcVcros 7raXat Karavpos e^cVetcrc pu> 

rotaSSe <^t\r/o^> top crop iKfirjvai iroOov. 
HP. tov tov Svcmpos, ot^o/utat raXas* 

oXcuX* oXcoXa, <f>eyyos ovk4t eort /utot. 

OLjjLOL, <f)pov<o 8rj £vfx<f)opa<; Iv iorafiev. IX 45 

1132 afrnys r: afa^r L. — eirroirov] Meineke conj. ef-nforov : Hense, oIk4tqv. 
1134 jcd? <rou Schaefer: ndv aou L, with most mss., and Aid. — orpa^elrj] <rrpa- 
<t>olr} Aid., with A. 1136 Ka-njp^as] jcar^p£a<r L. 1136 atrav rb xpVf*' 

rjfiapre mss. ' Meo monitu Erfurdtius comma posuit post XPVM-* 1 : Hermann. Nauck 
writes aickow to jtfjfjt. 1 . — fuafiiprj Heath (and L 2 , ace. to Subkoff): iwwfxhrj L, with 
most mss., and Aid. 1137 xtf* 7 '] Xph** ( n °t XP^ " 7 "') L, as in Ph. 450. 

1138 trripyrifia] Nauck writes aripryTiOpa. — cidev"] Hermann writes Wev ( = iavrijs). 



omened words,' not because she has died, 
but because his vengeance has been baf- 
fled (1133). Schol. : dirurTOP yap Sia 
8v<T<pr)fJLU}v uxjirep iyjavrebaa. 

1132 ovSevos irp^s 4icr6irov: i.e., by 
no one coming, from without, into the 
place where she was : hence, 'by no ex- 
ternal hand.' Hyllus knew that she had 
been alone in the 0dXa/ios when she did 
the deed (927 — 931). We need not sup- 
pose, then, that eVroiros means merely 
aXXos (which it could not do); nor, 
again, that it means * foreign to Trachis.' 
These two explanations, which miss the 
mark on each side, have been fused in 
L's gloss, inch aXKov 1-hov. 

1133 The emphasis on 4{ 4|iT)s X«p<te 
excuses the form of expression, (riOvtiKe) 
irplv Oavttv. Cp. At. no, where the 
stress on vGrra. <poivix&cls similarly ex- 
cuses O&vq (after Bav€v in 106). 

1136 Stivov, ironical, as in Au 1127 
detvdv 7' etnas: Ph. 1225. — K(vnjp{as : 
cp. Plat. Prot. 351 E Kardpxcis rod \6yov. 

—i : CP- 553 f- 

1136 anuv tA XPW'* <tn * s * s tne 
sum of the matter.' For this use of r6 
Xpfjpa, as meaning 'the state of the 
case,' like rb irpayfia in Ph. 789, cp. Ar. 



Vesp, 799 6pa rb xp^f ia ' T ^ X671' (bf irep- 
alvercu. The phrase is best taken as a 
nom., with r6$e itrrtv understood: cp. O. 
T. 1234 f. : Eur. fr. 255 cbrXoOs 6 fiv$os, 
lirj X/y' eC. It might, however, be an 
ace. in appos. with the sentence. — put- 
j*ivT| : cp. O. C. 836 n. 

1137 KTcCvaira : cp. n n davihv: 
At. 1 1 26 SlKoua yap rfoo eirrvx&v ktcL- 
vavrd Me; 

1138 f. yotp justifies xPV^ra /uapfrrj, 
— <rrfoyi)|ia occurs only here. Its forma- 
tion from aripy-w is anomalous, since 
the word ought to be <rr4pyfia: but the 
same may be said of aripyrfSpov (instead 
of aripKTpop) : and 0£kyyprpw was in use 
along with diherpov. [Lidd. and Scott 
cite 6i\yr)fxa from Suidas s.v. povtcoXrjaas : 
but Bernhardy (ed. 1853, vol. 1. p. 1017) 
reads OiXyrirpoy there, without noting a 
variant.] The objection to o-Tipyrjua 
from the form is not, then, decisive. As 
to smse, OT€pyr)0pov, like <j>(Krpov t is 'an 
instrument for producing love'; while 
orepyyfxa, like ^/Xij/Aa, ought to denote 
an effect. But here, again, we must 
allow for the freedom of poetical diction. 
The analogy of icqXrjfia, *a spell* (Eur. 
Tro. 893), by the side of KrjXqBpov (Bek- 



TPAXINIAI 



165 



Hy. By her own hand, and no stranger's. 

He. Alas, ere she died by mine, as she deserved ! 

Hy. Even thy wrath would be turned, couldst thou hear all. 

He. A strange preamble ; but unfold thy meaning. 

Hy. The sum is this ; — she erred, with a good intent 

He. Is it a good deed, thou wretch, to have slain thy sire? 

Hy. Nay, she thought to use a love-charm for thy heart, 
when she saw the new bride in the house ; but missed her aim. 

He. And what Trachinian deals in spells so potent ? 

Hy. Nessus the Centaur persuaded her of old to inflame 
thy desire with such a charm. 

He. Alas, alas, miserable that I am ! Woe is me, I am 
lost, — undone, undone! No more for me the light of day! 

Alas, now I see in what a plight I stand ! 

1139 dm}/iir\ax'] dm^irXcur' L, with x over * from the first hand. Elmsley (on 
Med, 115) would write dirTTirXox*. Cp. O. T. 471 n. — hbov\ Wecklein writes 
vtovs. Mekler suggests eldev. 1141 NIotos r, and Aid.: vkaoa L. Cp. 558. 

1144 fori pot] Nauck writes efoopw. Hense suspects the verse. 1146 eerafiev 

corrected from iardpiev in L. 



ker A need. p. 46. 25), is not a strict one, 
since KrjXrjpui is properly, 'an effect of 
charming'; still, such an analogy may 
have influenced a poet who found <rrkp- 
yrjfia more convenient than <rT€pyrj$pov. 
Hyllus presently refers to this charm as 
roufide <pi\rpq> (1142): which rather sug- 
gests that a word in the sing, number 
was used here also. Cp. 575 KrjXrirripiw: 
685 (papfxaKou. (In 584 f. the plurals 
0lXrpoir, OeXicrpoun describe the class of 
remedy : they do not directly denote the 
unguent.) For these reasons I refrain 
from changing <rrlpyi||ia, with Nauck, 
to crripyrfipa. — o^Ocv, objective gen, with 
orepyTjua. 

ooKovo-a, imperf. partic. (Ant. 166 n.), 
=&re idoKct. The position of the clause, 
ws irpoceide robs tvSov ydfxovs, which 
would properly precede dirrifiir\aK€ f is 
made possible by the strong emphasis on 
<FT€pyrifM...6oKovcra wpoc&akeiv: * It was 
a love-charm that she thought to apply 
(though she failed), when she saw,' etc. 
The leading idea of the sentence is here 
expressed by the participial clause (592 n.). 

toOs IvSov yot|fcovs : cp. 843 vktav...y&- 
fuav, and 460 (n. on tyyue). ' The new 
union (=the new paramour) in the house 
there/ — a way of indicating Iole, whom 
he abhors (1233), without naming her. 
Cp. the euphemistic T%.../car' oIkovs in 



O. 7*. 1 447. — The new turn given to the 
thoughts of Heracles by w. 1141 f. 
averts them wholly from Deianeira; and 
he speaks no word of pardon. 

1140 kcU gives a scornful tone to the 
question : cp. 0, C. 263 n. — rocroQros, 
so potent: Plat. Syrnp. 177 c roaovros 
Oeos. 

1142 4k|itjvcu : cp. Ar. Eccl. 965 Ktf- 
Tpi, tL fx 1 iKfiaiveis M rafrrQ ; 

1143 Uri lo*, as in O. T. 107 1 (Io- 
casta), 1 1 82 (Oedipus). — W<rn|vos: for 
the nom., cp. 986. 

otx<>|MU. From the beginning of his 
torments, Heracles has felt that they 
could end only in death (cp. 802 : 1001 : 
mi). Why, then, should he now speak 
as if he realised his state for the first 
time? The answer seems to be that, 
though the ultimate prospect is un- 
changed, his doom acquires a new terror 
in the light of its supernatural source. 
Hitherto he has believed himself the 
victim of human malice: it might leave 
no hope, but still it fixed no term. Now 
he knows that he is in the grip of dydytcr}: 
his moments are numbered. Henceforth 
he thinks only of the end. 

1 144 tL ^fyyos ovkIt* t<rri pot : cp. 
Theocr. 1. 102 ijSiy ykp (ppdady wdv$' 
aXiov dfjL/u dedvKily.— -£u|u)x>f>ds tv' Icrra- 
|uv: cp. 375 n.: O. T. 1442 IS t<TT*p*v \ 



1 66 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



W, 



CO t4kvov 



Trarrjp yap ovk4t cirri oroi # 
jcaXet to 7ra^ /tot cnripfia crav oiiaifiovcav, 
icaXei 8c n)^ rdkaivai/ 'AXKinjvrji/, Aios 
fidrrfv aKOLTiVy cos rcXevratai/ e/xov 
tyfi\M)v Trudrfcrde 0€cr<f>dr(ov ocr' oTS* eyaf. 1 1 50 

TA. dXX* ovtc injrrjp ivOdh*, aXX* erraKriq. 
TipvuOi oviifiefirjKev war *x €lv *&P av > 
TTaihcov 8c rovs fikv £vXkafiov<r avrij rpfyei, 
rovs 8* av to ©Tj/fys aorv vatovras [iddots* 
rjliels 8* octol napecr/Lev, et n XPV> ^rcp, 1 1 5 5 

irpdcr<T€LV, k\vovt€$ i^V7rrjp€Tij(roii€v. 

HP. <rv 8' ow a/cove rovpyov e^iccts 8* u>a 
(fxtvels 0770109 cop air)/) e/xos /caXei. 
c/xol yap ?p irp6<f>awov €K iraTpos irakou, 
*tq)v ifiirveovrtav firfSevos 6av€iv v7ro, i i 60 

1160 &r'] tf<r<jr' L. 1163 *al6<op 8k] Reiske conj. iralSwp re. 1166 £ facts 
8* 8<roi] Nauck would write ijfieis 84 <rot, and delete v. 1156. — irp&aceip Brunck : 
wp&TTcw MSS. 1167 aif 8' o8v L, with most MSS. : <ri> pvp V 2 , Vat. — rotipyov'] 

F.W.Schmidt conj. Totipbv: Nauck, rofaros. 1168 Covets Harl. : <txwrjL<r L. 



Xfxlas. — tO*, <5 Wkvov : for the pause, and 
the absence of caesura, cp. 27 n. 

1147 ff. KdXct...K(&Xck Si: cp. Ant. 
806 n. — 6iuu|i6v«»v, brethren (O. C. 
330 n.) : Hyllus was the eldest of the 
family (56).— 'AXkimjvtjv : 1105 n. — 1«£- 
njv, since Zeus had been cruel to her son. 
Cp. Eur. H. F. 339 (quoted by Wake- 
field), where her mortal husband, Amphi- 
tryon, says, with the same meaning, w 
ZcO, /xdrrjv ap' bfxbryafxbv <r' iicnjadfirfp. 

TcXcvrcUav...<|n{)ii)v. . .far^rfrwv, my last 
(dying) utterance of them. Cp. O, T. 
723 (prjfiat fxavTtKat : ib, 86 rod deov ifyfj/irjp 
Qkpwv. 4|ioQ with irv0i)<r6c: cp. O. 7\ 
333 °t yty & v irMoid fiov. The schol. 
wrongly took ifiov with tc\. (pJiM-yv, as= 
rty vepl ttjs reXcvrrji fiov fflfirp* 

The oracles can be only the two which 
are told to Hyllus (1159 — 1171)* W 
there had been others, they also must 
have been confided to him, as represent- 
ing the absent kinsfolk. Heracles wishes 
to gather his family around him at a 
solemn farewell, — to convince them, by 
the 04r^ara, that he is in the hand of 
Zeus, — and, with that sanction, to lay 
his last commands upon them all. 

1161 ff. dXX.'...ctXV: cp. Ph. 524 n. 
— ©$tc is followed by Si (1153), as in 



Eur. Suppl, 223 ff., Xen. An. 6. 3. 16 
(=6. 1. 16 of some edd.), Plat. Rep. 
389 A, etc. Cp. 143 n. — ImucrCq, TC- 
pvvOi: see on 270. 

o-v|&pipr]K€v, impers., it has come to 
pass: the subject to <X nv M^M can 
easily be supplied, and the whole phrase 
= Tvyx&vci Itipav txovaa. — For «5<rrc, 
cp. Arist. Pol. 2. 2. 5 koI crvfxpaivei 8if 
rbv rpdirop toOtop dare irdrras &pxet*. — 
Not, 'she has come to terms (with Eurys- 
theus), so that she should dwell,' etc. 

Sophocles glances here at parts of the 
story which do not come within the scope 
of the play. Alcmena, daughter of Eiec- 
tryoh king of Mycenae, had been be- 
trothed to her first cousin, Amphitryon, 
son of Alcaeus king of Tiryns. Amphi- 
tryon accidentally killed his uncle, Elec- 
tryon, and then fled from Tiryns to 
Thebes with his betrothed. At Thebes 
Alcmena bore Heracles to Zeus. Hera- 
cles afterwards went to Argolis and served 
Eurystheus, — with the hope that his toils 
would purchase a return to Tiryns for the 
exiled Amphitryon and Alcmena (Eur. 
H. F, 19). When these toils were over, 
Heracles dwelt in freedom at Tiryns with 
his family, including Alcmena, — Amphi- 
tryon being dead (Diod. 4. 33). He 



TPAXINIAI 



167 



Go, my son, — for thy father's end hath come, — summon, I pray 
thee, all thy brethren; summon, too, the hapless Alcmena, in 
vain the bride of Zeus, — that ye may learn from my dying lips 
what oracles I know. 

Hy. Nay, thy mother is not here ; as it chances, she hath 
her abode at Tiryns by the sea. Some of thy children she hath 
taken to live with her there, and others, thou wilt find, are 
dwelling in Thebes town. But we who are with thee, my father, 
will render all service that is needed, at thy bidding. 

He. Hear, then, thy task: now is the time to show what 
stuff is in thee, who art called my son. 

It was foreshown to me by my Sire of old that I should 

perish by no creature that had the breath of life, 

Most mss. have (fxivys (the Aldine reading), or <f>avijs. 1169 Trptycwrov r: 

irp6c<pa.Tov L. 1160 irpbs rCov webvrtav (trKebvrtav V 3 ) /nj9ep6s Bcwetv thro MSS. 

(1) Keeping viro, Erfurdt conj. tujv ifiirvedvrup: Dindorf, ivdpQv (Blaydes pporQp) 
TvedvTW. Blaydes alsp, tQp per xvebvTwv. (2) Keeping vpot, Musgrave conj. 
daveiv vork (Dobree ttot* dv): Wecklein, yjftpax Ocwetv. 



afterwards slew Iphitus, and then sought 
a refuge for his household at Trachis 
(39). But, in the course of the fifteen 
months since he departed for Lydia, 
Alcmena had returned to Tiryns, (Eurys- 
theus having no cause to fear the aged 
widow,) — and had taken some of her 
grandchildren with her, in order to lighten 
the burden on the hospitality of Ceyx. — 
fuXXapoW, here simply =Xa/fo9<ra /tc0' 
iavrijs : cp. O. T. 97 1 n. 

1164 t6 6^fh)s dorrv. Thebes, the 
birthplace of Heracles (116), and his 
early home (510), was a place where 
some of his children might well find 
friends. Sophocles has perhaps taken a 
hint here from his elder contemporary, 
the logographer Pherecydes, who re- 
lated that, after the death of Eurystheus, 
Thebes became the home of the Hera- 
cleidae; fr. 39 (Miiller Frag. Hist. 1. 
p. 82) "TXXoj 9k zeal ol d^Xoi HflutXetfcu 
teal ol auv airrois dirodavdvros Etipv&dtus 
Kwroucl$ovT<u wd\w kv &Jjfku$. — dv... 
jtaOois: sc. el tt&Ooio: since he has been 
so long abroad. 

1166 £ &<rot in£p€<r|uv. The plural 
includes those who had accompanied 
Heracles from Euboea: cp. 1104 £i>v ots 
XPVfr 1 * 0fXw. We are not obliged to 
suppose that any son besides Hyllus was 
at home ; though verses 54 f. implied 
that. Nauck rejects v. n 56 because 
(1) Hyllus could not say foot, and (2) 
Heracles has not yet asked him to do 



anything. — i£vtn)pcnj<ro|icv: cp. 0. T. 
217 n. 

1167 £ aitZ' o9v &Kovt : there is no 
emphasis on tr6 (as if it referred to the 
absence of the others) : rather the sense 
is, *Well,. then (since you are ready to 
help), hear the task.' For this use of 5' 
odv, cp. 0. T. 669 n. — rotipyov=6' ti 
dpaare'ov itrny: cp. Ph. 16 rotipyw ov 
fiaicp&v X^yeis. — igqKCit, you have reached 
a point, a situation: cp. O. T. 15 15 aXis 
tv 1 i£JK€it Saicpvuv: id. 11 58 els t66' rjfris. 
— 4|ite without tcuj: cp. 1205: Ai. 547 
etirep 9ucal<os kcrr* ifxbs rd Tarp6$ev. The 
stress falls on the participial clause (592 
n.). 

1169 ydp is merely prefatory. — irprf- 
4>avTov 4k iraTpds : this oracle, given by 
Zeus at an unspecified time and place, is 
not mentioned elsewhere in the play. 
Nor is it noticed by any other writer. 
Sophocles may, however, have found it 
in some earlier treatment of the fable. 

1160 TtSv 4uirvf4vrc»v, Erfurdt's cor- 
rection of irpos tmv irv€ovT«v, is the 
most probable, ifxirveiv as=£w (PA. 883) 
is frequent, while icvelv has that sense 
only in the Homeric nvelei re ical tpirei 
(II. 17. 447, Od. 18. 131). thro might, 
no doubt, have arisen from to[t^], but is 
presumably genuine: it closes a verse in 
1077, O. T. 949, Ph. 334, 583, El. 553 : 
and it is associated with OpfaKw in O. T. 
1246, Ph. 334, EL 444. The combina- 
tion of irp6s with uir6 cannot be defended 



1 68 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



aXV ocrrt? v At8ov <f>0Lfi€vo$ olKijrojp irikoi. 
58* ow 6 drjp Kevravpos, <as to deiov rjv 
irp6<f>avrov, ovto) tjcavra /i 2kt€iv€p davtov. 
(Jxlvo) 8* eyai rovrourt <Tvp.$aivovT tcra 
fiavrela icaivd, rots irakai £vvrjyopa, 
a rcov opeuov zeal -^afxaLKOLrcov eya> 
SeXXaw icreXdcjv aXcros elaeypaxfja/Mrfv 
7T/0O5 rtys warp^Jas ical woXvyXaJcrorov 8/ovo5, 
17 /utot XP° V V T V C&wl Kal irapowi, vw 
€<f>a<TK€ fi6)(0(av tS>v ifacrrciTGW ifiol 
Xvarw TekeZcrdcu* /caSo/cow irpd^eiv /eaXa>9° 
to 8' 17^ ap* ovSe? aWo ttXi)^ Oavelu ifie. 
tols yap davovcri [i6)(0o$ ov TrpooyCyverai. 
ravT ovv iire&rj Xa/iirpd crvfLfiaCvtL, tckvov, 
Set cf aS yeviadai r$Sc rdvSpl <rv[i[iaxpv 9 



1 165 



1 1 70 



"75 



1161 irAot] n-Aet L, with ot written above by the first hand : iriket A, with most 
mss., and Aid. 1163 hretvep A, Harl., and Aid.: Zicrewe L: tKTtwep (or ficrai'e) r. 
1164 avfipabovT' tea] Wunder writes ovflfialyoprd col. 1166 Nauck brackets 

this v. (' Versum deleri malim,' Dobree, Adv. vol. 11. p. 42). 1167 iffe\$&v r : 

elveXduv L. : vpo<r€\$Cdp T, V 2 , Vat., prob. from Triclinius. — elceypaxf/d/xrjv] Elmsley 



as = 'to be slain by no one on the part of 
(irp6s) the living. Paley, quoting Eur. 
Or. 407 4k <j>a<FfJL&T(t>v 8i rdde voaets iroluv 
thro; describes (pavraa^dr^v as Nauck's 
conjecture ; but that word stands in most 
of the recent mss., and in Porson's text. 

1161 dXV 8<rris: for the ellipse of 
the antecedent (ixeLvov), cp. Ai. 1050 
80KOWT 1 cfiol, Sokovvtcl 5' fls Kpalvci <rrpa- 
toQ. Eur. Ion 560 fj $ty<a 67}$' ot fi' 
tyvaav ;— Ai8ov. . .oIkijtwo : 282. — 80-ris 
...ir&oi: if we suppose that Nessus was 
alive when Zeus spoke, then this is ob- 
lique for Boris &» irAfl, StS O. T, 714 
(in a prophecy) 6<rns yivoir' for forty &v 
yivrfrat. But if Nessus was then dead, 
it is oblique for fort* n-Aet. 

1162 £ Orjjp (556) is in appos. with 
K&ravpos. — t»vra |i licrtivcv 8av«v : 
as the dead Hector brought death on 
Ajax (Ai. 1027). For other examples of 
this favourite antithesis, cp. O. T. 1453 
n. : Ant. 871 n. : Ai. 901. 

1164 Tovrouri jc.t.X. The jtavrtta 
Kaiva denote the oracle given at Dodona 
twelve years before this time, saying that 
at the end of the twelfth year Heracles 
should have rest. This is the oracle to 
which allusion was made in 44, 164 ff., 



824 ff. The other and earlier oracle 
( 1 1 59 ff. ) had predicted the agency: this 
Dodonaean oracle, ' recent ' in a relative 
sense, predicted the time. The two oracles 
'agree,' because each verifies the other. 
The thing has come to pass by the right 
agency at the right time. 

o-vfipaCvovr* tea, ' coming out in agree- 
ment with them,' — yielding the same re- 
sult, — viz., that this is the predicted end. 
For <Tv/jfiaiv€Lv, cp. 173 n. The idea is 
emphatically repeated in to£s irdXoi (w- 
ijyopa, ( pleading on the side of the older 
oracle,' — upholding its truth. Cp. 814 
£wiryopcts. 

1166 ff. <£ t»v rfpcfav k.t.X. The 
2cW»v &\<ros is the sacred precinct at 
Dodona, including the temple of Zeus, 
with its temenos; its limits have been 
traced by Carapanos (Dodone % pp. 16 — 
23) : see Appendix, note on this passage, 

The name SeXXof, or 'EXXol (akin to 
"EXXijf, 'EXXds), denoted a prehistoric 
tribe, dwelling at and around Dodona: 
see Appendix, § 4. The priests of Zeus, 
furnished by this tribe, are said to have 
been called rdfiovpoi, from Mount Tomaros 
(Orphic Argon. 268 Tofiapias tkKve <pyy6s), 



TPAXINIAI 



169 



but by one that had passed to dwell with Hades. So I have 
been slain by this savage Centaur, the living by the dead, even 
as the divine will had been foretold. 

And I will show thee how later oracles tally therewith, con- 
firming the old prophecy. I wrote them down in the grove of 
the Selli, dwellers on the hills, whose couch is on the ground ; 
they were given by my Father's oak of many tongues ; which 
said that, at the time which liveth and now is, my release from 
the toils laid upon me should be accomplished. And I looked 
for prosperous days ; but the meaning, it seems, was only that I 
should die ; for toil comes no more to the dead. 

Since, then, my son, those words are clearly finding their 
fulfilment, thou, on thy part, must lend me thine aid. 

conj. i^€ypa\pdfj.7)v. 1169 r\ pot] Blaydes conj. iJtis. — r$ £&vtl\ rut $uvti L. 

Hense conj. xjptpdbri or faOhn'. Wunder, fAcXkovri, t$ iraptorn v\/v. 1172 rb 

$'] The first hand in L wrote rb 6' : S has corrected this to rbb" (without deleting 
the grave accent). t66' is in most mss., and Aid.: Wyttenbach first pointed out 
that rb 8' is required. 1173 Trpoaylyverai] irpooylverai L : cp. 425. — Nauck, 

with Axt {Philol. 4, p. 575), brackets this v. 1176 r$8e rdvdpl] rfadir' a»8pl 

'L.—^rififjMX 01 ' L: j&nfMxov r, and Aid. 



which towers above Dodona on w. s. w. 
In early times these priests were the di- 
rect interpreters of the oracle ; hence the 
ZeWol are called xnro<prp-ax in //. 16. 235. 
Afterwards, when the cult of Dione was 
associated with that of Zeus, the office of 
interpretation was transferred to the 
priestesses called Peleiades (172: Strabo 
7. 320). Here, as in 171 f., the poet 
says that the oak gave the oracle ; but he 
does not here mention the expositors. 
He refers to the ZeXAof only to define the 
d\aos. 

4pi£»v refers to the site of Dodona 
in a valley, more than 1600 feet above 
sea-level, surrounded by hills. See Ap- 
pendix, § 1. 

Xa|MUKOkTwv, a trait of barbarism, sur- 
viving as a mark of sanctity. According 
to Philostratus (/mag. 2. 33), the Selli 
were 'men of a rude life' (airrwrx&ol 
tipcs), who held that their austerities were 
pleasing to Zeus. Cp. //. 16. 235 &Miirr6- 
Todes xaAtaievpcu : Eur. fr. 355 iv d<rrpw- 
T(p Tr^d(fi J eiftowi, wryycus 6* o$x irypai- 
vovaur vbbas. Callimachus Del. 284 calls 
them ILe\curyoi...yi)\€x&s. 

cUrrypa^<i|it)v, i.e., wrote for his own 
use in the &4\ro$ (157). Cp. Her. 8. 135, 
where Greeks accompany the Carian Mys 
on his visit to the oracle of Apollo at 
Ptoon, <i* dwoypaif/oixfrovs rd tamciy 



(fieXke: then Mys snatches the SiKros 
from them, and makes an abstract for 
himself (<rvyypa\f/dfievov). Ar. A v. 982 
(x/HprMOs) &V iy& irapd rdiroWuvos i^eypa- 
xf/dfirjv. At Dodona, in later times at 
least, the inquirer gave his question in 
writing to the Peleiades, and received a 
written answer : many of the leaden plates 
thus used have been found (Carapanos, 
pp. 68 — 83) : Appendix, § 6. 

1160 xf>4vq» t$ twvri: the past can 
be described as dead {Ai. 141 ttjs vw 
(pdtfjjivys Micros); the future, as unborn 
(O. C. 618 XP° V0 * r eKVovr at... iifUpas); 
the present is here called for, not merely 
in the sense of irapwp, but with the 
thought that this is the moment for the 
oracle to become operative. 

1170£ tyctmfrrwv, 'imposed' as a 
doom: cp. //. 12. 326 tcrjpes i<pe<rrcL<rw 
Bavdroto. — TcXctofai, fut., with pass, 
sense, as in Od. 23. 284, etc. 

1172 rb 8' refers to Xtf<w reXeicrdat: 
'but that (the promised release) was, it 
seems, only my death.' Cp. Plat. Rep. 
357 A £y& flip ofo>...<j)fAi)p \6yov amjk- 
XdxQou ' rb 8' ty apa, ws lot/re, irpoot/uov. — 
Oavttv: for the simple aor. inf., though 
the ref. is to the future, cp. Ph. 503 
iradeiv (n.). 

1174 o*v|ipa£v€k, are coming true: cp. 



170 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



kcu /irj Vt/xeii/ai rovfiov 6i*vvai oro/uta, 

dXX* avrov elKaOovra avp/!rpdcr(T€iVy vofiov 

koXKlotov i£evp6wa, ir€t$ap)(€w irarpt. 
TA. aXX', a> 7r<LT€p, Tapfta) fiat etg \6yov ardcrLv 

TouLvh* errekutov, ireicropxiL 8* a oroi So/cet. Il8o 

HP. e/xySaWe x e W a Sc^tav Trpdncrrd fiou 
TA. cos 7rpos ti irloTw rrjvh' ayav emor/De^cis ; 
HP. ov 0acr<rov otcrctg /jtiyS* amonjcreis ifioC; 
TA. tSov, TrpoT€ij/a), icovhev ajneiprjcrerai. 
HP. o/u>v Aios w;i> rov /ut€ <f>vo m airro$ icdpa. 1 185 

TA. ^ /1171/ rt Spdcrew; koX toS* l&iprjcrerau, ; 
HP. ?j /LL171/ cftol to Xc^^ei/ epyov e/crcXeu/. 
TA. Sfiwfi eyarye, Zfjv £)(Q)v iirriiwrov. 
HP. ct 8* 6/cros cX0oi$, irr)iiovas ev\ov Xafielv. 
TA. ov fw) Xa/Ja>' Spdaco ydp m €v^o/xat 8* o/xcos. 1 1 90 

1176 yu^ 'wifieipcu (or ^ Ari/Lteifat) most mss., and Aid. : /m} vetfietrai {sic) L : et is in 
an erasure, prob. from 77 : the first et has also been retouched, but it is not clear that it 
has come (as Diibner thinks) from a. av had been written above (apparently by S), but 
has been deleted by a line drawn through it. Meineke conj. M a.va.\uTwax : Blaydes, /*r 
rt rX^at. — ^wat] btyvau L. 1177 €tora06i»Ta] eUddovra L, with most MSS., and 

Aid. : elxdBbvra A (6 from first hand). 1178 ^£eup6ira] Wecklein writes ttjopOovyra: 
Wakefield conj. ij-alpopra (and so Wecklein, Ars Soph. em. p. 52) : Meineke, iic- 



1176 f. 4iri|tcCvak. . .6f0vai, to wait 
on, (so as) to sharpen. (In Thuc. 3. 26, 
4irtfUvouT€s...irc6<r€<rdai f the fut. inf. stands 
as after irpovSoKuvres : it does not, like 
61-vvai here, express the result.) Cp. Ai. 
584 7\uHT<r<i <rou reBrjyfiivTj. For the aor. 
inf. of iirifxfrw, cp. CW. 11. 35ot\i$tw... | 
...£irifjL€ii>ai is atipiov. The delay is 
viewed as a whole, not as a process. — 
Others, less well, make crrofw. the subject 
to 6£vvai : * Do not wait for my words to 
goad thee.' — avrdv, of thine own accord. 
— clKttOovra: as to these forms, see O. T. 
651 n. 

1178 ££cvfx$vra is illustrated by the 
words avrbv eUadovra. He is not to 
wait until this law has been brought 
home to his mind by a rebuke. He is to 
• find it out ' in the light of his own reason. 
evplaKetv often expresses the result of re- 
flection. O. T. 441 roiavr* bveihi? ots 
t(L J evpJjtreis fM^yav {i.e., when you look 
deeper), lier. 7. 194 \oyi£6p.evos b 
Aapetos evpt ol ir\4to dyadd r(av dfxap- 
rrffiaTuv Trcxouiniva'. id. 1. 125 <f>povrl£(dv 
be etipurict re (v. I. evpbricerai) ravra irat- 
pubrara elpat, Kcd iirolee 6)) ravra. 



Cp. Eur. fr. 219 rpets elcw dperal rat 
Xpeu>p <r' daicetp, tIkvov, \ Oeofo re ripuur 
rotJs re Sptyavras yoveh \ vopovs re icot- 
povs'EXXbdos. 

1170 f. dXX.', <J irdTfp: d\Xa here 
prefaces assent, as Ph. 48, 524. — Top^fio 
ukv K.r.X. The sense is: 'I am alarmed, 
indeed, at the issue to which you have 
brought me, — a choice between disobedi- 
ence, and a blind promise; but I will 
obey.' \<fyov orderly touCvSc, 'such a 
situation in our converse ' : 4itcX6mv, ( hav- 
ing advanced,' i.e., having been drawn on 
to it, by the progress of the dialogue. It 
may be noted that the sing, \6yov suits 
this sense of ordtrn : if the meaning had 
been, 'strife of words ' (the trrdffis 7\c6<r- 
0-175 of O. T. 634), we should have ex- 
pected rather the plur. \6ywv, as in Eur. 
Ph. 1460 eh tpiv \6ywv. For this general 
sense of <rrdo-t$ f status, cp. Plat Phaedr. 
p. 253 D b...kv ry tcaWiovi arlurei <&». 

Throughout the dialogue (1 114 — 1 1 56), 
Hyllus has been gentle and respectful. 
If, then, crrdffip means 'strife/ iireXB&v 
must mean merely, ' having advanced up 
to it,' i.e., 'come to the verge of it.' But 



TPAXINIAI 



171 



Thou must not delay, and so provoke me to bitter speech : thou 
must consent and help with a good grace, as one who hath 
learned that best of laws, obedience to a sire. 

Hy. Yea, father, — though I fear the issue to which our talk 
hath brought me, — I will do thy good pleasure. 
He. First of all, lay thy right hand in mine. 

For what purpose dost thou insist upon this pledge ? 

Give thy hand at once — disobey me not ! 

Lo, there it is : thou shalt not be gainsaid. 

Now, swear by the head of Zeus my sire ! 

To do what deed ? May this also be told ? 

To perform for me the task that I shall enjoin. 

I swear it, with Zeus for witness of the oath. 

And pray that, if thou break this oath, thou mayest 



Hy. 
He. 
Hy. 
He. 
Hy. 
He. 
Hy. 
He. 
suffer. 
HY. 



I shall not suffer, for I shall keep it : — yet so I pray. 



(pcpovra: Herwerden, ed rqpowra. 1179 <n(unv\ Wecklein conj. rdaiy ('tension'). 
1181 ippaWe xctpa] tfxfiaX exetpa L. 1182 iiriaTptfaLs] Hense conj. iicci- 

<T<p€p€is. 1188 o&rets] Subkoff conj. etfris: Blaydes, dpeU, which Nauck and 

Mekler cite without noticing the &. — dirioTTfo-€is] awurrrjffTio' L, with ei written above 
17 by first hand. Schol. in marg., yp. irpwrrip'W* ifioi : whence Hermann conj. 
irpoorrpei 7' ifiol. 1186 vw] vw L, with most mss., and Aid. : so Brunck 

and Hermann. 1186 L points thus: fj /i^r rl bpbaw koX t66' iteiprperai. 

The usual pointing was dpcureiv ;...4^€ipr}<T€Tai. Hence the v. I. t6t* for iw (B in 
marg.). Hermann, bpaaeiv ; . . J^eipTJaerau, ; 



the clause with fUv % opposed to veUrofiou. 
94, ought to express something which tells 
against obedience (as the fear of a blind 
promise does) ; not something which tells 
in favour of it, as the fear of strife would 
do. The same objection applies to con- 
jecturing breXSeur ('I am afraid of being 
drawn into such a strife'). 

1181 lupoXXi: see on Ph. 813 fy- 
/SaXXe xetpds wUmv. 

1182 «fo irpos rl: <&j='in your in- 
tention': cp. O. T. 1 1 74 wi irpbs rl 
Xpefos; Ph. 58 vX«y 6* un Tpbs oticov. — 
ferurrptycts: the primary notion is that 
of turning some constraining force upon 
a person, — bringing it to bear on him: 
so, 'press,' 'urge,' upon him: schol. lira- 
7«s /tot. It is a stronger equiv. for &ri- 
(ncfyirretS' — Not, 'regarcP(Musgrave): this 
would be Tlffretas iwurrpiipet (midd.). 

1188 ov 0a<r<rov k.t.X.: Ai. 75 oi oty* 
dvtfri fxrjdt deikiav dpei; Eur. Bacch. 343 
06 fJii) vpoaoUreis x&P -* fkucx* facts 6* Uto, \ 
firfd* 4^o/x6p^€i fiuplav r^v ety 4/xol; to. 

792 oil fJii) <pp€PU}(T€LS fx% dXXd BtfffUOS 

<pvy<bu I adxrei rob 1 ; For oi /ify with fut. 
ind., cp. 978. — otrat, sc. getpa be^tdv: 



but the choice of the verb may have been 
influenced by irUrriv. 

1186 8|iw...K(£pa: so d/urfoai Oeofa, 
Srvy&s tibwp (//. 14. 271), iribov (Eur. 
Med. 746), etc. 

1186 f. {gtiprfo-crai; This is clearly 
the right punctuation ; for Hyllus is most 
anxious to know what will be asked of 
him. Heracles evades the question by 
replying, rb XexOep ^pyov, — i.e., 6 & 
XexOy' just as in Ai. 528, £bv pJbvov rb 
raxOtv ev toX/jlq TeXetr, the partic. = 3 or 
tox^J. — With a full stop at ^etpijcercu, 
the sense would be merely, 'and this 
promise shall be given.' 

1188 4ir«i|iorov (427) here = 8 ptuov 
(schol.), rbv dpxov iyyurfT^v (Suid. s. v.). 
Cp. Ph. 1324 Zrjpa b 1 SpKtov kclXQ (n.). 

1180 4ktos IXfois, sc. rod tipKov; cp. 
Plat. Symp. 183 B iK^dun rbv 8pKov. — 
mjjwvds cvxov Xaffrtv : the usual sanction 
of a solemn oath; cp. Lys. or. 12 § 10 
ufxoatv i£u>\eicw iavr<p teal rots Trai<rlv 
iirapcbfiepos, Xap&u rb t6.\cwt6p fie <J<h- 



aew. 



110O ov |ii] Xrffta: for the pause cp. 
1 146. 



172 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



"95 



HP. otcrff ovv tov Oittjs Zrjvos xnfjiOTOV irdyov ; 
TA. oTS', cos dvrqp ye woXkd 8rj otolOgIs ava). 
HP. cvravOd vuv yjyq Toifibv i£dpamd ce 

creS/x' a\rro\eipa /cat £vv ofs X/>2?£ ct5 4>&&v% 

iroXkrjv fia/ vXtjv ty}$ /3a0vppi£ov Spi/o? 

KtLpairra, 7toX\oj/ 8 s dpcrev €KT€[i6vff ofiov 

dyptov eXaiov, crco/xa Tovfiov ififidkeiv, 

Kal 7T€VKtvr)s Xa/Joira Xa/x7raSo5 crcXas 

irprjcraL yoov Sc /irjhh/ eicrcro) Saxpv 

aXX* d<rrh/aKTO$ /cdSa/cpvTos, COTeo cT 

tovo avopos, epgov a oc /i/q, /xaxo o" eya> 

Kal vipQev &v dpauos elcrael fiapvs. 
TA. oifMOL, Trdrep, ri <8* > cl7ras; ofa /ut* elpyacrai. 
HP. 07rota hpaar^ icrriv el 8c ft/ty, warpos 

1191 Ofnj*] Musgrave conj. O&77. — v\purrov mss. : Wakefield conj. inpiarov. 
1193 ivravOd pvp Brunck : &raO0a m L, with most MSS. : ivraOBa &i B.— -^a/Murd'] 
i£aupfrr6. L, the t inserted by a later hand: i^apdpra schol. in marg. 1196 — 



I200 



1191 tAv Otri)S ZnvtJs...ira*yov; cp. 

/%. 489 ra XaXjcc^opros EtijSola? <Tra$/xd. 
The change of ftywrrov to tyCo-rov is a 
plausible one. Pausanias mentions sta- 
tues of Zeifs "T^tflTTos at Corinth (2. 2. 8J, 
Olympia (5. 15. 5), and Thebes (9. 8. 5); 
the title occurs, too, in an Attic inscr. 
(C. f. G* 497—506), and was frequent in 
poetry. I prefer, however, to keep the 
reading of the mss., because, here, we 
seem to need an epithet for vdyop rather 
than for the god. Cp. 436 tov tear 
cticpov OItouop pairos | Ator KaraffTpdirrop- 
tos. 

The place traditionally known as the 
* Pyre* was probably somewhere near *the 
proper summit of Oeta' (Leake, North- 
ern Greece^ vol. 11. pp. 19 f.), now Mount 
Patriotiko, about eight miles w.n.w. of 
Trachis. A Pyra is marked in Kiepert's 
Atlas von Hellas (ed. 1872, map 5), where 
the greatest height of Oeta is given as 
2152 metres, or about 7055 ft. It is men- 
tioned by Theophr. Hist, Plant. 9. 10. 2 
(t^s Otrris d/Mpl 'rijp Uvpav): cp. Liv. 36. 
30, and Ph. 1432. 

1192 Ovnjp (613), slightly emphasised 
by yc, implies that he is familiar with the 
place. — (rraOtls: cp. 608. 

1193 iyravOa properly refers to ifi- 
paXeiv (1197), but, since the inf. is so 
long delayed, is more conveniently taken 
with 4£<£parra, in the sense of evravdol: 



cp. EL 380 hravda Tifiifrew. For the 
sense of itj&pavra, cp. 799 bpop Ifya, 

1194 Kal can be prefixed to £6v ots, 
jt.r.X., since a^roxtvpa implies reus ffeav- 
tov x € P*l* 

1196 ft The pyre is to be built with 
(1) oak, sacred to Zeus (1168); and (2) 
the wild oltve t which Heracles himself 
had brought to Greece : Paus. 5. 7. 7 ko- 
fiurOrjvcu 8£ 4k ttjs 'Tweppop4(ap yijs rbv 
k6tlv6v (paciv vw6 rod apcuc\4ovs is "EX- 
\rpas. Pindar, in treating that legend, 
uses the generic word, 4Xala> O. 3. 13. 
Pliny H N. 16. 89 Olympiae oleaster \ 
ex quo primus Hercules coronatus est: 
where he also mentions that, near Hera- 
cleia in Pontus, were quercus duae ab 
Hercule satae. 

Kf Cpavro, like //. 24. 450 6odp' iKdrrfs 
KtpaavTcs. In Attic prose, tcclpeiv, 'to 
shear,' is said only of cutting off hair, or 
devastating land. The prose word here 
would be K6\f/avra. — !ktc|i6v9', cutting it 
from the stump, close to the ground: //. 
12. 148 dyvvrop CXtjv, I vpvfip^p iicr&fA- 
popt€$ ('at the root'). In Lys. or. 7 § 19 
i^ire/MfOP rd. irpe/ipa refers to cutting the 
roots of an olive out of the ground. — 
&Ypiov IXatov : the icbrwos was also called 
dyptos fkcuos (Pind. fr. 21), dypitXaios, or 
dypieXala. The epithet 2p<rcva expresses 
its sturdy vigour. Ace. to Theophrastus 
(Hist. Plant. 4. 13) the xdrtvot lives 



TPAXINIAI 



173 



He. Well, thou knowest the summit of Oeta, sacred to 
Zeus ? 

Hy. Ay ; I have often stood at his altar on that height 

He. Thither, then, thou must carry me up with thine own 
hands, aided by what friends thou wilt ; thou shalt lop many a 
branch from the deep-rooted oak, and hew many a faggot also 
from the sturdy stock of the wild-olive ; thou shalt lay my body 
thereupon, and kindle it with flaming pine-torch. 

And let no tear of mourning be seen there ; no, do this with- 
out lament and without weeping, if thou art indeed my son. 
But if thou do it not, even from the world below my curse and 
my wrath shall wait on thee for ever. 

Hy. Alas, my father, what hast thou spoken ? How hast 
thou dealt with me ! 

He. I have spoken that which thou must perform ; if thou 

wilt not, 

1198 Wunder rejects these four w. 1197 fkcuov] iXcubv L. 1208 rid* 

efrras] rl eZirew L, with several of the later MSS. : tV eZira* A, R, Harl., and 
Aid.: rl /*' eliras T, B (with Triclinius): roV eftraf V 2 , Vat., whence Hense conj. 
ttoV eliras. 



longer than the iXaia. Ovid says, Ure 
mares oleas (Fast. 4. 741). — iroXA6v=iro- 
Xtfv, as Ant. 86 toXX^v = toX6 : the only 
instance of this Ionic form in tragedy. — 
<n5pa ro4|tdv is repeated, the sentence 
having become so long: cp. vu> in 289, 
after iiceivov. 

1198 f. itcukCvi|s: cp. 766 melpat 
tyvds (n.). — irpjj<nu, made emphatic by 
place and pause: cp. Ant. 72 6&\f/<a. — 
y6ov...8dKpv, the tear that belongs to, 
accompanies, lamentation ; as 66k pva and 
760* are so often associated (Eur. Or. 320, 
/. T. 860, etc.). (Not, 'a mournful 
tear,' as opp. to ddicpv xapay.) — cUr£ro», 
abs., 'come in,' 'find a place' there: cp. 
Plat. Phaedr. p. 270 A rb yap infaXdvovv 
tovto...2oik€v iPT€u$4v voder elcrUvat. We 
ought not to supply <re, as if the sense 
were, 'come into thy thoughts' (Phaedo 
p. 58 E oHT€...fA€...(\cos eUrfiei). 

The ordinary iiapopd was attended by 
wailing; but these obsequies, like those of 
the pnests in Plat. Legg.. 947 b, were to 
be xupit Qprtyw kclI 68vpfjuov. Cp. Ma- 
noah's words in Samson Agonistes (1708), 
( Come, come ; no time for lamentation 
now.' 

1200 ff. cwrrfraicTos : cp. 1074. — 
ctircp ct k.t.X. : cp. 1158. 

I&cvw <r* 4y» k.t.X., • I will await 
thee with my curse'; *.*., 'my curse 



will be in store for thee,' attending on 
thee thenceforth. (Not merely, 'I will 
await thee in the nether world/ to 
punish thee when thou comest thither.) 
Cp. 1240 Oe&v dpa \ /icvet a'. So Ant. 
1075 Xox&<rw ...'J&ptvies. — dpatos, here, 
'bringing a, curse': cp. Eur. /. T. 778 rj 
aots dpala 8J)fiaaiv ycrJjao/Mu. (But in 
O. T. 1 29 1, 'under a curse'). — cUrocl, 
because the power of the Erinyes over a 
mortal did not end with his life: it was 
their part, bfiapreiv, 6<pp' av \ ya» £ireX00* 
Oavuv 6' o$k Ayav iXefflepos. (Aesch. 
Bum. 340.) — popvs, as in O. T. 546 dva- 
fieri) re koX fiaptiv. 

1208 The hiatus ri ctiros is sup- 
ported by the mss. here, but appears as 
uncongenial to the poet's style as in Ph. 
917, offtot, ri etTas ; Here, as there, tC 
|& etiras seems inadmissible. It could 
mean only, 'What hast thou said of me?' 
— and we can hardly justify this as mean- 
ing, 'hast thou said that, if I refuse, I 
shall be no true son?' The alternative 
is to insert 8': cp. O. C. 332 t4kpw, rl 6* 
fjXdes ; See Append, on PA. 100. 

1204 f. forota SpacrW lirrCv, sc. 
elirov. The reply passes over dpyaacu, 
and refers to etiras : cp. 423, where iroX- 
Xoiaiv &cttu>p answers the earlier of two 
queries. — cl 8c |iij, sc. dpdveis. — ycvov, 
' become ', as if by adoption {elaTcoLipis) 



174 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



aXXov ya/ov rov /at/S' eftos KkrjOjjs en. 
TA. olfxoi naX av0L$ y old fi e/c/caXei, irdrep, 

<f>ovea y€i/€<rO<u Kal iraXafivaiov cidei/. 
HP. ov hrjr eyary, dXX* &v €)(a} iraixaviov 

Kal fiovvov Iarrjpa t&v ifxcov kolkcov. 
TA. /cat tt(os viralO(ov (raj/i* av l<fifir)v ro <rov\ 
HP. aXX* ei (frofiel 7ry>o$ tovto, raXXa y epyacrai. 
TA. <bopa$ ye rov <f>d6vrj<rL$ ov yanj&eraL 
HP. r) Kal irvpas irXrjpajfia rrjs elprj/jLevr)^ ; 
TA. o<rov y av avros fw) irorujtavcov \epo1v* 

rd 8* aXXa irpdijco, kov /ca/xet tovjjlov fxepos. 
HP. dXX* a/>/ceo"€t /cat ravra* irpoovei/JLai 8c' fioi 

ydpw fSpayCiojv irpos /xa/c/xns aXXot? 81S01/9. 
TA. cl /cat fiaKpa Kapr ioTiv, ipyaadrjaerai. 
HP. tt)i> Eupvrctai' ot<rOa S^ra irapda/ov; 
TA. 'ioXr/v cXc£as, <5s y' €7T€ixd£€u> c/ie. 



1205 



1210 



1215 



1220 



1206 rov] rod L. 1206 toaXet] iKxaXcis Harl. 1208 «? *x»] 

Hermann writes &s #x«. 1209 row iuQp] Wecklein conj. Oaraalfiw: Blaydes, 

dvGT-ijvuv. 1210 viraldwv] In L an early hand has suggested biraWov. 

1211 roKKa 7' A, Lc, R, Harl., and Aid.: r&XXa a* L, with most of the later 
mss. 1214 fify TTOTixl/atiwv] Hartung reads p.-f\ Tore \//o6wp, a few of the later 



into another family. Cp. Lys. or. 13 
§ 91 rbv re y6p(fi var4pa...Tbv re voirfrbp 
wartpa. So Oedipus to Polyneices, 0. C. 
1 383 ffb 5* typ' dfrbnTVirrbs re K&trdrup i/xov. 
'l206f. oW |i IkkoXcI, 'what dost 
thou call upon me to do.* For the double 
ace, cp. Plat. Euthyphr. 5 A abrb. ravra 
trpoKokeiaOai abrbr. 

iraXapvatov is not weak after <^oWa, 
because, as used in poetry, it often im- 
plies the defilement (ayos) of blood-guilti- 
ness, — meaning, * accursed wretch,' ra- 
ther than merely * slayer.* Cp. Aesch. 
Eum. 448 &<f>doyyop efoai rbv TraXa/xvaiov 
pbfios, k.t.X. Hence, like /ucurrwp, it 
can denote also the avenger of guilt (Eur. 
/. T. 12 18). Photius had this in view 
when he explained iraXafivauos by </>o- 
pebs ij uiapbs. Properly the word means 
merely 'a man of violent hand': cp. Ph. 
1206 TaXa/iap, n. 

1208 f. 01J Sfjr' */»?, clXX*: the 
same formula as in 0. T. 1161, Ph. 735. 
— c5v Iyw (kclkQp) irouSviov refers more 
especially to bodily sufferings ; while la- 
n)pa t»v I|m5v KaKcov is rather, 'physi- 
cian of my woes' generally. After wp 



*XW, tup ifiwp is awkward ; but it is 
partly excused (1) by the slight pause 
which might follow iraubviov, and (2) by 
the emphasis on Iarrjpa. It might, in- 
deed, be suggested that KaK&p belongs to 
tup ifiuv only, while <3p *x w should be 
taken separately, 'what I suffer': this, 
however, is less natural. Hermann's 
emendation, <&$ tyo» ('considering my 
state'), is possible, Dut slightly weak. 

1211 <fx>P«i irpds tovto : cp. O. T. 
980 <ri> b* els rb, urprpbs u^ <po^ov vvfKpeti- 
uara. 

1212 ^O^vTjoas is found only here. 
Cp. Plat. Phaedo 61 D &...Tvyx&»<*> &ktj- 
Kotbs, cpdovos otibels \4yeip. Ion 530 D 
od <f>dovJ}<T€is fioi iindeT^ai. 

1218 irXrjpwpxt (nom.), sc. yevfjaerai'. 
— cp. Eur. Hec. 574 oi bi TrXqpovaip 
xvpav, I Kopaobs <t>kpovres treviclpovs. 
Though irXJipwu would have been more 
natural, irXrjpujfxa, expressing the result, 
is equally correct here. 

1214 (TrXrjpuxTw), 6<rov 7c (rrXjjpd)- 
caiu') &v |&i) iroru|r.: cp. O. T. 3J.7 clp- 
ybffBai B\ 6a ov \ fxij x € P°'l kcUpwp (sc. et- 
Xes elpydadcu). Hyllus will help to hew 



TPAXINIAI 



175 



then get thee some other sire, and be called my son no 
more! 

Hy. Woe, woe is me ! What a deed dost thou require of 
me, my father, — that I should become thy murderer, guilty of 
thy blood ! 

He. Not so, in truth, but healer of my sufferings, sole 
physician of my pain ! 

Hy. And how, by enkindling thy body, shall I heal 



it? 



He. Nay, if that thought dismay thee, at least perform the 
rest. 

Hy. The service of carrying thee shall not be refused. 

He. And the heaping of the pyre, as I have bidden ? 

Hy. Yea, save that I will not touch it with mine own hand. 
All else will I do, and thou shalt have no hindrance on my 
part. 

He. Well, so much shall be enough. — But add one small 
boon to thy large benefits. 

Hy. Be the boon never so large, it shall be granted. 

He. Knowest thou, then, the girl whose sire was Eurytus? 

Hy. It is of Iol& that thou speakest, if I mistake not 

mss. having /«J irore \f/a6<a (in T up is superscr.), — probably due to Triclinius. 
Wunder, firj rt trpwr^ainav. 1216 irpbvveipm A, with most MSS., and Aid.: 

irpovvctfxal B: TrpfocTftcu, L, with <r added above the line, probably by the first hand, 
to whom the accent on may also be attributed. 1218 L has icdpr' in an 

erasure, from xpar' (or xpar'). 1219 irapdhov] irapvov L, with 6 over a. 

1220 Cos y 1 Schaefer: war* L: Cos Wecklein: afore 7* eltcdfuv Reiske. — iireucafav L, 
with most mss., and Aid.: direiKd^eiv r (as B). 



the wood, but not to build the pyre. The 
pyre was kindled by Philoctetes, or, ace. to 
another version, by Poeas (Ph. 802 n.). — 
irort^avwv : tragic lyrics admit totI (fr. 
225), and its compounds (1030 dtrorl- 
Pcltos: Aesch. Theo. 94 a-orrtre<rw, etc). 
But tragic dialogue presents no other 
example, except Aesch. Eum. 79 irorl 
tt6\ut. 

1216 kov icaptf, 2nd pers. sing, 
midd., thou shalt have no difficulty, tov- 
|&dv pipos, on my part (ace. of respect: 
cp. Ant. 1062 rb <rbv /iepos, n.). — Most 
editors take xa/Aet as 3rd pers. sing. act. : 
' and my part of the work shall not flag.' 
But KCL/xov/iai is the regular fut.: indeed, 
the only trace of the act. form is in 
Hesych., ica/iia' ipydaofitu. 

1216 dpic<<r€i ical Tavra, even this: 
so Ph. 339 olfuu fUv dpKeiv vol ye kclI 
ra <f\ Co rdXas, | dXy^fiad*. — irp6<rvci|uu : 
the midd. is noteworthy, as we should 



have expected -rrpdcrveifxov : cp., however, 
Ar. Av. 563 TrpoffPcl/MffOcu fll trpen-ovrtos \ 
rdiat deourw tG>v 6pvl$w 6s dV dp/xorry 
kclO' Zkoo-tov, — where, as here, the act. 
might have been expected. The accen- 
tuation irpoo-vetfuu (cr. n.) represents a 
wish to read the aor. inf. act. as an im- 
perative. 

1217 ppaxctov, small (O. C. 586 n.): 
paicpofe, large (At. 130, etc.).— SiSofc, 
sc. atrrd: cp. O. C. 475 veoiroKw /xa\\<f 
Xafiujv (n.). 

1219 EvpvrtCav: cp. O. T. 267 to? 
AafidaKeLip iraubi (n.). — irapOcvov, an un- 
married woman : cp. 1225. 

1220 4iretKd|etv has here much better 
authority than dwctKa^civ : cp. 141 n. — 
#s y*, as a correction of &vr, is prefer- 
able to «s, not only as accounting for r\ 
but because t\U is added: cp. Eur. Ale. 
801 wj 7' ifjvol XPyvOu Kpiry : Ar. Plut. 

736 iSs 7' ifJLOl doKCUf. 



176 



I04>0KAE0YI 



HP. eyvto*. tocovtov 817 <r hrurK^mtOf t4kvov 
tovttjv, i/xov davovros, elirep evcrefieu/ 

ySovXct, TTdTptoCxiV 6pKl(x)V /AC/AZ^/AcVoS, 

irpoadov hdfiapra, fir)& dm<rnjcrQ$ irarpi* 

fir/S* aXXo9 dvop&v T0Z9 6/1019 irXevpols ofiov 1 225 

Kkidticav avrffv dvri <rov *Aa/J2? irore, 

dXX* avro9, <3 wal, tovto icjBevo'ov A/)(09. 

# 7ri0oir to yap roi fieyd\a moTevo'CLVT Cftol 

cr/uKpols dirioreiv ttjv ndpos crvy^u ydpiv. 

TA. Ot/AOl* TO fX€P VOO'OVVTl dvflOV(T0CU KCLKOV, 1 23O 

to o o>o opai/ {ppovovvra ri9 ttot ay (pepoi; 
HP. oj9 ipya<r€i(ov ovoh/ &v \eya) poets. 
TA. ri9 yap iroff, r} fioi firjrpl fiev Oavelv pjovt) 

/icrairi09 <rol # 8* avdis 0*9 €j(€t9 €X€u>, 

Tt9 ravr* di>, 00T19 fti) '£ dXacrTopojv voaol, l2 ZS 

€\olto; Kpelaaov Kafie y\ <2 irdrep, davelv 

rj rotciv i^Oiaroio'i avwaUw ofiov. 

1221 Sri <r'] Hartung reads Stjt*: Blaydes conj. vw. — For t4kpov, Wecklein conj. tcXcip. 
1224 irpoadou Dindorf : rrptxrOov MSS. 1226 ifioit] ifun L, with <r added above 

by a later hand. 1226 \£/S# Elmsley: Xa/3oi mss. 1228 Tt0ov Brunck: vel$ov 



1221 4mo-Ki{irr«» with double ace, 
like Ke\e6(a two. rt: so Eur. /. 7*. 701 
vp6t deltas <re r>)<r5' itruricfyirTV rdde. 

1228 irarfxpwv 6picCa>v, the oath im- 
posed on thee by thy father. 

1224 irpooHfov, associate with thyself: 
cp. O. C. 404 n. 

Srfpapra. This passage concerning 
Iole and Hyllus (1216 — 1*51) was ren- 
dered indispensable by the plot, if the 
poet was to avoid a contradiction which 
must otherwise have perplexed the spec- 
tators. 

Iole figured in legend as the wife of 
Hyllus. Their son, KXeo&uos (called 
KXeo5aT7?y by Theopompus, fr. 30), was 
mentioned by Hesiod (schol. Ap. Rh. 1. 
824), and was recorded in the pedigree 
of the Spartan kings, being the grand- 
father of Aristodemus (Her. 6. 52, 8. 131). 
Hyllus and Iole had also a daughter, 
Etialxw, known in Messenian story (Paus. 
4. 2. 1). 

But, in this play, Iole is the paramour 
of Heracles, and indirectly the cause of 
his death. How, then, could Hyllus wed 
her? His own words (1233 — 1237) ex- 
press what a Greek would feel. It was 
necessary, then, that the marriage should 



be imposed upon him by his dying father's 
inexorable command. 

Cp. Apollodorus 2. 7. 7 § 13 irrei- 
Xdfupos "TXXy . . .rifv 'loXrjv dvUptadivra 
yrj/uu: as if Hyllus were younger than 
Sophocles here imagines him. Ovid, Met. 
9. 278, of Iole: Herculis Warn \ Imperils 
thalamoque animoque receperat Hyllus, 
Ace. to Pherecydes, it was for Hyllus, 
not for himself, that Heracles had first 
asked the hand of Iole (schol. on v. 354). 

1226 f. dXXos.clvTl <roO: cp. At. 
444 ovk dr Tts atfr' ffxap\f/ev dtXXos arr 9 
ifiov. — 6uo4, prep, with dat, in the sense 
of ' near' (O. T. 1007), a specially Attic 
use (Ph. 12 18 Append.).— \cCpn, in this 
command, is clearly right: the mere 
wish, Xd/Sot, would be unsuitable. Cp. 
331 n. 

1227 etXV aM% k.t.X.: this third 
clause reiterates the sense of the first, 
Tpoadov d&fiapra: cp. 433 n. — toOto... 
Xixos •= tovto Kijdos t cogn. ace. to KijSeu- 
<rov ('contract this marriage'): cp. Arist. 

Pol. 5. 7. IO K7)6ciL>€tV 6T(p dtXdXTUf. 

Not, * cherish this bride,' as in Eur. Med. 
888 K-qde\jov<Tat> is said of Medea 'tend- 
ing' Iason's new wife. 

1228 £ iriOoO, not ireldov: it is a 



TPAXINIAI 



177 



He. Even so. This, in brief, is the charge that I give thee, 
my son. When I am dead, if thou wouldest show a pious re- 
membrance of thine oath unto thy father, disobey me not, but 
take this woman to be thy wife. Let no other espouse her who 
hath lain at my side, but do thou, O my son, make that marriage- 
bond thine own. Consent: after loyalty in great matters, to 
rebel in less is to cancel the grace that had been won. 

Hy. Ah me, it is not well to be angry with a sick man : 
but who could bear to see him in such a mind ? 

He. Thy words show no desire to do my bidding, 

Hy. What! When she- alone is to blame for my mother's 
death, and for thy present plight besides? Lives there the 
man who would make such a choice, unless he were maddened 
by avenging fiends ? 

Better were it, father, that I too should die, rather than live 
united to the worst of our foes ! 

most mss. — fytoi] Wecklein conj. fiot. 1229 afwcpots] Blaydes writes <TfUKp6v <r\ — 
irapos] iraXcu Harl. 1280 rb r: rwi L. — vogovvti] Wakefield conj. voffowra. 

1281 <35' dpav] Groddeck and Wunder conj. ude dpdv ('that a sane man should 
obey such a command'). 1282 oirdtv] ov5h otidtv L, with a line drawn 

through the first. 1284 <rol 6' Schaefer : aol r' MSS. 1286 ravr'] 

Frohlich conj. rrjv5\ — voaol L, with most MSS. : voaei r. 1286 tfXotro L, with 

most MSS. : alpdiro r. 1287 kxQlorowiv L, with two dots over v. 



peremptory summons: cp. 470 n. — irwr- 
TfforavT* = Tn66fji€vov , as in 1 2 5 1 . These 
are perhaps the only clear examples of 
irwretfw as='to obey,* though amaTeiv 
as=dfl-6t06u' was frequent. — t|iol, not poi, 
because the pron. , though it has no strong 
emphasis, implies, 'to me, your father. 
A son's obedience should be complete. — 
<r|UKpot$, dat. of respect : cp. Ph. 342 
7rpayfi\ Srtp a* frtifipiaav: Eur. fr. 105 1 
Xfrf/jLaaiv \e\dfifieda. — otryxcf, obliterates, 
as if it had been traced in sand : cp. O. 
C. 609 n. 

1280 £ t6 |Uv voroQvri jc.t.X. Cp. 
543 ff. dv/iovffdai fjJtv otiic iirUrTa/JLCu | 
v 00 own KeuHp... I rb 8' ad £woikcip ry8' 
6/jlov rls dv ywrj J dfocuro...; — <S8e...<(>po- 
voflvra, in a state of mind so deplorable 
as is argued by the bare suggestion of 
such a marriage. This is not an 'aside'; 
but the speaker's amazement precludes a 
direct reply. 

1282 <&s Ipyaoftoy: cp. O. T. 625 
a* o#x farcU;<av oi)W Turrefotav X£y«s; 
For the desiderative verb, see Ph. 100 1 n. 

1288 fL tCs ydp iro6', the indignant 
exordium, is immediately followed by the 
relative clause concerning Iole, rj having 
a causal force, — as we might say, 'What ! 
when she...' etc Cp. n. on O. C. 263 

J. S. V. 



K&fioiye ttov ravr* iffrtv; otrivet fiddpwv 
ic.t.X. Then, instead of rafrrqv or Tfivdc, 
as antecedent to Vj, the speaker bitterly 
says, Toflr', 'all this,' — the horrors which, 
for him, are embodied in Iole. Cp. O. T. 
1492 dXX' 7}vIk' Sm 51) it phi y&fiuv iJKrjr' 
atcftdt, I rls ofrrot ferret*, rls irapapplxf/ei, 
riicva, I toiclvt* dveldrj Xafifidvuv; It 
would miserably enfeeble the passage to 
alter to-At*. 

The ethic dat. |loi implies, ' as I have 
seen.' — OctvcCv, without rov : cp. Ant. 
1 173 atrtoi Savelv (n.): \k6vr\ |LCTa£rio$ 
means that she alone shared the blame with 
Heracles (cp. 260 n.). — <rol 8' is more 
probable than <roC t' here, where the 
antithesis is marked. — <&$ *xcis fxciv: 
Dem. or. 3 § 8 ix°^ T(av &s (txown. QrjpaLwv: 
O. C. 273 licdfiriv V lic6fir)vi O. T. 1376 
n. — %vr\% |&i)...vo<rot: the optat., on ac- 
count of IXwt' fy : the relative clause is 
equiv. in sense to a protasis, el fiij vocroi : 
see on O. C. 560. For the form voaoi 
(instead of poaotrj), Ph. 895 n. — dXcur- 
t6(h»v: O. C. 788 n. Such a marriage 
would imply that some oWy had deranged 
his mind {Ant. 622). 

1287 Tofcriv tydhrroun,: cp. O. T. 
366 rots <f>i\T&Tois (Iocasta). — 6jwv added 
to awvaUiv, as in 545 to tvvouceiv. 

12 



i 7 8 



204>0KAE0YZ 



TTT» * * *fc» C V 9 ~ 9 \ 

HP. avr/p oo co$ eoucev ov vefieiv e/xoL 
<f>6ivovri fiolpaw dXXa rot deciv dpd 
fLevel cr dmcrnja'avTa rots ifiOLS Xoyots. 

TA. OL/MOL, rav', cos cot/cas, aJ$ ^ocTCts <f>pd<rei,$. 

HP. crv ya/> ft owr' evva&devros €kklv€l<; ica/cov. 

TA. SeiXcuos, a>$ €$ 7roXXd Tairopeiv ex<a. 

HP. ov ya/> Si/caiois tov ffrvreuaavros KkveiP. 

TA. aXX* c/c8t8a^^ai S^Ta hvcraefielv, irdrep ; 

HP. ov Svorcr^Seta, tov/xop el Tc/n/rcis /ccap. 

TA. irpdcceiv avayya? ovv p.e 7r<w8wccus rdhe; 

HP. eyoyye* tovtcji/ fidprupa? koXcu deovs. 

TA. roiydp ttotJcq) kovk dnaxrofiaL, to (top 
0€ol<ri Scucws epyov ov yap dv wore 
/ca/cos <f>avelr)i/ <roi ye morcucras, irdrep. 

HP. koXojs Te\evr$$* kwitX toictSc tt)i> ydpiv 



1240 



1245 



1250 



1288 Affrp] ai^p (jiif) L. — ye/ietf Brunck: vky&iv MSS. — Wakefield conj. ofa l/uoi vefieii 
Hense, otf ve/tec rtva : Erfurdt, 06 ve/xet irarpi : Mekler, otfSaAt' dv v^tuu : Nauck, od 
ye/act irarpds \ <f>6lvovros dtpav. 1240 dvurrfyravTi L, with a written over the 

final 1 by the first hand. 1241 otfioi t : cS fioi L. — rdy£ ws] In L a letter 

(perhaps a) has been erased after x'. — <ppd<T€is mss.: Axt conj. ^avcts: Hermann, 
ipaveiv: Subkoff conj. ot)uoi, <ra</>a5s £ot/ca* d>s voxels <ppd<rai. i«a« ~v-» 



1242 



air 



1288 £ <&$ loiKcv, ov vf|Utv, instead 
of 01) vcfj.€i. The verb which ought to 
have been principal is attracted into the 
relative clause. Cp. Her. 4. 5 us M 
2}jctf0<u \4yovci, vt&rarov dxdvTwv tdviwv 
etvai (instead of fori) t6 oQirepw. Id. 
6. 137 eta 8i abrol 'Adrjvcuoi \4yov<n t 
Sucalus i£c\daai (instead of £&j\a<rav). 
Plat. Sophist. 263 D iravrdiracnv, wj £01- 
#f€v, ^ rota&TTf <rfo6c<ris...ylyv€<rdat (in- 
stead of ylyvcrcu) \6yos ypevd^s. Id. Phileb. 
20 D r65e 76 ^V, ut o?/tcu, irepi afrou 
di'cryjrcuAraroi' civ at (instead of fori) \£- 
7€tv [for ehai can hardly depend on the 
word dydyKfj higher up]. Eur. /. T. 52 
tcadeivcu (instead of KaOijKc) after cus Wo£e. 
But Aesch. /ferj. 188 toiJtw ordW tip 1 , 
cuj I7& '56/cot/v 6pcu>, I retJxew, is more 
complex, as the fusion is between (1) 156- 
kow {$rd plur.) reiJxetv, and (2) Ircuxoi', 
ws ^yd> idlfcow bpav. In Latin, too, this 
natural laxity occurs : Cic. Offic. 1. 7 § 22 
ut placet Stoicis, quae in terris gignantur 
ad usum hominum omnia creari (instead 
of creantur). 

Paley would get rid of the irregularity 
by making (is exclamatory ( 'how ! ') : but 
this is impossible. The text is clearly 



sound, though it has been much suspected 
(cr. n.). 

vc|UCv...|u>tpav: fMiipa is the share of 
respect due to a person: cp. Plat. Crat. 
308 C fJLeydXrjv fioipav koX rifxty tx €t • and 
O. C. 277 Append. For vefieaf, cp. 57 
v£fxoi...iofxu>. 

0€<3v dpa (like OcQp 'E/wucs, Ant. 1075), 
— the vengeance sent by the gods, in 
answer to the father's imprecation (1202). 
In this objective sense, the Curse is itself 
the agent of retribution: cp. 0. T. 418 
dewbirovs dpd: Aesch. Theb. 70 'Apd t\ 
'E/mvi>s TCLrpb* rj fieyacrdar/js : and the 
Eumenides call themselves 'Apal (Eum. 
417). Sometimes, again, the 'Apd is dis- 
tinguished from the power which it calls 
into action : El. in ir&rvi* 'Apd, | <re/xval 
re detov traides "Eipivves. A transition 
from the latter idea to the former may be 
seen in 0. C. 1375 *•> where Oed. sum- 
mons his own imprecations to be his 

i-vfj.fxdx ov *' 

1241 <&$ toiicas (instead of cu$ Jfotjcey), 
as in El. 516: so Eur. Helen. 497 u>s 
dfaaiv. — <|>pd<rcis, wilt 'show,' 'make it 
clear' (by acts, or words, or both). After 
such words — Hyllus means — some violent 



TPAXINIAI 



179 



He. He will render no reverence, it seems, to my dying 
prayer. — Nay, be sure that the curse of the gods will attend thee 
for disobedience to my voice. 

Hy. Ah, thou wilt soon show, methinks, how distempered 
thou art ! 

He. Yea, for thou art breaking the slumber of my plague. 

Hy. Hapless that I am ! What perplexities surround me ! 

He. Yea, since thou deignest not to hear thy sire. 

H Y. But must I learn, then, to be impious, my father ? 

He. Tis not impiety, if thou shalt gladden my heart 

Hy. Dost thou command me, then, to do this deed, as a 
clear duty ? 

He. I command thee, — the gods bear me witness ! 

Hy. Then will I do it, and refuse not, — calling upon the 
gods to witness thy deed. I can never be condemned for loyalty 
to thee, my father. 

He. Thou endest well ; and to these words, my son, 

tfocurOivTOG L (the apostrophe after ic is from the first hand) : &irewaff$£vTos the other 
mss., and Aid. 1246 Bvcffifteia] tvaipcut L, with a second a added above by 

a later hand. 1247 ovv] 5ij K. 1249 £ rb <rbv..Jpyov] Dobree conj. 

rb ffbv...roHpyov: Heimsoeth, cbv ov...ro1ipyov. — dcucvits] In L the letters tor have 
been made from our. — For deolai deucvds Hense conj. deoU Siofivvs. 



outburst of madness may be expected. 
tppafew, 'to declare,' does not necessarily 
imply speech: Her. 4. 113 <pwvrj<rai pAv 
oiK eZ% e » °v y&P vwl&rav dKXfjXutv, ry 8i 
X«pi typafr. Aesch. Ag. 106 1 <n> 8' dvrl 
<fxavrjs <f>pd£e Kappfoy ^e/rf. There is a 
shade of mournful irony in (ppdcreis ('make 
it plain enough'), which is lost in the con- 
jecture <f>avcis. — For the double -etj, cp. 
Ant. 682 <3p \tyeu Sokcis wtpi. 

1242 dir* €vvcur6^VTo$...icaico$, lit., 
'from a lulled plague,' i.e. from the repose 
allowed to me by its subsidence. This 
is simpler than to understand, 'after the 
plague had been lulled,' when avb would 
be used like $k (Theocr. 15. 106 ddavdrav 
dvb Ovaras). — The v. I. dircuvcur64vTO$ 
would be rather a gen. absolute, areu- 
v&fsiv does not occur. 

1248 Is iroXXct, 'with regard to' 
them: cp. n. on 1211. 

1244 kXvcvv: i.e., as to the marriage. 
The question as to the pyre has been 
settled (12 1 5). 

1246 f. Swcrtpctv. He regards Iole 
as virtually the destroyer of both his 
parents (1233): it is not ebaeftt* for him 
to marry her. Heracles replies that the 
supreme duty is to do a father's pleasure 
(cp. 1 1 77). 



1247 TrpcL<r<reuv...irav8CK»s, to do these 
things 'with full justification,' i.e., as a 
duty imposed by a father's solemn com- 
mand. — Others explain, 'command me 
absolutely' : but tclv61kws could not mean 
TrarrcXQs: see on 61 r. — For the place of 
odv in the verse, cp. O. C. 1205, Ph. 
121. 

1248 lv<ov<, 'that I do'; cp. Ai. 104, 

1347, 1365- , 

1249 f. iroT)(ra». He will marry Iole. 

But he will call the gods to witness that 
it is his father's doing, and not an act of 
his own choice. — to <rov OcoCci Scucvfe 
ip-yov : the tpyov is not, strictly, the mar- 
riage itself, but the act of Heracles in 
prescribing it. Hence the words, ' show- 
ing thy deed to the gods,' mean properly, 
' pleading, before the gods, the constraint 
which you have put upon me ' : not, * pro- 
testing that my act in marrying Iole is 
really your act.' Accordingly we have 
8eaa>i>s rb abv tpyov, not dcucvds rb tpyov 
abv (8v). The text has been suspected 
(cr. n.) only because it has not been fully 
understood. 

1262 ft koXws TcXcvrf s, after threat- 
ening disobedience (1230 ff.). — Kehrl 
Touroc : i.e., crown the promise with the 
deed. Cp. Ai. 813 Koit \6yip del^u pAvov | 

12 — 2 



i8o 



Z04>0KAE0YZ 



Taxctav, m ircu, Trpoades, cos irplv ip,ir€cr€iv 
crwapay/MOP rj riv otarpov is irvpdv fie dj}?. 
ay iyKovelr, atpeade* iravkd rot kclkcov 
avT7j } reXevrfj tovSc rdvBpos voTavq. 
TA. dXV ovhkv etpyei crol TcXciovcr^ai rc£8c, 
67rel KeXeveLS /cct^iai/ay/ca^ei?, irdrep. 

HP. dye wi>, 7T/31V r^vS* avaKivfjcrai 
vocrov, (2 t/wx?) <rK\r)pd, ^dXujSo? 

Xl^OKoXX^TOJ' OTOflLOV wap€)(ov<r , 

dvdwave fiorjv, aJs iiri^aprov 
TeKeova* deKOixriov epyov. 
TA. cuper, onahoi, /MeydKrfp fikv ifiol 
tovtcjp OefievoL <Tvyyvtop.o<ruvit)v y 



1255 



1260 



1265 



1264 fie $$s most mss., and Aid.: fxedrja (made by the first hand from fiedehr) 
L. 1266 TeXevHj] reXevrij (not TeXevriji) L. — rdvdpos] t' dvdpoo- L. 

1269 vw r: fuv L. — dvcucii'ijcreu] Blaydes conj. dvaiciveiffdai. 1260 aKXrjpd] 

Blaydes writes <ncXr)pov. 1261 Xi0ok6XXt)tov] Welcker conj. Xvkok6XXtjtov. — 

iraptxova'] L carries over the letters x ovff1 to tne next verse. The Aldine divides 



t&xos yap tpyov Kal rrodwv apf fyercu. — 
Ta\€iav, adverbial: cp. 0. T. 617 f. 

irplv tpirco-ctv ac.t.X. : his fear is not so 
much of the pain, or of increased difficulty 
for his bearers, but rather of the ill- 
omened cries which would be wrung from 
him on the brink of death. See on 1260. 
— <nrapay|fc6v (778) — otcrrpov: a similar 
combination occurs in Aesch. fr. 163 Ik 
ttoSQv 6' &wa I faripxercu (nra.payp.bt els 
dicpov K&pa, I KtvTTjfia X6a<nr)s, CKOpiriov 
pi\os Xcfyw. 

1266 f. &y* is said to all the by- 
standers, rather than to Hyllus alone: 
cp. 821 W, n. — tyKovcfrr': cp. At. 811 
Xwpw^tev, iyKovQfiev: id. 988 tO* iyicdvet, 
fftiyKCLfwe. The derivation of the verb 
is uncertain : the only part of it used by 
Homer is iyieovtowrai. — atpco*0c: this 
literal sense of the midd. atpo/xou is much 
rarer than the figurative; see, however, 
EL 54, //. 20. 247, Eur. CycL 473. 

avTT|, instead of tovto : cp. 0. C. 88 
rairrt\v iXei-e irav\av (n.). He does not 
mean, 'this is the rest promised by the 
oracle' (1170); but merely, — 'this is the 
true release for me.' — T€Xtvnj...v<rn£TT|, 
like iaxarov rippua (Eur. Andr. 1081), 
extr emus finis (Verg. G. 4. 116). He 
has no presentiment of immortality. 

1267 £ etXX': cp. 1179 n.— ov&v 
ctpyci like oi&kv xwXuct. Cp. 344.- — 



\curf>o*0ai : cp. O, C, 1089 reXetcocrat : 
but EL 1 5 10 reXetaOiv. Both forms were 
current in Attic prose. — torel kcXcvus : he 
again disclaims responsibility: cp. 1247. 

1269—1268 As Hyllus spoke the 
last two verses, he gave a sign to the 
bearers (964) to come forward and re- 
sume their places beside the litter. These 
five anapaestic lines are spoken by Hera- 
cles while that order is being obeyed. 
Then the words of Hyllus, atper\ d-rradol 
(1264), mark that the procession is about 
to move. 

1269 ff. dtye vw. Either vw or vvv 
would be fitting here, but the former is 
better: it refers to the consent of Hyllus. 
The scholiast read vw (aye ovv). 

irplv dveuuvrjenu njvSc vocrov, 'before 
thou hast aroused this plague,' *\*., 'allow- 
ed it to arise,' — by delay. The attacks 
recur at intervals ; and he wishes to reach 
the pyre speedily (1253). The meaning is 
not that vehement laments might bnng 
on the pain. 

Other views are: — (1) avaKivrjtrtu is in- 
trans., 'be roused.' But this use is un- 
exampled, and cannot safely be inferred 
from the intrans. irroKivelv (Her. 5. 106, 
etc.), or TrapoLKiveiv as = vapaicbirreiv, irapa- 
iraleiv, delirare. (2) The subject to the 
inf. is v6<rov, and the object is ere under- 
stood. But avaKivij<rat clearly refers to 



TPAXINIAI 



181 



quickly add the gracious deed, that thou mayest lay me on 
the pyre before any pain returns to rend or sting me. 

Come, make haste and lift me ! This, in truth, is rest from 
troubles ; this is the end, the last end, of Heracles ! 

Hy. Nothing, indeed, hinders the fulfilment of thy wish, 
since thy command constrains us, my father. 

He. Come, then, ere thou arouse this plague, O my stub- 
born soul, give me a curb as of steel on lips set like stone to 
stone, and let no cry escape them ; seeing that the deed which 
thou art to do, though done perforce, is yet worthy of thy joy ! 

Hy. Lift him, followers! And grant me full forgiveness 

for this ; 

thus, 7rap4xov\a\ Musgrave conj. wpo^xowr': Wecklein writes irplova': Blaydes, 
5cucvov<t\ 1268 rcXtova* Billerbeck : reXius mss., which may have arisen, 

Hermann suggests, from a reading reXewcrcu £ko6<tiov. 1 264 atper* mss. : 

XaJper* Nauck (giving 1264 — 12 &9 t0 Heracles). 1266 L has avyixafixHrtirrii', 

with a second 7 added above the line by the first hand: not o-vyyvuiMofonv, with 
v above the first 7, as has been reported. 



rousing the pain, not to troubling the 
mind: cp. 974 pfi\ Ktir/)(rj}$...68vvav : 979 
K&KKivfi<r€t$. . .vbcov. 

c5 tyvyj\ <nc\T)pd : this phrase has a bad 
sense in At. 1361; just as the epithet 
k pare p6<pp(i)v, .given to Heracles in //. 14. 
324, is applied in Hes. Op. 147 to the 
XdXjretop yfros. — Cp. Od. 20. 18 rirkaOi 
Sif KpadLrj: Aristophanes parodies such 
passages, Ach. 483 ff. irpdfiaive vw, u 
dvfit... aye vw, w rdXawa Kapdta: as Vol- 
taire said of like apostrophes in Corneille, 
'nous ne sommes plus dans un temps oil 
Ton parle a son bras et a son ame.' 

\aXvPos Xi0ok6Wi)tov <rro|uov. This 
has been explained :— ( 1) 'A curb of 
steel, set with sharp stones' — to make it 
more severe. (2) 'A curb of steel, orna- 
mented with costly stones.' (3) 'A steel 
clamp for binding stones together.' See 
Appendix. 

I take the words in a way different from 
any of these. xdXv/Sot trrdfuop, the * curb 
of steel,' is, as all agree, the strong self- 
restraint which is to keep the lips closed. 
Then \i0ok6Wiitov introduces a new 
image. The lips, thus firmly closed, are 
set as stone to stone in masonry. Thus the 
whole phrase means 'A curb of steel, to 
keep the lips set as stone to stone.' The 
use of XidoKdXkrjTw to describe the effect 
of the 'curb* has been assisted by the 
suggestion, in ardpuov, of <rr6fia. 

dvdiravc ftaijv. Pythagoras said that a 
dying man, — like one who is putting out 



to sea, — should avoid words of ill omen : 
— Karh. rbv Hararop Koupbv rrapfiyyeXke /t^ 
p\a<T<f>r)/j.€iv, dXX' waTcp iv reus dva- 
yoyyais oloovifcadcu fter* eixpTjfjdas (Iamblich. 
Pyth. § 257). — «Ss with tcXIoiht* (fut. 
part.), marking the intention (cp. 160): 
cir£x a P T0V > predicative: ('as being about 
to do a compulsory deed with a feeling of 
joy.') The end has been imposed by 
fate ; but it brings victory over pain. 

1264 — 1278 The unanimous tradi- 
tion assigned verses 1264 — 1274 to Hyllus. 
Verses 1275 — 1278 were given by some 
to the Chorus, and by others to Hyllus. 
From the indication in L at v. 1275 
(xopbs ypdeperat OXXos), and from the 
schol. there [x°pb*' rivis tfXXos), it may 
be conjectured that the attribution of 
1275 — 1278 to the Chorus was the pre- 
valent one. This was only natural, as the 
Chorus usually closes the play. A ma- 
jority of modern editors, however, give 
w. 1264 — 1278 wholly to Hyllus; and 
they seem right. — See Appendix. 

1264 ff. 6iraSo£, 'attendants,' 'fol- 
lowers,' — the men who have come with 
him from Euboea (964). In Ant. 1108 
Creon addresses his servants as dx&oves. 
— jtcydX-qv |Uv tuol ir.r.X.: the meaning 
is, ' Pardon me tor helping my father to 
destroy himself; and note that the real 
cruelty here is that of Zeus, who allows 
his son to perish thus.' 

<rvYyv«0|u><rvvT)v ( = (rvyyv&fiTjy) a word 
found only here; cp. Ant. 151 dicdai 



{ 



1 82 



Z04>0KAE0YI 



fieydXrjp 8k Oecii/ ayv<aiio<rvvqv 

ciSotcs €pyo)v rtav irpaacrofia/cuv, 

ot <f>vcravT€<z k<u Kkjj^ofiei/oi, 

warcpes Toiavr i<f>opcocrL Trddrj. 

rd p,€v ovv fiiWovr ovSets icfwpa, 1270 

ra 0€ wv earayr oucrpa /lev rj/uv, 

aicrxpa 8* e/cetVot?, 

Xakeirtorara 8* ovv dv8p(ov irdvraiv 

tg> rrjv8* arr)v vireypim,. 

Xelwov firj8k <rv, irapdev, in olkcjv, I2 75 

fieydXovs /xev l&ovcra veovs davdrovs, 
7ro\Xa 8e irijfiara /cat Katvonadrj, 

K0v8eV TOVTQ)V O 71 flTj ZcVS. 

1266 £ Bi r, and Aid.: re L. — dew L, with most mss., and Aid.: deois Vat.: 
in T o« is written above deQv. — Nauck, reading 6col j, brackets the words dypw/juxri- 
vt)v | cldbrcs tpywv. L. Dindorf wished to delete v. 1267. 1269 £<f>opuxri 

iraOrj] tyopwaiv Nauck (deleting ir&Orj). 1270 i<pofxji] Hartung and Blaydes write 
irpoopq.: Wakefield conj. fapopq.: Nauck, otdev. 1278 v&ptup Aid. : airdyrivp L, 

with most mss. : Oavdrovs (instead of tc&twp) A, R, Harl. 1276 eV cIkujp schol. 



\ri<rfJLO<ri>vav. — clSo*T€s fofiv |&cy. dyva\u>- 
crvvr\v Ipywv k.t.X., 'recognising the great 
harshness of the gods in the deeds/ etc. : 
for the double gen., cp. Andoc. or. 3 § 33 
rijv...&a<t>d\€iay ij/xup rrjs iiravcHpopas. 
For dyvufjLocrijvT}, prop, 'want of con- 
siderateness,' cp. Dem. or. 18 § 252 wav- 
rax60€P fih av n$ t6oi r^v ayvufxoctirqv 
airrov kclI H)p pacricavlav ('unfairness and 
malevolence'): id. 207 rj rrjs t6xW 
dyvu/jLooTjpy, its 'cruelty.' The like- 
sounding words end two successive verses, 
as Trapgpeaa and <rvygp€<ra in Ph. 1 2 1 f. 

For Nauck's reading of this passage, 
see Appendix. 

1268 KX'n^i&cvoi is more than kclXoij- 
pepot: it implies invocation and praise: 
cp. 659. — tyopokri, i.e., look calmly down 
upon them: cp. Aesch. Ag. 1270 (Cas- 
andra complains of Apollo) eVoirretfoxK 
... I ...KaTayeXwfifrrjv. 

1270— 1274 rd |Uv ovv \UKKovr* 
k.t.X.: Hyllus means : — 'No one, indeed, 
commands a view (4<popq) of the future 



(and so it is possible that Zeus may yet 
make some amend) ; but, as to the present 
situation, it is miserable for us, shameful 
for Zeus (Ikc£voi$), and supremely cruel 
for the victim.' 

The words tA /*e> oto pJiWom* ovtkis 
i(pop$ unconsciously foreshadow the apo- 
theosis of Heracles. This is the only 
hint of it in the play. 

XaXcmoTara o ovv. Here 5* ofo marks 
the return to the foremost subject of his 
thoughts. 'Be the pity or the shame 
what it may, there can be no doubt who 
suffers most ' Cp. Ant. 688 n. 

1276 — 1278 These four verses are 
addressed by Hyllus to the leader of the 
Chorus, and give the signal for moving 
from the orchestra. With iropBeV, com- 
pare u wapOfroi in 211. The Chorus 
has been silent since 1113; and it seems 
dramatically right that its silence should 
be maintained in this last scene. The 
young maidens of Trachis may well leave 
the son of Heracles, at this solemn 



TPAXINIAI 



183 



but mark the great cruelty of the gods in the deeds that are 
being done. They beget children, they are hailed as fathers, 
and yet they can look upon such sufferings. 

No man foresees the future ; but the present is fraught with 
mourning for us, and with shame for the powers above, and verily 
with anguish beyond compare for him who endures this doom. 

Maidens, come ye also, nor linger at the house ; ye who have 
lately seen a dread death, with sorrows manifold and strange : 
and in all this there is nought but Zeus. 

(as a v. /.), and T : d*-' oUtav L, with the other MSS. 1276 — 1278 Hartung, 

F. Ritter and others reject these vv. 1276 fieydkovt] Subkoff writes /u\4ovs. 

— Idovaa made from el5ov<ra in L. — v4ovs Savarovs forms a separate v. in L. 
1277 koX added by Bentley. — Kcuvowadi} A (717 written above), with most 
mss. , and Aid. : Kouvowayij L (with 6 above 7), K, Harl. Wecklein writes 
kolvottclOt). 



moment, to sum up the lesson of his 
father's fate. 

If the verses are given to the leader of 
the Chorus, then icap6& will be taken in 
a collective sense, as referring to the 
other choreutae; cp. 821 u -rrcudet. Prof. 
Campbell understands a reference to the 
maidens of the household (205) ; but this 
seems less natural. In either case, the 
singular number would be unusual. 

Another view is that irapdh' means 
Iole. But she is not present : and, even 
if she could be thus summoned forth, her 
presence would be unfitting. 

1276 tir' ottcuv (see cr. n.) is clearly 
right. M is often thus used with the 
gen., of position : Plat. Charm. 163 B ir* 
oltcfffiaros Ka6r)/j.4v( i ) : Thuc. 4. 118 fxfreiv 
farl rrjs outQv. — The vulg. dir* oticuv 
has been explained in three ways, each 
of which appears untenable: — (1) *Do 
not stay behind, — leaving the house,' i.e., 
'leave it.' (2) 'Do not fail from the 
house,' — *.*., 'stay there.' (3) With 



Tcapd&i 'O maiden from the house, do 
not stay behind.' 

1276 £ Oavdrovs, Deianeira's violent 
death (for the plur., cp. O. T. 497 n.). 
1*he bold use of prydXovs is softened by 
the poetical plur;, which brings out the 
notion of a 'great' or 'awful calamity, 
fiiyas is often nearly equivalent to de&fo, as 
in fUya n vaBetr (Xen. An. 5. 8. 17), etc. 

irrjpxtTa...KatvoiraWj, the strange and 
terrible sufferings of Heracles. This adj. 
does not occur elsewhere: but Aesch. 
Theb. 363 has kcuvotHj/xov as='new to 
woe.' (For the bad sense of kcup6s, cp. 
867, 873.) The second part of the com- 
pound is akin in sense to irijfjLa: cp. 756 
n. — The v. I. Kawomryij was a prosaic 
conjecture, suggested by such words as 
peotray^s. 

1278 With Zcfe the schol. supplies 
tirpai-ev: but it seems truer to supply 
4<ttU>. 'There is nothing in all this that 
fir not Zeus': i.e. t he is manifested in 
each and all of these events. 



APPENDIX. 



11 — 14 As to the coins of Acarnania (and Ambracia), all later than 
300 b.c, on which Acheloiis appears as a man-headed bull, see Barclay 
Head, Hist Numorum, p. 63. An example of the man-headed bull, 
probably representing a river-god, occurs on a coin of Laiis (Aaos) in 
Magna Graecia, referable tor the latter part of the sixth, or beginning of 
the fifth, century B.C. : Percy Gardner, Types of Greek Coins, pi. 1. 
no. 10. 

With regard to the third shape assumed by Acheloiis, — avopctu) kwi 
/fowrpwpos, — two views are possible. (1) According to the first and 
simplest view, which I adopt in the commentary, kvt€l means the whole 
body, and the form intended is a complete human figure, only with the 
forehead, horns, and ears of an ox. (2) According to the second view, 
kvt€i would have a narrower sense, denoting the human trunk without 
the lower extremities (to dv avxivos ^XP L a *&ou»v kvtos, Arist. Hist. An. 
1. 8, p. 491 a 29). Mr A. S. Murray has referred me to an incised 
drawing on an Etruscan bronze mirror, published in the continuation of 
Gerhard's Etruskische Spiegel (v. pi. 66). It shows a figure with a head 
half-human, half-bovine, and a body which is human down to the hips, 
but terminates in two serpents, coiled upwards on either side, so that 
their heads project under the human arms. This figure, Mr Murray 
thinks, may represent the Acheloiis. His first shape, that of the man- 
headed bull, and his second, that of the serpent, would thus each con- 
tribute an element to his third stage, which is preponderantly human. 
Mr Murray notices also a vase in Gerhard (Auserl. Vasenb., 11. 115), 
— that to which Mr Ruskin refers in Stones of Venice, Vol. 1. Appendix 
21. Here Acheloiis has a human head (though with a bull's horns), 
human shoulders and arms; from the breast downwards he is not a 
serpent, but a fish. 

If it could be assumed that Sophocles, in these verses, was accu- 
rately describing a series of transformations represented in some single 
work of art which he had seen, that would be a reason for interpreting 
the three successive forms in such a manner that the second should 
retain some element of the first, and the third of the second. 'An 



1 86 APPENDIX. 

artist/ as Mr Murray observes, 'was bound to retain in each transforma- 
tion something of the previous stage; otherwise the representation would 
not have been intelligible. ' For this purpose, however, the figure on 
the Etruscan mirror, blending attributes of ox, man, and serpent, should 
be made the second, not the third; it should be identified with the 
Spcucoov, not with the avSpcup kvt€l fioxnrpupos. The connected series 
would then be : (i) man-headed bull : (2) human trunk, with half-bovine 
head, and serpentine ending : (3) human figure, with bovine forehead, 
horns and ears. But it appears far more probable that Sophocles had 
no thought of any such link between the forms, though each separate 
form may have been suggested by some representation in art. He works 
freely, like the poet of the Odyssey in describing the changes of Proteus 
(4.4566°.). 

With regard to the double reading here, kvt€l fiovirpwpos (Strabo), 
and TV7ra) fiovKpavos (mss. of Soph.), these points may be noted. (1) 
kvtci is in the best mss. of Strabo, though four others have rvirtp, — one 
of these, cod. Mosq. 205 (late 15th cent.), giving kvtci in the marg. : see 
the Didot ed. of Strabo, by C. Miiller and F. Diibner, vol 2, p. 1008. 
(2) These editors do not notice /3ovKpavos as a v. /. in Strabo's text; though, 
ace. to C. H. Tzschucke, who continued the ed. of Strabo by Siebenkees 
(vol. 4, p. 105), povKpavos is in one ms. of Strabo, viz., cod. Mosq. 205, 
with $ovwp<apos written over it. (3) kvtci /Jov7rpa>pos, as the best attested 
reading in Strabo, thus rests on older authority than can be proved for 
TV7ra) fiovKpavos. The latter is just such a variant as might have arisen 
from a slip of memory on the part of actors ; while on the other hand it 
is not likely to have generated the more exquisite phrase. (4) Either 
povirpqpos or /3ovKpavo<> could mean, 'with bovine head') cp. Empedocles 

314 f., where fiovyevrj dvhpoirpt&pa are opposed to av$po<j>vrj ftovKpava. 

But fiovirpwpos is much fitter than fiovKpavos to express what seems to be 
the true sense, 'with bovine front! 

29 f. vv£ yap €urdy€L 

Kal vv£ dw<a$€i StaScSey/uto^; irovov. 

A modified form of the interpretation given in the commentary is 
one which governs irovov, not only by the finite verbs, but also by 
SiaScSey/Acny. 'Night brings trouble to my heart, and night rids me of 
trouble only by inheriting a fresh burden! (Pretor.) The objection to 
this view is, I think, the shifting senses which it requires in irovov. The 
phrases cto-ayct irovov, dinaOel irovov, refer to the coming and going of 
some particular trouble. One care follows another. But SuxSeSey/jicvr) 
irovov could not strictly mean, 'having inherited afresh burden.' The 
proper sense of the words would be, 'having succeeded to trouble'; i.e., 
having received it from the preceding night. Thus, as construed with 
StaScScy/Ltcny, irovov must have a collective sense, denoting that series of 
troubles which the second night continues. 

Other interpretations which claim notice are the following. (1) 
Linwood: 'Nox ubi advenit, mihi sollicitudinem adducit, eademque 
vicissim [SiaScSeyftcny] ubi abit, curam levat' That is, only one night is 
meant : 'Night (at its coming) brings trouble, and (when it departs) in 



APPENDIX. 187 

turn banishes trouble.' It is enough to observe that Sia&cSeyfiwrj then 
means no more than a?: this blot is disguised by vicissim. (2) Wecklein : 
' The (sleeplessness of) one night brings anxious cares, and (the sleep of) 
the next night banishes them again.' But the meaning cannot be that 
she is anxious only on alternate nights. The point is that one anxiety 
is always succeeding another. (3) Wunder: 'Night brings Heracles 
home, and (the same) night drives him out again, having succeeded to 
toil' (*.*., taken up anew the series of his toils). He has no sooner 
finished one labour than he has to enter upon another. But the present 
cause of her anxiety is his long absence : the period described in 34 f., 
roiovros aicov cts Sofxovs re k(ik SofjLuv K.T.A., is over, curayci and airtaOti 
must then, on Wunder' s view, be historic ; whereas the context shows 
that, like rpi<f>u> (28), they are ordinary present tenses. The sense 
ascribed to dirmBtl is also forced. 

44 — 48 Wunder's rejection of these five verses is groundless. He 
sets out from the incorrect assumption that the words wSTvas avrov in 
v. 42 refer directly to the ScAros (as being the cause of her anxiety), and 
that therefore further mention of the ScAtos in 46 — 48 is superfluous. 
He further objects that Deianeira ought not to speak as if her alarm 
arose merely from the length of her husband's absence (44, 45). Then 
verse 46 repeats the sense of 43. And the whole passage, he urges, is 
a weak anticipation of 155 ff. The answer is simple. Deianeira is 
alarmed not merely because the absence of Heracles has been long, but 
because, as she says, it has now lasted precisely 15 months, thus com- 
pleting the term fixed by the oracle. Verse 43 expresses a surmise; 
verse 46 is stronger, and expresses certainty. An allusion to the ScAtos, 
without further explanation, is natural here, where she communes aloud 
with her own thoughts, heard only by the Nurse. It is also dramati- 
cally effective, as bespeaking the interest of the spectators for the 
explanation given in 1556°. 

56 f. puaXurra & ovirep cucos *YAAov, ct irarpbs vifioi nv wpav rov 
koXus 7rpao-o-civ Soicctv. The difficulty felt as to the words rov koAw? 
irpavatLv $ok€w has prompted various conjectures. Reiske suggested ov 
KaK(Zs instead of rov KaXm. Erfurdt, ov /caAws irpdo-o-eiv Sok&v. Heath, 
v4fi€Lv nv ipav rov koAcos irpacrcrciv Sokci: and so Wecklein (Ars Soph, 
em. p. 36), only with Sokol. 

Other critics have proposed still bolder remedies; as Faehse, ov 
kol\<2s 7rpdcrcr€Lv 6kv€lv i Meineke, rov kolXws irpaxT<T€iv y fiokeiv (depending 
on €ucos) : Nauck, rov #caA.<o? irarpaytvai : Dindorf, toV8' vTroorrjvai. irovov. 

76 cAcmtc. This imperfect has been explained as implying that the 
operation of the act continues ; i.e., Deianeira still has the tablet. Cp. 
//. 2. 106 f. 'Arpcvs 8c dvQVKitiv cAi7rcv (the sceptre) irokvapvi ©vicrry | 
avrap o avr€ %viar *Ayafi€fjivovL Aciw€ <f>oprjvai. Here ActTrc, as distin- 
guished from IA.MT6V, has been said to imply that Agamemnon still wields 
the sceptre. So, again, in Od. 11. 174, c^rc Zk p.01 ira.rp6% re *at vUos, Sv 
#caTcA.€«rov, the imperf. has been regarded as implying that Laertes and 
Telemachus still lived. 



1 88 APPENDIX. 

But in Od. n. 86 rrjv £unjv *arcXci7rov refers to the dead Anticleia. 
And no theory of this kind applies to 77. 22. 226 17 8' apa rov fiev &ctirc, 
Ktxyra>To 8* *E#cTopa 8Tov, where the imperf. differs from the aor. only as 
meaning, 'proceeded to leave.' The fact seems to be that metrical 
convenience had much to do with the epic usage of SX-cwrov, and that, 
so far as the epic poet consciously distinguished it from Zkiirov in the 
examples just quoted, the distinction was simply that the imperf. pictured 
the process of leaving. The Attic poets modelled their usage of Ikeiirov 
on the epic, — profiting by the metrical convenience, and feeling that 
they had good warrant: so Aesch. Ag. 607 olavwep ovv IAccttc: and more 
strikingly, Eur. Andr. 1205 <3 <j>(kos 9 c\ci7rcs kv 80/4019 \x Iprjpuov. 

For analogous uses of the imperf. in epic narrative, cp. II. 1. 465 f. 
(jjutrrvXXov co-ordinate with a>7m7crav) : ib. 437 ff. (^alvov with /fcy): 2. 
43 ff. (pdXXero with fidkero): 7. 303 ff. (8<3*€ with 8i'8ov): 23. 653 ff. (Otjkcv 
with €Ti'0€i). All these imperfects can be explained as meaning, 'pro- 
ceeded to' do the act, 'next? did it. 

80 f. Other emendations of €is rov vorepov are, cos rov varrarov 
(Hermann) : dr h varepov (Blaydes) : €« to ifyiprtpov (Wecklein, Ars 
p. 59): cts kclXov tcA-os (G. Wolff): cfe to Kaprtpov (ap. Nauck, 3rd ed., 
1864, p. 146). 

Wecklein, in his edition, keeps cfe rov varepov, but changes toV 
Xolttov rjhrj to ypovov rov tvdtv. Nauck would reduce the two verses to 
one, thus : r) rovr dvarkds fiiorov cvcuW %x €LV ' Patey proposes to omit 
V. 80, and to read, rj koiirov rjbrj fitorov cucucov' l\€iv. 

83 — 85 Bentley was the first to reject v. 84, as most editors now 
do. Nauck thinks that verses 84, 85 represent one original verse, which 
was kcivov ftiov orcooravros, rj c£oA(oAa/xcv. The last word became c£oAa>- 
k6ro% and this generated two conjectures. (1) One conjecture assumed 
that the words nelvov ftiov owavros were spurious, and changed them to 
r) irCirrofi€v crov irarpos. (2) The other conjecture assumed that cfoAxoAdVos 
was spurious, and changed it to rj oixp/iMcrff a/na. 

Canter held that the genuine text was what I believe to have been 
the original form of the interpolation; viz., kcu (instead of r)) mirro/jiev 
aov rrarpos cfoXcuXoTos, placed after v. 85. 

116 f. The reading of the mss., ovtcd h\ rov Kc&fioyevrj rptyo, to 8' 
avfcet fiiorov irokvirovov cSottco irikayos | YLprjcnov, has been variously ex- 
plained. (1) Hermann's earlier version was: — i ita quasi Creticus 
quidam pontus Herculem habet, augetque eius /adores 1 : i.e. he made 
fivorov irokvirovov an ace. governed by av£cc Afterwards, recognising 
irokvirovov as a nominative, he rendered : — ' ita quasi Creticus quidam 
vitae laborum pontus Herculem tenet augetque, scilicet laboribus : h. e. 
rov 'HpajcXea rd fikv irokvirovov irikayo? rocket, to 8c av^ci.' This is 

not clear: but auget laboribus ought to mean, 'magnifies (glorifies) by 
labours.' And rpifai is rendered by tenet, 'holds in its midst, 1 'sur- 
rounds.' Similarly Prof. Campbell renders, ' surrounds and also magni- 
fies.' (2) Paley thinks that fZUrrov irokvirovov is ace, and that to (in to 
8' av£ci) belongs to that ace, and has been separated from it by ' hyper- 



APPENDIX. 189 

thesis.' He understands: — 'a sea of troubles attends upon (jpi$*C) 
Heracles, and increases the trouble of his life.' But such 'hyperthesis' of 
the art. is impossible : to, placed as it is here, can be only a pronoun. 
(3) Linwood took m;/tara as subject to rpifai, and avfci (impossibly) as 
-augetur: 'thus many waves attend upon Heracles, and it (to oV), — the 
troublous sea of his life, — is increased. 7 (4) Shilleto (ap. Pretor) pro- 
posed to read fUorov instead of /Jio'tov, and to explain thus : — ' there is 
the likeness of a Cretan sea (coo-Trcp TrcAayos Kp^o-iov) in one quarter (the 
implied to p,€v) surging round the son of Cadmus; while in another 
(to ff) it swells the many perils of his life.' (5) Blaydes reads rptyci tc 
Kcrf£ci: 'so in like manner a troublesome Cretan sea, as it were, of life 
sustains and strengthens the hero of Thebes.' 

144 — 146 to yap vtdZflv iv toiout$€ /Jootcctcu 

X»powrtv avrov, kcU viv ov dakiros Oeov, 
ovb" 6fx/3pos, ovSk irvevfiaTUiv ovBht k\ov€l. 

The conjectures in v. 145 have been of two classes. (1) Those which 
alter x^poicriv avrov only. Such are those of Reiske, xcopot? waTov : and 
Hermann, x°>P 0i ?> ** cwtov, sc. IotLv, ubi sui iuris est. (2) Those which 
alter more. M. Schmidt, xvpouTw, ov *a« viv. Wunder, xcopots, Iv 
avaivovTos. Wecklein, xcopots, Iv avro kolov. Arndt, x<upot9, iv* avr ovk 
aldivov (Mekler, alBpiov). Musgrave (inter alia), x^P ots > *v ov t^XI VLV * 
Blaydes, x^P 01 ^ * y% °*> ifixos viv. 

166 — 168 tot rj Oavelv xp € "7 °^ € T<p8c T<J> xpova>, 
4j tovO* viriK.hpap.6vTa tov XP^ V0V fiKos 
to Xoarov ffiarj £fjv aXvmJTv pup. 

Dobree, who suspected these three verses, objected to the second and 
third on the ground that Deianeira is here explaining why she fears the 
worst; it is inappropriate, therefore, that she should refer to the possi- 
bility of a happy issue. (' In utramque partem interpretatur, et recte 
quidem, Deianira 76 — 81. Sed hie, ubi omnia pessima ominatur, inepta 
sunt ista 167 — 8.' Adv. 11. p. 39.) But her anxiety arises from the fact 
that the period of fifteen months has expired. If Heracles had pros- 
pered, she might have expected good news ere now. She mentions 
both interpretations of the oracle, because they are alternative. If it 
has not been fulfilled in the good sense, then it must have been fulfilled 
in the other. 

Nauck argues that her anxiety has no sufficient cause, if the oracle 
left her this hope ; but the point is that she now doubts whether it is 
possible to cherish that hope any longer. 

Now let us suppose that the three verses, 166 — 168, have been 
omitted, as Dobree, Nauck, and Wecklein wish. The sentence then 
ends with verse 165. And the question arises how w. 164, 165 are to 
be construed : — 

Xpovov 7rpoTa£a?, cos rpifirjvov ijvUa 
\<opas aireCrj Kavtavtrios /fcjSafc. 

Wecklein would render : — ' having prescribed the time, (namely) when 
he should have been absent about (cos) three months,' etc The alter- 



i 9 o APPENDIX. 

native would be a harsh one, viz. to take cos as on, and to suppose an 
ellipse of Scot yiypco-Au ravra or the like. In any case, if the sentence 
ended with v. 165, Deianeira would represent Heracles as having said 
simply, — ' If I do not return at the end of fifteen months, consider me 
dead, and divide my property.' What he actually said, according to 
the traditional text, was : ' If I do not return at the end of fifteen 
months, consider me dead, and divide my property ; for, at the end of 
that period, I shall either die, or enter on a peaceful life.' Heracles 
himself says (1171) that he had expected the oracle to be fulfilled in the 
better sense, — kq^okow wpa&iv koAcos. And Deianeira has already said 
that the oracle which he communicated to her spoke of these alternatives 
(79 — & 1 )- Here, then, where she is giving the Chorus a full account of 
the situation, it is indispensable that she should refer to both possibilities. 
The genuineness of verses 166 — 168 appears not merely from the gram- 
matical context, but from considerations of dramatic fitness. 

It may be added that the words in 169, ToiavY c^pa£c k.t.X., would 
be misleading, if w. 166 — 168 did not precede them. Dobree's remark, 
that the choral ode which begins at v. 821 shows no knowledge of 
166 — 168, is unwarranted. The phrase in which the Chorus there refers 
to the purport of the oracle, avaSo^av rekeiv irovmv (825), suits both the 
brighter and the darker sense of * rest from labour. 7 

196 f. to yap iroBovv Ikootos iKfiaBetv OtKmv 

ovk av fieOtiro, irpXv kolO* rjSovrjv k\v€lv. 

The schol/s comment is simply, to yap iroBovv to iroOovjitvov, He 
understood, then, ' Each man wishing to learn what is desired by him.' 
This interpretation has often been accepted by modern critics. Wunder 
refers to O. C. 1220, arguing that if there tov Blkovros means tov OeX-q- 
fjuciTos, so here to iroBovv could mean to iroBrjpxi, = to iroBovjitvov. In 
O. C. 1220 Reiske's emendation, tov hiovros, is clearly right Even, 
however, if tov 0c\ovtos were sound, it would be irrelevant, to 04\ov, 
like to povX6fjL€vov (Thuc. 1. 90), would mean properly, 'that within one 
which wishes,' — the feeling, not the object, of wish. It would not help 
to show that to iroBovv, the feeling of desire, could stand for to iroOov- 
fX€vov y the object. Sentences might be framed in which the difference 
between to iroBovv and to iroBovpevov would not affect the general mean- 
ing: e.g., to iroBovv avraJv kolXjov cotiv. But here, where the words c#c/xa- 
d&v BiXtav express Xht feeling of desire, and point distinctly to its object, 
to iroOovv could not replace to iroBovfitvov. 

Two other explanations of the vulgate may be noticed. (1) Hermann 
rendered 196 thus: ' quod plenum est desiderii (pqpulum intelligit) uno- 
quoque rem cognoscere cupiente.' That is, to iroBovv = ' the inquisitive 
crowd,' and Ikciotos iKfmBeiv Bi\u>v stands in partitive apposition. Lin- 
wood's view is similar. Shilleto, too, explained to iroBovv as = ol iroO- 
ovvtcs. This furnishes a simple solution of the grammatical difficulties. 
But it is hardly conceivable that Sophocles should have used the abstract 
to iroBovv in the sense of 6 ttoB&v Acco?. 

(2) Mr Blaydes suggests that to tto0ow may be taken as an accusa- 
tive, governed by /i€0€tTo : ' for each person, wishing to learn, refuses to 



APPENDIX. 191 

part with his desire (to learn).' But /i€0etTo would require the genitive, 
tot) woBovvtos. We might, indeed, conjecture /xcflcii/. There can, how- 
ever, be little doubt that with ovk av fieOeiro we must understand avrov 
(i.e. tov Atxa) : the whole context shows this. 

Emendations of v. 196 have been numerous. That of E. Thomas, 
rd yap 7ro$€tv\ has been noted in the commentary. The others fall 
under two classes. 

I. Those which retain some part of wo6\3. (i) Wecklein reads, 
d yap iroOiov Ikootos iufxaOelv icvpct, ascribing it to Subkoff. Then ovk aV 
fi€$€LTo will govern a neuter avrov understood. (2) Wecklein in Ars 
Soph. em. p. 26 : o yap ttoO&v rjv Tras tis iicfiadeiv Oekwv. (3) O. Hense : 
rd yap irodovp.€V ootis eKfxaOelv OeXei. 

A possibility, which I have not seen mentioned, is o yap iroOova' 
€Kao-Tos iK/juadelv OiXwv. Instead of 0€AovT€5.../i€0€trTo, the singular might 
have come in under the influence of Ikootos. Another possibility would 

be, d yap iroO&v . . .OiXwv. 

II. Other emendations discard the verb tto6\3 altogether. (1) 
Blaydes : a yap iriirovO 1 . (2) F. W. Schmidt : rd yap <f>[\u>v. (3) Nauck : 
rd yap irapovff Ixaoros cK/xadctv iroO&v. (4) M. Schmidt (op. Wecklein, 
Ars p. 26) : 60ovv€x cSv Ikoxttos eKfxaOelv Oikoi. 

322 f. ov rapa t<3 yc irpoaOiv ovSev i£ tcrov 

Xpov<p 807cm y\u>aaav. 

The traditional reading in 323, SioCcrci, has been explained as follows. 

(1) Passow: linguam in ore movere : whence Liddell and Scott, 'set her 
tongue in motion.' So Linwood, and Pretor. (2) Neue and Ellendt : 
'will bring out' the tongue, from between the lips. So Campbell, 
though doubtfully. (3) Blaydes : ' will continue to carry the same 
tongue as hitherto/ (4) Hermann : ' will not be different as to speech, 
but true to her previous behaviour.' 

The scholiast has : — cav alBovp,€vq at <j>$€y$rjTai, Kar ovScv apa i£ 
laov T<j> wpoaOev XP° Vi ? irpoKOfiCaeiev <av> avrijs rrjv yXcoTrav tov yap 
irpo tov xp° vov coriawra. His text in v. 322, then, was the same as ours; 
but we cannot be sure whether, in v. 323, it was 8101W or Suqaei that he 
paraphrased by irpoicofuaeiev. 

The following conjectures may be mentionea (1) Paley, 8toi£ct. 

(2) D. S. Margoliouth : ov rapa t<3 ye irpoa$€v ovS^v rj&ov | XP°'va> 810- 
pCaai* yktoaaav rjTis ov&afid | irpov<j>rjv€V k.t.X. The rj£Cov is ingenious; 
but Bioplo-ai is an impossible word in this context. (3) Hense supposes 
that v. 322 is mainly an interpolation. He would fuse verses 322 and 
323 into one, by reading ov Tap' dVot£ct y\<3crcrav k.t.X (4) Nauck would 
do likewise : he suggests 7rov yap Styaei (or ov Tapa Xvo-ci) yXaJcrcrav. 

419 tjv vir ayvolas 6p$s. In Schneidewin's conjecture, 17s av y 
dyvocis yovas, the av y comes awkwardly after ovkovv av Tavrqv. Nor 
is yovas very near to dp^ts : though it might be suggested that yovas was 
first corrupted to oTropav through the transcriber's eye wandering to 
airopdv in 420. Still less satisfactory is Reiske's yjv vir dyvola oreyas, 
or Meineke's fjv av y dyvoctv Aeycis. 



192 APPENDIX. 

476 6 Sctvos f|upo* Those who understand these words to mean 
merely, 'very* (or 'most') 'potent love,' can appeal to a number of 
passages in which the article has been similarly regarded as merely 
strengthening an adjective, — usually 0W09. But these passages do not 
seem to establish the supposed usage. In all of them the article can be 
explained as referring to something previously mentioned or implied. 

The examples may be divided into two classes. I. Those in which 
such a reference is manifest, i. At. 1226 rd oWa fry par', ' those terrible 
words.' 2. O. C. 1392 to 0W0V /ub-os, ' that terrible hatred.' 3. Eur. 
/. T. 924 Ta 6Wa o* ipya 7nus ctX^s firjrpbs iripi ; ' those terrible deeds.' 
II. Examples in which such a reference is less obvious, yet may naturally 
be supposed. I . At. 312 &tcit* ifiol rd fciv i7rr]7r€i\r)<r hrrj, ' those 
dread threats (which haunt my memory)' : cp. Ant. 408 irpos <rov rd SctV 
€K€tv' iTrrjir€i.\r)fi€vot.. 2. At, 650 cyw yap, os rd &€tv cKopTcpow totc, 
' who was so wondrously firm then.' 3. Eur. Ph. 180 irov o*, os rd 8ctm 
1770* €<£v)8pi£€i TToXct | Ka7rav€vs ; ' those dread vaunts ' (of which we have 
heard). 4. /. T. 1366 oOtv rd Suva irhjyfiar rjv ycvciaoW, — ' those dread 
blows,' — which the speaker had experienced. 5. Or. 1554 rd oWd iea! 
BpaanjpuL \ hicrcroiv Xcovrotv, i the dread and forceful deeds.' 6. Ar. 
Pan. 796 ivravOa 877 tci oWa Kivri0rj<r€T<u 9 l that terrible strife' — already 
indicated. 

In the following examples the adjective is not fcivos. The first two 
of them belong to class L, and the third to class II. 1. At. 1107 ra 
crifiv Imy, 'thy proud words.' 2. Ar. Pan. 882 vvv ydp ayaiv cro^tas o 
/xeya? x^P^ ' tnai great contest ' — already mentioned. 3. Aesch. Th. 
283 dvn)pira.% ixOpoi<ri tov fieyav TpoVov, ' to match the attack of the foe 
on this great scale ' (Verrall) — referring to the previous description of 
the Argive warriors. 

511 iroMvrovcu This epithet is given to the bow, not only when 
strung and bent (//. 8. 266, 15. 443), but also when unstrung (II. 10. 
459, Od. 21. 11 and 59: Horn. hymn. 27. 16). Herodotus describes 
the 'Apd/Sioi of Xerxes as armed with r6£a iraklvrova futicpd (7. 69). 
Thus it appears that the epithet referred to the form of the bow, and not 
to its being 'drawn back' in shooting, nor to its 'springing back' after 
the shot. 

Stein, on the passage of Herodotus just noticed, holds that the 
irakivTova ro£a there mentioned had a double curve in the direction con- 
trary to that in which the archer bends the bow when shooting, w-v/. 
Thus the irdkiv in the compound, — ' back,' — would mean, ' against the 
direction in which the archer bends the bow'; and this seems to be what 
the schol. on //. 8. 266, explaining 7raA.iVrova, means by €is rovvCa-to 
T€iv6p.€va. The effect of such a curvature would be, of course, a great 
increase in the propelling force of the bow. Another form of the 7raA.1v- 
tovov to£ov had a single outward curve, ^. (See Rich, s. v. ' arcus.') 

The ordinary Greek bow, as described in II. 4. 105 — 126, consisted 
of two horns, joined in the middle by a straight handle (irfjxys> -#• I]C » 
375). Such a bow would be properly called ?raXiVrovov when the ends 
of the horns curved outwards. 



APPENDIX. 193 

Schneidewin and others illustrate iraKivrova by quoting Attius 545 
(Ribbeck) reciproca tendens nervo equino concita \ tela. But there red- 
proca tela are the arrows which, after having been drawn towards the 
archer, dart back when released from his hand. 

526 ttyd 8c jidnjpt |Uv ola <^pd(«. The schol. has: — cyto 8c pdrrjp 
/icv] cyw (f>rjcrlv cV8tadcra>9 axrci puarrfp Aeyar cya> Trapcura Ta TroAAa Ta tcAt; 
Xcya> t&v irpayftaToiv : ' I speak (she says parenthetically) as a mother. 
Omitting the details, I relate the end of the affair.' 

The second of these sentences has plausibly been regarded as dis- 
tinct in origin from the first, and as a paraphrase of a reading different 
from that of the traditional text. That reading, it is said, must have 
contained some word or phrase which the scholiast could represent by 
ra TeXrj A.cya> t<3v wpayfiarw. The inference is not, in my opinion, by 
any means a certain one. When we remember how strained, or even 
absurd, the interpretations found in scholia sometimes are, it seems rash 
to affirm that a scholiast was incapable of explaining the traditional 
reading, cyo» 8c pA-rqp par ola <^pa£a>, by Ta tcAt; Xcyco r<ov wpaypdrayv. 
The notion in his mind would be that of a mother who, in telling a 
story to young children, gives them the pith of it, without too many 
details, such as might confuse or weary them. However, I readily grant 
that the hypothesis founded upon ra tcXt; is a natural one. It has 
prompted the following conjectures : — (1) Hermann (formerly), cyo> 8c 
ripOpa pev ola <£pa£a>, 'I tell what the issues (were).' (2) Hartung, 
eyco 8c t<x rippjar ola <£po£o>, ' I relate the end alone.' (3) Wecklein, 
cya> Sk puav rippar ola <f>pa£u). 

The last is the best. But there is still no intelligible connection 
between this verse, and those which immediately follow it, to 8' ap.<f>iv€i- 
ktjtov Sppxi vup<f>a<; I cXctvoV a/x/xcvci. The same objection (to speak of 
no other) applies to Hermann's later reading, cyco 0* ofiaptrj /icv ola 
<t>pd£<t> ('I relate concisely, — coniunctim et summatim, — what happened'): 
and to that of Mr Blaydes, eye* 8c parpos kXvovo-cl ^pa£a>, ' I tell what I 
heard from her mother.' 

562 t6v nuTpfov rjviKa ot<5Xov 

£vv 'HpajeXct to irpwrov cuvis cWo/itjv. 

No emendation yet proposed appears probable. Blaydes writes, 
with Herwerden, tov irarpQov. . .cs Sopov, referring it to Argos. But <rro\ov 
would hardly have arisen from is Sopov. 

I would rather suggest tt}v iraTpQov..M iroh.v (for TraTpcpos as fem., 
cp. 478), and suppose that the corruption began through rrjv becoming 
rov under the influence of irarpQov: when 77V1V h 7roA.1v might have 
become ijvLKa crroXov. 

Hartung re-writes the words thus : — waTpos -qvUa otoXov Si^a. 

The schol. has: — r/viKa ovv KaTaXiirovaa rov oIkov rov irarpos 
2p 77 /xos iTrrjKoXovQrjou t<j> 'HpaKXcZ. At first sight this paraphrase favours 
Wecklein's view that a verse, containing the notion XiTroucra, has dropped 
out after v. 562. But the schol. 's explanation refers, I suspect, to the 
corrupt variant 7raTpaW...oTdA.o>v found in A (and retained in the Aldine 

J. S. V. 13 



194 APPENDIX. 

text), and his KaTakiwovcra represents the effect of joining cvns (which he 
took as = * bereaved, ' not as = 'bride') with that genitive. It is no objec- 
tion to this view that the sing, oto'Xov occurs in the lemma, and in the 
earlier part of the schol., which may be from a different hand : o-r6\ov 

(f>rj(il to irXijdos t<3v iv rfj oiKt'a Sov\o)V T€ kol dSeXc^ojv, i.e. 'the household ' 

(= tov oIkov in the schoL's paraphrase quoted above). 

638 f. €v0* "EAAcivcdv dyopal 

IIvAari8cs nkeovrau 

The received view has been that the iaptvrj irvXaLa was held at 
Delphi, and the o7ru>piw} at Anthela. That there was an autumn meet- 
ing at Anthela is certain: thus Theophrastus, speaking of the white 
hellebore, which ripens in autumn (u>p<uos /xeiwcopov), says that the 
people about Mount Oeta gather it wpos rrjv irvkaiav (Hist. Plant 9. 10. 
2). But Hypereides (Epitaph, c. 8) proves that then (322 B.C.) the 
Amphictyons met at Anthela in the spring also. He is speaking of 
those who fell at Lamia, a few miles n. of Thermopylae. Their valour 
will be recalled by the Amphictyons, he says, twice a year, when they 
visit that region: d^uevov/Kcvoi SI? tov iviavrov €is rrjv 7ruXatav...dfta yap 
€15 tov tottov dOpourOrfcrovTai, kol rrjs tovtcdv dperfjs fiyqcO^a-ovrai. — 
Autumn, no less than spring, synods at Delphi are attested by inscrr. of 
the Macedonian period (Curtius, Anecd. Delph. 40, 43, 45). Possibly 
meetings (not necessarily of the same scope) were held in both places 
at both seasons. (Cp. Schaefer, Detn. in. 2. 343.) 

661 f. t<xs 7T€i0ovs -Trayxptoro) 

crvyKpaOel? hrl 7rpo<f>do-€i Orjpos. (So the MSS.) 

Two classes of conjectures may be distinguished here. 
I. Those which retain both 7rayxpi'o-T<j> and avyKpaOek. 

(1) Hermann receives <f>dpows in place of Brjpos, changes tcls to to, 
and construes 7rava/i£po? in 660 with o-vyicpatfcts : ' reconciled to her, for 
all days to come, by the device (pretext) of Persuasion's well-anointed 
robe.' 

(2) Blaydes reads t<3 7r€i0ovs irayxpiaT(f auyjcpaflels | iriirXtg irpo- 
<£dVcr€i Orjpos, ' having been brought into close contact with Persuasion's 
well-anointed robe, in accordance with the prediction of the Centaur.' 
He does not explain how the metre is to be reconciled with that of 

653 1 

(3) Campbell, leaving the ms. text unaltered, takes iray^picrn^ as a 
subst., and 7rpo<^do-€t as = ' precept.' 'Steeped in the full anointing of 
persuasion by the Centaur's precept.' 

(4) Pretor reads : t<xs TretOovs 7rayxpio~Ta> | crvyKpaOels irap<f>dcrei Orjpos. 
By 7rap</>ao-ci he understands the influences of the philtre ; ' reconciled by 
the gentle influences of the Centaur's well- steeped charm.' 

(5) Whitelaw, in the Notes to his Translation of Sophocles (p. 438), 
suggests the dat. <f>dp€i (instead of 0rjp6%\ to agree with 7rayxp«rr<p, while 
hrl TTpo^aVci, • under a pretext,' is taken separately : — i.e., ' brought by a 



APPENDIX. 1 95 

pretext under the power of the robe which Persuasion has anointed.' 
But Brjpos was less likely to arise from <£ap« than from <£apous. 

II. Conjectures which omit irayxpCcrTu. 

(i) Dindorf, giving lirvrrovmv dp.£pav in 654, alters Trpo^ao-ci to irpo- 
<f>dv<T€L, and reads : Tas 7T€l6ovs vvyKpaOtis | — \j — iirl irpo^dvau Orjpos. 

To fill the lacuna he suggests c/x/torots, — lpp.ora (<j>dppuKa) beinjg oint- 
ments spread on lint. 

(2) Wecklein : Tas 7r€i0ovs orvy*pa0€is \ ivSvrol? bet Trpo^acrct (typos, 
* brought into contact with the garment of persuasion, through the, 
Centaur's agency,' i.e., on occasion given by him. 

836 £ Scivoraro) filv vbpas 7rpooT€TaK(tf5 I <^dcr|tari. — irpo<TT€TaKW<; has 

been regarded as indicating that <f>dxrpja.Ti has displaced some word 
denoting the venom of the hydra; And this view is apparently confirmed 
by the schol. : TrpwK*K6Kht\p&vo% t<3 1$ rfjs v$pa<$. Another schoL has : — 
<f>dcrp.an rovria'Ti t<3 t/xaTta) r<o K€xpt<j/xcva) tw <£ap/xaKa> ttJs u3pa?, 
tovt€gtl rg x°^5« This second scholium suggests, like the first, that the 
scholiast read, not ^aorftara, but a word which he could interpret by 
<t>app.aK(a or tc3. Suppose, for instance, that this word was xP^ cr f JXLTL ' 
The scholiast means that the allusion is to the robe anointed with this 
Xpibyxa. Whatever the word may have been, it certainly was not one 
which directly expressed the idea of 'robe': for then the scholiast could 
have written at once, K€xpwp.€v<a rfi x°^-V ^s vSpas, instead of, Kexpw- 

JX€VU> TO) ^apttOLKO) TTJS vSpGLSy TOVT€OTl TQ \o\fj. 

The following substitutes for <f>d<rpja.Ti have been proposed. 1. 
vaiiart, 'stream,' — the venom which flowed from the hydra. Wunder, 
who suggests this, refers to Hesychius, vrjpja.* vBup* v<f>acrpLa (a confusion 
of vfjp.a with va/xa). He thinks that here, too, vapori was confused with 
vqiLariy and explained by a gloss v^do-fiari, whence <fxurpxLTt.. Hartung 
adopts vdpuTu It is certainly the most ingenious emendation hitherto 
made. 

2. (TTay/taTt, Wakefield. Cp. Aesch. Pers. 612, etc. 

3. xpia-pxiTi, Blaydes : who also suggests pdp.pua.Ti. 

4. <£AeytiaTi (inflaming poison), Heimreich. Mekler, in the Teubner 
ed. of Dindorf (1885), adopts this. 

5. pdo-pari, ' moisture ' (paiVco), Hermann. The word occurs only 
in Athen. p. 542 C pdxjp.ard T€ p.vp<av erriirrw «rl rrjv yrjv, — quoted from 

Duris (Aovpts), who wrote in the second half of the 4th cent. b.c. 

6. I had thought of <f>vpp.aTi y i.e. the hydra's venom mingled with 
the Centaur's blood. The word is used by Nicander Ther. 723 of what 
oozes from a poisoned body. But, as the commentary has shown, I 
believe <£acr/xaTi to be sound. 

839 £ Nctrcov vwo^ovia &o\iop.v6a Kevrp bnfcio-awa. — The critics 
whose views are noticed below agree in rejecting NeWov as an inter- 
polation. 

(1) Hermann reads vTro<f>ova ho\wp.vda Kivrp eiri^ccravTa, and, in the 
corresponding place of the strophe (830), eri ttot «•' liriirovov < y' > 
Ixoi Bavixv Xarpelav. The y was inserted by Brunck. But here, where 

13—2 



196 APPENDIX. 

it can only emphasise the adjective, it is intolerably weak. Campbell 
also reads thus, only writing vrnx^ovia SoXopvOa. 

(2) Schneidewin : <£ovia SoXiop.v6a icivrp hri^icravra, and in 830 en 
iror hi ttovcdv €\ol Oavwv Xarpctav. The substitution of Ire vovwv for er' 
htrivovov is Wunder's. 

(3) Dindorf holds that the words Necrcrov ff vrro in the mss. conceal 
the word Oypos, of which ff viro was a corruption and N&rcrov an explana- 
tion. He further assumes that the two next words in the mss., <fxHvia 
SoXofxvSa, are interpolations, 'pro uno adiectivo, quod haud dubie 
oXocvTafuit. , Accordingly he reads, Orjpos oXockto K€vrp* cirt^ecravra : and 
in 830, ttot' V brhrovov (deleting the hi before iror). 

(4) Wecklein : <f>6via hoXiojivOa nbrrp hrii&ravra. In 830 he reads 
hi iror hriirovov 8c\oit avm [for l\ot Oavtav] Xarpeiav, omitting the h* 

after ttot*. 

853 ff. The traditional text gives : — 

Ipptoycv irayd Saicpvunr Kc^vrat vocro?, a> iro7roi, olov dvapcitav 
ovira) ayaxXctTOv 'HpatcXcov? cVc/xoXc irddos otKTicrat. 

And in the strophe, w. 841 ff., 
<5v a8* a rXdfMov ao*vos, /xcyaXav irpodopukra 80/A019 pXaftav 
v€U)v dZcraovrmv ydp.u>v, rd p.\v ov ti wpoo*€j3aAe* to S* air' dXXioOpov, etc 

Thus the words wv a8' a rXa/xcov ao#cvos, /AcyaXav irpfxropwra 8o/aoi? 
correspond metrically with eppcoyev irayd SaKpvw Kc^yrai voaros, <3 itovol, 
ot- 1 . So much is certain : there is no doubt as to these portions of the 
text. Again, the words Trpocrc/JaXc, to 8' oV dXXoOpov correspond metri- 
cally with €7T€/xoX€ iraflos oiKrurai: and in neither place is the reading 
doubtful. 

The textual problem is therefore limited to this : How are the words 
fiXdfiav I v€o>v diYrorovTtov ydyaav rd pkv ov n to be metrically reconciled 

with [ot]ov dvapa-iuiv \ ovw<i) ayaxXctTov 'HpaKXeovs ? 

Hermann reads olov ovS* \ avapcriW instead of olov dvapcrtwv | ouino, 
and places 'HpaicXcovs before, instead of after, ayaxXctrov (which he 
changes to dyaKXavrov). Thus ftXdfiav | vimv cuo-otovtcdv ydpamv \ rd /acv 
ovti = [of]ov ov& dvap(rt(t)V 'HpcutXcov? | dyaicXairrov. 

Campbell follows Hermann, except that he reads ovk instead of ovS\ 
and retains dya.KX€ir6v. 

. But the view that 'HpaKXe'ovs is a gloss has prevailed, and with good 
reason, among recent critics. The emendations which presume this 
follow one of two methods, as has- been noticed in the commentary. 

I. To insert a long syllable, beginning with a vowel, before dvap- 
<riW, and an iambus between ovttu and ayowcXctTov. Thus G. H. Miiller, 
whom Nauck follows, writes: olov <c£> | dvapcriu>v ovirw <iror avfipV 
ayaxXctTov = [8o/x]ot? ftXdftav | vecov oucrcrovrcav ydpuov rd fiev ov ru 

II. To write 80/xowri, with Triclinius, instead of oop.019, in 842, and 
to obtain a metrical equivalent for dicrcrovrutv ydp.w by making some 
addition to ov™. Thus Dindorf writes, owtcd <Z^vos K€Xiop 9 >. The word 
KcXup, 'son/ occurs in Eur. ^«^r. 1033. Wecklein writes, owro> <0ctW 
piav>. Dindorf s conjecture fails to explain why the gloss 'HpaicXcovs 



APPENDIX. 197 

is in the genitive case : Wecklein's does explain that ; but the words 
0ctav filav could not, without some further definition (such as Tovfo), 
denote Heracles. The emendation which I suggest, avapo-iW <vV> 
ovttq} <rov$€ <riOfi> dyaicXcLTov, at least accounts for 'HpcucAcov? (as a 
gloss on tovoc), clears up the construction of avapo-<W, and is Sopho- 
clean in respect to the periphrasis with ord>/xa. 

903 Iv0a jjlti tis clrfSot, ' where no one should behold.' The steps by 
which this construction has grown out of the ' deliberative ' may be 
represented as follows. 

(1) ovk ot$€v oVov oticty, 'he does not know where to live. 7 The 
clause ottov olicfj is 'deliberative': it corresponds with the direct ttov 
ouao ; (subjunct.) 'where am I to live?' 

(2) ovk ty* 1 oirov °* K 5> c ^ e h as not where to live/ The clause ottov 
oiKfj is still properly deliberative, as in no. 1. But it has now come 
nearer to the character of a final relative clause. And it would be 
already a final relative clause, if the word tottov, for instance, were 
inserted after €%€i : * he has not a place in which to live.' 

(3) €x« ottov olicj}, ' he has a place in which to live.' The clause • 
ottov obey has now lost its original 'deliberative,' or interrogative, 
character altogether. It has become a final relative clause. 

(4) Then comes the further development : — lpx €raL °' n ' * ) outy* */A.0cv 
ottov oIkoitj, €Kpv\f/ev cavD/v €v6a fxif) Ti? clortSoi, instead of the normal 

ouo/orei, oij/erai. 

911 /cat tcls cwrcuoas 65 to \011rbv overtax. (MSS.) 

A. The following explanations of the traditional text have been 
given. 

(1) The scholium is as follows : — crrcl /xrjKcri c/xcAAcv Tratoas tUtuv 
rjroL o*x^o*€tv on tov Xoittov ov yfyqcrovrai. awovcrCai irpo? tov 'HpajcAca ccs 
ircuhoTTouav over las 8c Kotras, o~vvovcrias. It may be that the sentences 
beginning respectively with fed and 0V1 represent two originally distinct 
scholia. If so, the monstrous* interpretation, according to which ovVias 
stands for crwovcrtas, and means ' conjugal intercourse/ belongs to the 
second scholium only. The first, br€l...vxqcr€tv, may have assumed the 
literal sense to be, ' her henceforth childless existence. 7 That sense is, 
indeed, at once excluded by the plural number : no example has been, 
or could be, produced in which ovWat Tefers to a single existence. It 
would be necessary, for this sense, to alter at least tos arrcuoa? into tt/s 
a7raioos (depending on 8cu/aov' 1. 910). But at this moment, and under 
the circumstances in which she is placed, the poet certainly cannot have 
intended her to lament that she is not destined to bear any more 
children. 

(2) Prof. Campbell, who keeps tos cwraiSas ovo-tas, and renders, ' her 
childless existence] endeavours to avoid this difficulty by giving a figura- 
tive sense to aVcuoa?. She means that her children (no less than her 
husband) are lost to her; i.e., for ever estranged from her. And cs to 
\oltt6v can be said, though she is just about to die, because the loss of 
her children's love 'would not be repaired after her death.' Prof. 



198 APPENDIX. 

Campbell further suggests that is to Xolttov may be excused on the 
ground that ' she is speaking to the servants, who know nothing of her 
intended death, but are ready to sympathise with her jn her desolation. 
She may be imagined saying to them, " Behold, I am a childless woman 
for evermore I".' That is, is to Xowrov might be taken by them to mean, 
'in my life henceforth'; whereas in her thought it means, 'even beyond 
the grave.' If this be indeed what the poet meant, it will be admitted 
that he has chosen a remarkably obscure way of saying it. Nor would 
such a reference to the loss of her children's affection have any special 
appropriateness in this. context. 

(3) Schneidewin notices another interpretation, according to which 
ciTraioa? ovmas means, opes quae non augentur, — droKovs : ' the property 
which is thenceforth to have no increase.' It does not appear what 
precise sense was attached to this strange version. Here, again, the 
plural ova-Las would be admissible only if several properties were meant, 
as in Eur. fr. 356 (if the word be sound there), t<xs ova-las yap fiaWov rj 
rds dpnrayas \ rifiav Sikgliov. 

B. The proposed emendations are of two classes, — those which 
retain the word ovalas f and those which alter it. 

I. 1. Wecklein : rrjs dicqoovs... ova-Las (depending on 8ai/*ov' in 
910) : '(the fortune) of the household which must thenceforth be neg- 
lec.ted.' 2. Nauck : rds diraTopas..* ova-las. 3. Hartung : Tas dirdpvas 
(or -ovs) . . .ovalas, ' the household over which she thenceforth resigned the 
rights of a mistress.' 4. Hermann: rds oliraiBas...ovalas, ' the property 
which will be shared between the children of two marriages,' — viz., 
between her own children, and a child (by Heracles) whom Iole will 
bring forth. (Cp. v. 536.) 

II. 1. Reiske: Tas aVaioas...€o-Tias (plur. for sing., like foeos). 2. 
Kolster and Kochly (ap. Hartung, p. 197) : iralods r aVaiSa? is to 
Xol7t6v <os loot. 

1019 f • cot re yap Ofifia \ IfxirXtov r) 6Y i/xov crw^civ. (MSS.) 

A. Proposed explanations of the traditional text 

1. Schol. : av oe avXXa/3^] av yap vios ct Kal o£vr€p6v oroi to ofifjua 
irpos to or<uf civ tov TraTcpa fiaWov rj ol ifxov. — I/xttXcov] 6$vT€pov. That is : 
' Your eye is quicker for the purpose of saving him than (that you should 
need to save him) by my help.' The separate scholium, which explains 
I/xttXcov, not by o£u, but by 6$vr€pov, seems to indicate that it was asso- 
ciated with 7r\€ov, and explained, in some perverse fashion, as a com- 
parative. If this be so, the scholiast's interpretation is really distinct from 
the following, which obtains the same sense. 

2. Whitelaw (Translation, Notes, p. 440). IfwrXeov, lit. 'full/ means 
' undimmed,' ' clear ' : ^ = fidXXov rj (as r) irep follows an adj. of the posi- 
tive degree in Her. 9. 26, etc.). The construction is condensed from 
c/xttXcov (ware) atofcew rov rraripa (/xaXXov) rj (wore avToV) 01 ifxov (o'wfco - - 
0ai) : ' your eye is undimmed for the purpose of saving him, — too much 
so (that he should have to be saved) by my means.' Or, as it is rendered 



APPENDIX. 199 

by Mr Whitelaw at p. 297 : 'with youthful sight | Undimmed — thou, 
where I fail, canst aid.' 

3. Pretor also takes Iptrktov as ' undimmed,' and r) as = itaXXov rj, 
but gives a different (and surely dubious) sense to oY ifiov : ' For thou 
hast an eye to save him clearer than is at my command? 

4. Campbell, taking rj as = fiaXXov r}, supposes that ofifia is * put by 
synecdoche for keenness of the faculties generally.' He renders (the 
italics are mine) : * For indeed thou hast a fulness of resource (pfifia 
2/lwtXcov) beyond what I can do to save him': and adds, 'to oV ifiov 

cro)^€tv = to oY ifiov cra>£ €<rOai avrov.* 

B. The emendations may be classed as those which retain o/ifia 
and those which alter it 

1. 1. Hermann (3rd ed.): cot T€ yap ofifia \ «V rrXiov. He meant 
cV as = cVcori, but admitted that he could give no example. He had 
previously conjectured IfwrcSov. 

2. Hartung : <rv Be o-vWaftov* 6£v yap ofipja | col irkiov. 

3. Seidler : o-ot tc yap ofifia | cv ftXerrov. He thinks 6Y ifiov 
corrupt. 

4. Wecklein writes the whole passage thus : — 

rovpyov toSc /xctfov av ehj 
rj 6V ifiov cra)K€t v <rv Be ovXAafe' col T€ yap o/ifia 
c/lwtcoov — s/ s/ — v/ vy — YA. i/rava) yap lyaiyc, etc 

By substituting 6V cfiov oruKeiv for KaT ipuav pripxtv, he seeks this sense : — 
' This task would seem to be so great that I am not able [to do it] in my 
own strength (oY ifiov).* For the lacuna he suggests laxypal t€ x«P € * — 
In his Ars Soph. em. p. 47 he formerly conjectured, croi ye yap ofifia | 
cttTrXcov ^ 8i€7T€tv ctcdkciv, meaning, ' for /&?& hast thine eyes so full (of 
tears) that thou canst not perform this task (thyself),' — an apology from 
the Trpe'or/fos for taking the chief part in tending Heracles, and asking the 
son merely to help (avWafo). 

II. Emendations which alter o/x/ta. — 1. Purgold : o-ot tc y€ pafyia | 
c/ittAcoV €otiv ifiov o-<$€iv. He meant, * You have more strength than I 
for saving him,' — incorrectly taking 2/lwtXcov as a comparative. 

2. Herwerden : aoi tc yap Wfjua (' step ') | c/xireSov, r)B\ irXiov otcdkci?. 

3. Meineke : ov 8c ovWafie fior to yap opfia I is ttXcov r) 8ix a 
orov o-wfciv. The is irrXiov seems indubitably right. 

4. Paley : o-ot Wi yap dp/to* | cs ttXcW rj 8Y ifiov o*<^civ : * you have 
too much energy to let his safety depend on me.' 

5. Wunder : vol ti yap afifia \ ifiirtBov r) oY ifiov cra>£«v : * You can 
seize him so firmly that you need not to save him by my means.' 

1054 irXcv|iov4$ t rfpnipCas. In the modern sense, an * artery ' is a 
blood-vessel, arising directly or indirectly from the heart, and carrying 
blood away from it, as veins carry blood towards it. The ancients used 
dprrjpia, arteria, in various applications ; but in all of them the term was 
associated with the conveyance of air. Hence the erroneous derivation 



200 APPENDIX. 

from drjp and nypciv. When the name 'arteria' was applied by the 
ancients to what is now called an * artery/ the error of taking it for an 
air-passage arose from the fact that after death the 'arteriae' were found 
empty, while the veins were rilled with blood returning from the heart 

The adjective dprrjpios (aprcUj, ' to suspend ') meant ' fitted for sus- 
pending' : and the feminine dprqpia was used as a substantive, ' a cord 
for suspending/ — o-ctpa, or the like, being understood. Then this term 
came to be used by physicians in certain figurative senses, (i) The 
name dprrjpia was given to the windpipe, regarded as a tube from which 
the lungs are, as it were, suspended. Hippocrates, the contemporary of 
Sophocles, uses the word in this sense ; and it is the only sense which 
the word bears in the genuine works of Aristotle. (See Pro£ Joseph 
Mayor's notes on Cicero De Nat. Deor. 2. 55 §§ 136, 138: vol. 11. of 
his ed., pp. 256, 262.) Similarly the aorta (aoprif, actpw) is so called, as 
being a tube or cord from which the heart depends. (2) In the plural, 
dprrjpCai were the bronchial tubes : this use, too, is recognised by Hippo- 
crates. After a time it was found convenient to define dprrfpicu, when it 
meant the windpipe^ by a special- epithet. The word chosen was rpaxeZa, 
because the windpipe is externally ' rough ' with rings of cartilage which 
strengthen it. The phrase rj rpaxcia dprripia dates at least from the age 
of the physician Erasistratus (c. 280 b.c). 

* Arteries ' in the modern sense, and veins, are alike called ^\c/?cs by 
Aristotle. The physician Praxagoras of Cos {c. 310 — 290 b.c.) has been 
regarded as the first who had some notion of the true distinction 
(Sprengel, Hist, de la Mkd. vol. 1. p. 491). But the general conception 
long continued to be that which Cicero attests, De Nat. Deor. 2. 55 
§ 138, ' Sanguis per venas in omne corpus diffunditur y et spiritus per 
arterias.' 

The later doctrines of the ' arteriae, ' from Galen to Harvey, may 
be traced in Prof. J. G. McKendrick's article on the ' Vascular System/ 
Encycl. Brit. vol. xxiv. pp. 95 ff. (9th ed.). 

The Oracle at Dodona. 

1166 M. Constantin Carapanos, when at Jannina in the summer of 
1875, heard of some coins having been found in a neighbouring district, 
among ruins usually identified with Passaron, the chief town of the 
Molossi in Epeirus. He was thus led to undertake the excavations 
which finally established the true site of Dodona, — formerly placed by 
Leake and others on the hill of Kastritza, at the s. end of the Lake of 
Jannina. The results obtained by M. Carapanos are given in his work, 
Dodone et ses ruines (Paris, 1878). 

1. Site. Dodona stood in what is now the valley of Tcharacovista, 
about 1 1 J miles s.w. of Jannina. It is in the region where the n.e. corner 
of Thesprotia touched the n.w. corner of Molossia. As Strabo says, 
* Dodona is called Thesprotian by the tragedians (Aesch. P. V. 831) and 
Pindar, but afterwards became subject to the Molossi' (7. 7.4). The 
total length of the valley from n.w. to s.e. is about 7^ miles; its width 
varies from about half a mile to about a mile and a quarter. On the 



APPENDIX. 201 

e.n.e. side Tcharacovista is divided from the valley of Jannina by hills 
of which the best-known names are Manoliassa and Cosmira. On the 
w.s.w., it is overlooked by Mount Olytzika, — famous in the ancient world 
as Tomaros, — which attains a height of 6500 feet, overtopping all the 
hills of Lower Epeirus except Pindus. The summit, a bare rock, is 
furrowed by torrent-courses; below it, the mountain is girdled by a 
forest of firs. 

The height of the valley above sea-level, as given by Carapanos, is 
500 metres, or 1640 feet; the mountains around it are covered with 
snow during a great part of the year ; and it is too cold for the orange 
or the olive, though both flourish a few miles from it, on the west or the 
south-east. A climate severer than ordinarily occurs in that latitude 
(39° 33' N «) m Hy justifies the Homeric expression, AwSwio; Svcrxci/xcpos 
{II. 2. 750, 16. 234). Aeschylus describes Dodona as surrounded by 
* lofty ridges' (aiiruvowov, P. V. 830): and Pindar, as the region from 
which high pasture-lands slope down westward, — Ao&tWfev ap^oficvot 
irpos *Idviov iropov (N. 4. 53). The word iropov is peculiarly fitting here 
if Pindar meant * strait,' and not merely ' sea.' A line drawn westward 
from Dodona strikes the coast of Epeirus, some thirty miles distant, at 
a point opposite Corfu. 

2. The remains. A spur, projecting from the hills on the n.e. side, 
divides the valley into two parts, a north-western and a south-western, 
the latter being the larger. At the end of this spur are the ruins of 
Dodona, which have a southern and eastern aspect. They consist of 
three principal parts. (1) The ruins of the town form an irregular 
square on the top of a hill about 100 feet above the valley. (2) Lower 
down is the theatre, fairly well preserved. (3) South-east of the town is 
the peribolos, or sacred precinct, an irregular oblong, about 270 yards 
in length, with an average breadth of 140. 

The sacred precinct itself consists of two parts. (1) The north- 
western part, standing on a plateau thrown out from the hill of the town, 
contained the Temple of Zeus, the site of which is now occupied by a 
Christian Church. The length of the temple was (roughly) 44 yards, and 
its width 22. Two other buildings stood in this part of the pre- 
cinct ; the larger was trapezoid in form ; the smaller, nearly square : 
both were connected, it is supposed, with means of divination employed 
by the oracle. (2) The other, or south-eastern, part of the sacred pre- 
cinct formed the temenos in the narrower sense. It has an average 
length of 121 yards, and width of no. Annexed to it was a polygonal 
building, sacred, as objects found there show, to Aphroditfe. 

3. The Dodonaean cult In the traditions concerning the earliest 
period of Dodona, three facts stand out clearly. It was, from the 
first, sacred to Zeus, the Hellenic Sky-god. It was 'Pelasgic'; in 
other words, it was, for the Greeks of the historical age, prehistoric. 
And the central object, the organ of the oracle, was an oak, sacred 
to Zeus. Plato refers to Dodona as the earliest example of a tree- 
oracle (Spvos Xoyoi, Phaedr. p. 275 b). 

The aspect in which Zeus, the Sky-father, was more especially 



202 APPENDIX. 

worshipped at Dodona was expressed by the epithet Naios, the god 
of streams, and, generally, of water. Acheloiis, as the type of that 
element, received special honours at Dodona (see n. on Tr. 9). In 
course of time the Dodonaean cult of Zeus became associated with 
a cult of Dione, Aicov^. This goddess, usually described as a 
Titanid, daughter of Uranos and GS, was at Dodona the symbol of 
the fertilised Earth, answering to Zeus Naios as the fertilising water-god. 
She was his wife, owaos with him ; their daughter was Aphrodite, who, 
as has been mentioned, had a temple in the temenos. 

4. The priests. In the earlier days, when Zeus alone was 
worshipped at Dodona, men, not women, were the interpreters of 
the oracle. This is Strabo's statement (7, p. 329); and it is con- 
firmed, — if, indeed, it was not suggested, — by the Iliad (16. 233 flf.), 
which knows no deity at Dodona but Zeus, whose interpreters, W 
<f>rjrai, are the ScAXoil This name, written 'EAAot by Pindar (according 
to Schol. A on the Iliad, I.e.), properly denoted a tribe dwelling at 
and around Dodona, not merely a priesthood or priestly caste. Thus 
the schol. on Iliad 16. 234 defines the ScAAot as lOvos 'HTrcipoyriKoV. And 
Aristotle (Meteor. 1. 14, p. 352 b 2), speaking of 'the ancient Hellas ' (rrjv 

'EAAa8a rrjv ap^atav), adds : — airrq 8" iarlv "q irtpX rrpr Ao>8o)Ki/v kcu rov 
9 A\€\Sov...^kow yap ol 2cAAot ivravOa koli ol xaAov/xcvoi rorc fxkv Tpaucol 
vvv 8* "EAA^vcs. The cognate name, 'EWoirirj, or 'EAAoirfy, is given by 
Hesiod to the district of Dodona (fr. 156, ap. Schol. Tr. 1167). The 
viro^yjrai of Zeus, chosen from among the Selloi, were called rop.ovpoi. 
This is stated by Strabo (7, p. 329), who derives the name from the 
mountain, Topapos or T/xapo?. In Od. 16. 403, ct /xcv k almjo-axn 
Aios fieydkoio dc/uorcs, a v.l. for fle/uorcs was To/novpot, which Strabo 
prefers. Eustathius notices this variant, and explains it thus: — To/xovpoi, 
ol vwo rov irovqTov (Homer) Acyo/xcvoi wro^rai. The title Natdp^os, 
found in inscriptions at Dodona, may have been borne by the chief of 
the Tofxovpoi: but this is uncertain. 

5. The priestesses. The appointment of priestesses at Dodona 
dated, according to Strabo (7, p. 329), from the time when the cult of 
Dionfc became associated with that of Zeus: — ko.t dpyd* p.\v ovv avSpcs 
rjvav ol irpo<fvqT€vovT€<i...v<TT€pov 8* direBeixOrjo-av Tpcis ypaicu, cVciSi? 
icai onWaos T<j> Au irpocair^iyOrj 17 Auovrj. That this date was at least 
an early one, appears from the tradition that it was anterior to the 
appointment of Phemonoe, the first recorded Trpofjuaims at Delphi. 
The Dodonaean priestesses were called IlcXctai or IIcAcia8cs. Pau- 
sanias says, speaking of Sibyls (10. 12. 10): ^acwls 8c, Bvydrrjp aV8pos 
fia<n\ev<ravTO<; iv Xaocrt, kcu at IIcActat irapd AcoSwvcuoi?, c/xavrcvcravTO 
ftcv €K Oeov kol aural, 2i/?vAAat 8c v7ro dvOpwirmv ovk €KKrjOr)a , av. — Tas 
HcXciaSas 8c &r)fiov6r)S tc Itl Trporcpa? yeveaOan, Xeyovai kcu acrat yv- 
vaiKwv Trpcora? Ta8€ rd eirrf 

Zcvs rjv, Zcvs Icrrt, Zcvs cWfTai, a> /xeyaXc Zcv' 
Yd Kapwovs avtet, 810 kX^ctc /xarepa Taiav. 

The second verse illustrates the connection between the first institu- 
tion of these priestesses and the cult of Dione, the symbol of the fertile 



APPENDIX. 203 

earth. So, too, Eustathius (on Od. 14. 327) says: — varepov 8c Tpcis 
d7ro$€i)(0r}vai ypaia? 7rpo<£i7Ti8as, as TrcAci'a? Koktio-dai y\tx><TO"Q MoAottcov, 

ws tov5 ycpoi/ras ttcAciovs. Compare Strabo's statement (7, frag. 1): 

<f>acrl 8c Kal Kara rrjv tu>v MoA.otto>v teal ®€<T7rpayrwv y\<Srrav Tas ypata? 
7rcA.ta5 Kakficdat teal tovs ycpovra? jrcAiovs, icai tcrcos ovk opvca ijcrav 
ai Opvkovficvai ?rcActa8c?, aAAa yvvaiiccs Tpcis 7rcpl to tcpov <r\okti' 
£owai. 

Here, then, we have one explanation of the name IIcAcmu or 
IIcAcia8c?, as applied to the priestesses, — that it meant 'aged women,' 
being merely another form of ttoXuolL Hesychius has ttcAciovs' K<5ot 
ical ol 'H'TrcipcoTai tovs ycpovras icai ra? •n*pco"j3i;Tt8as. The words 7TcA.€mi, 
TrcXcta?, palumba, probably denoted 'the grey dove* (Victor Hehn, 
Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere in ihretn Uebergang aus Asien nach 
Griechenland, etc., p. 300, 3rd ed., Berlin, 1877). According to another 
view, which Stein (on Her. 2. 57) prefers, the name was symbolical: 
these priestesses were called IlcXctaScs, 'Doves/ as the Pythia and 
other priestesses were called McAuro-ai, with allusion to some sacred 
legend. A third theory, which may be rejected, supposes that the 
priestesses were so styled merely because they drew omens from the 
flight of doves. 

The true explanation is to be sought, I should suppose, in a combi- 
nation of the etymological with the symbolical view. The dove was the 
sacred bird of Aphrodite; and Aphrodite was worshipped at Dodona 
as the daughter of Zeus and Dione. The institution of priestesses is 
said to have coincided with the introduction of Dione's cult. Probably, 
then, the WAcia was a sacred bird at Dodona from the time at which 
the priestesses were instituted, or, at any rate, from a time not much 
later. The priestesses were locally known as WAcuu or irekial, originally 
in the sense of 7ro\tat, ' the aged ones.' But Greeks from other parts of 
Hellas, familiar with the word 7rcXcia only as meaning 'the grey bird,' 
the dove, associated the name, as given to the priestesses, with the sacred 
birds of the temple, the 7rcXctat of Aphrodite. And IIcXcmu or IIcAcia8c?, 
as the designation of the priestesses, came to be thus explained, even 
at Dodona, in a symbolical or mystic sense. 

Herodotus (2. 55) describes the three Dodonaean priestesses as 
irpofiavTies or tpciat, and does not expressly say that they were called 
rEcActoScs. But the temple-legend which he gives on their authority 
is significant in this connection. Two ' black doves J flew away from 
Egyptian Thebes : one came to Dodona,-^alighted on an oak, — spoke 
with a human voice, — and ordered the people to establish an oracle of 
Zeus : the other ' dove ' went to Libya, and similarly founded the 
oracle of Zeus Ammon. These two ' doves/ Herodotus suggests, were 
Egyptian women, called 'doves/ because, at first 'their utterance was 
like that of birds' (i.e., unintelligible); the doves 'spoke with a human 
voice' when they had learned Greek. Now, it should further be 
noticed that Herodotus makes no direct mention of ScXXoi or rofiovpoi : 
he says merely that the account given by the three priestesses was 
corroborated by ol a\\oi AcoSawauu ol -n-cpl to Ipov. Evidently the 
priestesses were then the representative functionaries of the oracle. 



204 APPENDIX. 

The priests were no longer its direct interpreters, but merely ministers of 
the temple. Accordingly, the sacred bird 7rcA.cia, whose introduction was 
really coeval, or nearly so, with the institution of priestesses, was now 
connected in their legend with the first establishment of the shrine. 
The priestesses thus magnified the antiquity of their office, ignoring the 
earlier period during which the Selloi had furnished the wro^Tat. 
And, though Herodotus does not expressly attest the name IlcXctaSc? 
as borne by the priestesses, yet his account tends to confirm the later 
testimonies; for the interest of the priestesses in the legend of the 
irc'Xcia becomes all the more intelligible, if it was thus directly linked 
with their own title. 

The number of the IIcAciaScs is usually given as three. (Her. 2. 55 ; 
Ephorus fr. 30, in Miiller Frag. Hist. 11. p. 241 : Strabo 7, p. 329 : Eusta- 
thius on Od. 14. 327.) The scholiast on Tr. 172 says: — Evpurt&7? 

Tpcts yeyovevai <jyqa\v atrrds, oi 8 c 8vo, #cai rrjv fikv els Aipvr/v d<f>iK€<rOai 
($hjfir)$€v €is to rov * AfxfJLtDvos xpr)<rrrjpiov, rrjv <8c> 7rcpt rrjv Ao&avrjv, cos 
*al Ho/ Sap os natactv. In my commentary (on 171 f.) I allude to 
this schol. as indicating that Pindar agreed with Sophocles in speaking 
of two IIcActacW It may be objected : — * Does the scholium mean 
anything more than that Pindar, in one or more of his lost paeans, 
alluded to the same temple-legend which Herodotus gives (2. 55), — 
viz., that one dove founded the oracle at Dodona, and another dove the 
oracle of Amnion?' But the scholiast is here expounding the second of 
two views which he notices, — viz., that by the IlcXctaScs Sophocles 
means the priestesses, rds Updas ypaias ovtra?. After saying that Euripides 
speaks of them (arras) as three in number, he adds that ' others ' speak 
of two. One of these 'others' is clearly, in the scholiast's intention, 
Herodotus, whom he has been quoting for the theory that barbarian 
women might have been called 'doves'; and he has omitted to observe 
that Herodotus speaks of three Dodonaean priestesses, though of two 
doves (the Dodonaean and the Libyan). It may well be, then, that the 
clause in the scholium after ol 8c 8vo, viz., kol rrjv /j.cv...A<o8a>vi7v, refers to 
Herodotus; and that Pindar really spoke of two Dodonaean priestesses. 
It is needless, however, to press this disputable point Let it be 
granted that Sophocles is the only authority that can be cited for two, 
instead of three, Peleiades. That is no reason against understanding him 
to mean those priestesses. He may have conceived, or may have 
known, that in the practice of Dodona only two of the three priestesses 
actually took part in the delivery of responses. The historian Ephorus 
(c. 350 B.C.), referring to a certain oracle given at Dodona, speaks of 
1 the prophetess,' rrjv irpo<f>rjriv, though he mentions in the same passage 
that there were three irpo<j>TJri8€s (fr. 30, Miiller Fragm. Hist. 11. p. 241). 
Zenobius (2. 84), quoting the same story from Heracleides Ponticus, 
also uses the singular, rj rrpo^n% rj cV A<d6\ovt7. And so, too, Servius 
(on Aen. 3. 466), referring to Dodona, speaks of ' anus Pelias nomine.' 
The existence of three such priestesses is thus not incompatible with the 
mention of one as announcing the oracle ; or of two, as in the verse of 
Sophocles, if the principal prophetess was aided, in some subordinate 
capacity, by one of her colleagues. 



APPENDIX. 205 

6. Procedure of the oracle. The ancient oak, sacred to Zeus, was 
the principal organ of divination. According to Suidas, s. v. AwSc^, 
the branches of the oak moved, emitting a sound, when the person con- 
sulting the oracle entered the place in which the oak stood ; and the 
priestesses then spoke, interpreting the signs so given : — c&rtoirwv raw 

fiavTCUOfAcviov cVctvctro hrjBcv r) 8pvs rj^ovtra 9 ai 8c itfdeyyovro, otl to8c 
Acyci o Zcvs. By jj^owa may be meant merely the rustling of the leaves, 
which would well suit the phrase of Sophocles, Spvs iroXvyAoxrcros. Or 
some further sound may have been produced artificially. Philostratus 
(Imag. 2. 33) describes the oak as hung with (rrc/ji/Aara. These symbol- 
ised its character as a /xdVris : for it is always the oak itself which is 
described as uttering the oracle, though its language requires to be in- 
terpreted 'by the irpo^riScs. So Lucian Amor. 31 rj cV Au&jjvrj <f>rjyds... 
IcpaV diropprf^cura <I>u)vtJv. Steph. Byz. s. v. AuiSvvrj : QryyiovaU (Zev), 
cVcl cv AwSvvrj wpaJrov <f>rfyo^ ipavrcvera. 

There is thus a very strong probability that Sophocles, when he 
described the oak as speaking .Surow c* IIcA.£<a3a>v, meant, ' by the mouth 
of the two Peleiades.' Other explanations of his words are the following. 

(1) * By the agency of two doves.' That is, signs derived from doves, 
by their mode of flight or otherwise, were combined with the signs from 
the oak. I cannot find any good evidence for this. In Paus. 7. 21. 2, 
at 71-cA.ctai teal rd €K rfjs Spvos fiavreifiara fxere^iv fidXurra i<f>aiv€TO d\rj- 

0ct'a?, the reference may well be to the priestesses, whom he calls ir&euu 
as well as ttcAcmiScs (10. 12. 10). One of the scholia on Tr. 172 vaguely 
says that two doves ' sat on the oak, and gave oracles ' (ifiavreuovro) — 
merely an inaccurate reminiscence, I should think, of Her. 2. 55. 

(2) ''From between two doves.' That is, a symbolical dove, of stone 
or metal, stood on either side of the sacred oak. Philostratus (Imag 2. 
33) describes a picture which represented a golden dove as perched on 
the oak at Dodona, and as connected, in some way which he does not 
define, with the giving of the oracle : rj /xcv xP va V *&*"*• fr* [to-rlv ?] iirl 
rfjs Spvos, lv Xoytois rj (ro<t>r) kcu ^rja-fioh [vulg. XP 7 W LOt ']> °^ s &* Aios 
dva^Oeyyerax. But Philostratus wrote in the third century a.d. The 
'golden dove* probably dated only from the revival at Dodona in 
early Imperial times (see Carapanos, p. 172): it would hardly have 
escaped the pillage suffered by Dodona in the third, and in the first, 
century B.C. Nor can reliance be placed on the vague words of the 
scholiast, probably founded on the poet's phrase, wepavco rov cV AwStavy 

fJLOLVTtLOV SvO Tj(TaV ITcActai hi U)V €fiaVT€V€TO 6 ZcV9, (OS 'AlToWtoV CL7TO 
Tpi7To8o5. 

Neither of these interpretations has nearly so much to commend it 
as that which takes HcAciaW to mean priestesses. This view does 
not, of course, exclude the supposition that doves, living or artificial, 
were kept near the sacred oak. It is also possible, or even probable, 
that such doves played some part in the oracular ritual. 

Besides the oak, other sources of divination were used at Dodona. 
One was the sound given by a bronze Ac/fys (basin), when struck by a 
metallic whip in the hand of a small figure above it ; or by a series of 
such Ac/fyTcs, so placed that, when one of them was struck, the sound 



206 APPENDIX. 

was prolonged through the rest. Hence AwoWcuoi/ yakK&ov was a 
proverb for garrulity (Suidas s. v.). We hear also of a fountain, near the 
oak, whose murmurs were oracular (Plin. H. N. 2. 103, etc.) : and of 
sortes, lots drawn from a vessel (Cic. De Divin. 1. 34. 76). 

As to the mode of delivering the oracle's responses, Sophocles 
assumes that the practice at Dodona was the same which prevailed at 
Delphi and elsewhere. That is, the response was given orally, and the 
person to whom it was given wrote it down (1167). Here Sophocles is 
confirmed by a writer of the fourth century b.c, Ephorus, in a passage 
cited above (p. 204, 1. 13). But in later times the visitors to Dodona wrote 
down their questions, and gave these to the priestesses ; who returned 
written answers. The formula cttc/owiwti. to kolvov twv * * Ata N£ov kou 
Aimvav is one which occurs on the leaden plates found by Carapanos 
(pp. 68 — 82). Such a proceeding implies the first conditions of decline 
for an oracle — a less quick-witted administration, and a more critical 
public. 

The temple at Dodona, with the exception of the cella, was de- 
stroyed about 220 b.c. by the Aetolians, in revenge for the Epeirots 
having joined the Achaean League. In 88 B.C. the place' was pillaged 
by the Thracians whom Mithridates had sent into Epeirus. In the 
second and third centuries of the Christian era, Dodona enjoyed a tran- 
sitory revival of its old fame. 

1260 x^ v P°s XiOoKoXXtp-ov <rr6|uov. (1) The interpretation, 'a curb 
of steel, set with pieces of stone, 1 has not been supported by any proof 
that a steel curb was ever furnished with teeth of stone. The passages 
adduced refer merely to curbs made with jagged edges, or teeth, of iron 
or steel. Thus Pollux (10. 65) quotes oro/ua Trpiovwrd from Aristo- 
phanes (fr. 139). According to Servius on Verg. Geo. 3. 208 (iluris 
parere lupatis), ' lupata ' were so called ' a lupinis dentibus, qui inae- 
quales sunt.' Cp. Plut. Mor. p. 641 F imrovs AvKOOTra&xs ol fxkv awo t<3v 
XaAuw twv \vkidv l<f>acav wvofidcrOai, 81a to OvfiouSes kou oWfcadacrov 

ovro) a-uxjipoviiofiivovq. This severe kind of bit was used, it appears, in 
breaking fiery colts. A.v*cos, as a Greek name for it, seems not to occur 
before Plutarch. Whether it was borrowed from lupatum, or vice versa, 
we do not know. Welcker's conjecture, kvKOKok\rfrov 9 — i.e. 'provided 
with the sharp teeth of a Avkos/ — is very improbable. 

(2) Another interpretation of XiOoicokkrjTov is, 'set with precious 
stones. 1 Reference is made to Nonnils 32. 122 cvXatyya? re x a ^ LV0 ™- 
Similarly XidoKoXXtfro*: occurs as an epithet of x L ™ v (Callixenus ap. 
Athen. p. 200 b). But, if such ornamentation was ever applied to curbs 
by Greeks of the 5th century B.C., it must at least have been very excep- 
tional ; and in any case such an epithet would be wholly out of place here. 

(3) Hermann's rendering is ferreum saxorutn frenum. He means a 
ferrea compages, or iron clamp, used for binding stones together. 

The scholia recognise the word kijdoKoXXrfrov, but give no light One 
scholiast takes xaAv/Jos with ifrvxti, ano ^ <rr6fiiov as = a-rofia : ' allowing thy 
mouth to be closed, as the mouth of a well • is closed with a stone ' 
(oxravct crro/xa ^pcaro? \i6u) mkoXXtj/jlcvov). 



APPENDIX. 207 

1264 — 1278 (1) Among the editors who give these verses wholly to 
Hyllus are Hermann, Dindorf, Wunder, Wecklein, Paley, Pretor. Blaydes 
agrees with them in his text; but in his commentary holds that w. 1275 
— 1278 belong to the Chorus. 

(2) Brunck and Campbell give 1264 — 1274 to Hyllus, and 1275 — 
1278 to the Chorus. And this, to judge from L (see commentary), was 
once the prevalent opinion. 

(3) Nauck holds a singular view. He eliminates Hyllus altogether. 
Verses 1259 — 1269 are given by him to Heracles, and verses 1270 — 
1278 to the Chorus : but he brackets 1275 — 12 7^ as spurious. 

His reason forgiving Heracles not only 1259 — 1263, but also 1264 — 
1269, is merely that d^raSot in 1264 must mean the followers of Heracles y 
and that therefore Heracles, not Hyllus, must be the speaker. But, 
seeing that the men have come with Hyllus from Euboea, why should 
not Hyllus address them as owaSoC, although his father had previously 
been their leader? And Nauck's view further requires the unhappy 
change of alpef into ^cuper . Then he gives 1270 — 1274 to the Chorus, 
and to Hyllus, merely on the ground of general tenour : but obviously 
the reproach to the gods (alo-xpa 8' ckci'vois) comes better from the son 
of Heracles than from the Chorus. 

The touch-stone of Nauck* s theory is the word ifxoC in 1264. If 
crvyyvtofjLoovvrjv means ' pardon,' then c/x-ot must mean Hyllus. Accord- 
ingly Nauck is driven to a rendering of crvyyvwfKxrvvqv which is not 
merely strange and forced, but must be pronounced impossible. He 
deletes the words dyv<afio<rvvqv ciSdrcs l/aywv, reads 0cots instead of 0€<3v, 
and takes avyyvvfjioovvrjv to mean fiaprvpiav : ' bearing strong witness to 
me and to the gods.' He quotes Thuc. 2. 74 $vyyvu>fiove<: 8c co-tc: but 
those words mean, 'consent'; not, 'be witnesses] — which is expressed a 
little earlier in the same passage by $vvCarop€s lore 

(4) Bergk proposes the following distribution : — 1259 — 1263, Hera- 
cles: 1264 — 1269, Hyllus: 1270 — 1278, Chorus. (See his edition, 
p. lx.) 

(5) Dindorf thinks that the play originally ended with verse 1263, 
spoken by Heracles. But this would manifestly be too abrupt. 



INDICES. 



I. GREEK. 

The number denotes the verse, in the note on which the word or matter is illustrated. 
When the reference is to a page, p. is prefixed to the number. )( means, 'as 
distinguished from'. 



d= 'wherefore,' 137 
dya* 76, 896 
Ayyos, 622 

wye, sing, though several persons are ad- 
dressed, 1255 
dyfrrp-os, 743 
dyeViopros, 61 
ayXoxnros, 1060 
dyvold, 350 
dyvu/xoavvr), 1266 
dyv&fuav, 472 f. 
dyopdy 371 f., 423 f. 

dyopaX IlvXdrtfes, 638 f., and Appendix 
dywvios, 26 
ddayfids, 770 
ddrjXov, 66gf, 
dtXiov, with a, 835 
dftXov, 284, 745 

-at, elision of termination in tragedy, 216 
"Atdrfs £vv\rxps> 501 
altiXos, n, 94, 834 
atp€iv y 80, 799, 1255, 1264 
alrla )( tykXrifia, 360 f. 

«*X/<ft 859 
alxud&tv, 355 
altbv, as = fortune in life, 34 
dic$\rp-op, 997 ff. 
cucpai, axpa, 788 

d/mfr...e'(mj', instead of rj\0&' els dicr^v 
k.t.X., 752 ff. 

J. S. V. 



dXaX^, 205 f. 
dXafivis ijXtov, 691 
dXdarwp, 1092, 1235 
dXXd, repeated, 594 f., 1151 

, , prefacing assent, 1 1 79, 1257 

„ = 'at least,' 201, 320, 801 

,, = 'nay, then,' 472 

„ resumptive, 359 
dXXd fikv 5iJ, 627 
dXX' ovte fxh 5iJ, 1 1 28 
aKXrjKTos, 985 

dXXdOpovs as merely =oXX6t/hos, 843 ff. 
aXXos...owii crov, i225f. 
dXXws, 817 
d/Mctyas, 658 f. 

d/xetyavdat, 'get in exchange,' 737 
afUKTos, 1095 
a/uWa, 2i8ff. 
awUvcw, 335 
afifuya^dvdfuya, 838 
d/i#f, as = 'concerning,' followed by ace, 

937 
dfuplyvoi, 503 ff. 

d}j.<pldpeTTov, followed by genitive, 572 f. 

dfjupivciic/)S> 104 

dfjL<t>urlirrun> ordficunp, 938 

<£j> with el\6/j.rp/, 734 

dw£, apocope of, 335 

apajraXovjueVi?, 910 

dvajto'eti', 1259 

dvafATrXaKTjTos, 1190*. 

14 



210 



INDICES. 



drapdpos, 1 103 

dvdpcios, 853 ff. 

apdirraros, 39 

aVarpeVw, 1009 

aratidarot, 968 

dWv, as=x«pij, 336 f. 

dvev<prjpeTp, 783 

ay^icei, 10 1 8 

aH)p )( ir6<rif, 550 f. 

dff)pi$fiOS t 246 f. 

d*04<a, 1089 

«tfo* )( ^817, 547—549 

dp0os=dKfx^p, 997 ff. 

wlaxw and dvexw, 302 ff. 

dpoXoXtfjiv, 205 f. 

avTayltrraTcu, 441 f. 

d^ri toO, *in gratitude for what?' 707 

avT{(TTCWTOJ,=avTi0-TWJ' rd <5<rra, 770 

dot$6s, 1000 

ookpos, with gen., 841 

dTapd£<u, 1015 

dirapxrf, 181 ff. 

dreurdjlw, 141 

diretire, foil, by pres. part., 789 f. 

dwXciTos = dir Acurros, 1093 

dTXcrof, 981 f. 

dw& y\uxr<T7]S, 746 f. 

dr& yvib/xrjs, 389 

dr' iXiridos jtaXip, 666 f. 

'Air6XXw, ace., 207 ff. 

dw^irroXu' tx €tv t 647 ff. 

dnoffrffTca, 434 f. &TrorlpaTos=&Tp6<rpa- 

tos, 1027 ff. 
dTpoa-fryopoi, 1093 

<*/**> ™39 
dpatos, 1202 

dp7^s...w6icos, 675 

'A/m/s, quantity of, 653 f. 

dpflpo?, 769, 779 

dp/cet, personal, 711 

apfidfriv, 731 ff. 

dpvvfiatf 711 

apvros, as = year, 69, 825 

dpar)v, of sturdy vigour, 11 96 

dprripla, 1054, and Appendix 

dprUcoWos, wrre t£ktopos, 768 

dpHvovs, 58 

dpxatoy )( 7raXai6f, 555 

&ffKOiros=&wpo<T66KriTOS f 246 



&<rfUrQ.../Aot t 18 

darfraKTos, 1074, 1200 

d<rro2 17 ^ot, 187 

an?, 1082, 1 104 

arpoKrw, 714^ 

auXa/, poet, plur., 901 

auXa^, gender of, loof. 

aOn7...Tai/Xa, instead of roOro...TaOXa, 

1255 f. 
avrdi'=<r«itrr6i', 451 
at/rArcus, 826 f. 
cn/rov, 'just ^r*,' 801 f. 
d^aprd^Eii', 548 
fyoppw, 902 

B 

pdXXetv, with dat., = i/ipdXkcw or eVi/3dX- 

Xewj 916 
/SdXXeiv alrlp, 940 
/Saptff, 1202 
fidais, 964, 965 ff. 
ptpcuop, predicate, 620 ff. 
prjvai, aor., 195 

/Ha, in periphr. for a person, 38 
/9\d<rrcu, plur., 382 
/Sod* tipo, 772 
povOcpfa 188 
povXeticiP, 807 
pofrirpypos, 11 
/toDs, gender of, 760 ff. 
ppvxdofuu, 805, 904, 1072 
pio/j.oly 904 



yaneip, not necessarily of marriage, 460. 

Cp. 843, 1 1 39 
ydpop, rbv Ofrtof, 791 f. 
7dp, prefacing a statement, i24f., 680 f., 

"59 
,, in an angry question, 1 124 

,, prefatory, omitted, 555, 750, 900 

76, in reply, 335 

»> suggestive of more than is actually 

said, 423 f. 

,, of personal experience, 444 

,, expressive, mi 

76 iUp &>, 484 

yepov, 'show thyself,* 1064 



L GREEK. 



211 



Tiy&PTunr trrpdros, 1059 
yXviojs, of Hades, 1039 f. 
yX&vaa, ' speech, * 3 2 2 f. 

7\wx^» 680 f. 
yvu> fia, 59a f. 
y6ov...ddKpv, 1199 



SalpwrOat, 771, 1088 

5&kv€w, 254, 1 117 

5aK(I)Vy 976 

oV, resumptive, 252, 281 

,, following ical, 1076 f. 

„ following re, 143, 285 f., 333 f., 1 151 ff. 

,, without preceding /Up, 198, 517, 

1 147 f. 
,, introducing an objection, 729 
,, marking a second relationship, 739 
5eiv6s, of strong feeling, 298, 476, and 

Appendix on 476 
Seivds, ironical, 1135 
5Atos, 47, 157 f., 161 f., 683 
5* ofos 327 f., 1157, 1273 
St emphasising whole phrase, 464 
,, =v8rj t 460 
dTjSev, 382 

5tct KCLKUP, I I3I 

Sidpopos )( 5iap6pos, 676, 1084 
diadedeyfiivr), 29 f. , and Appendix 
5iat<r<ru), medical word, 1083 
Siappalvo/xai, 14 
diaairaptvTOS, 781 f. 
Si&ffTfXMpop, 794 
do/for&we, 881 
5«7\0e, 476 ff. 

dl-/)P€/JLOS, 327 

5o)(7ei, 322 f. See also Appendix 

dlxaios, 347 f., 411 

AIkt], 807 ff. 

fli^uifr, 1095 

5h!>hpvto, 377 f. 

diufJLoaev, 255 

5oiccii'='be believed to be,' 56 f. 

oojco9<ra=6r6 i56ic€i t imperf. part., 1138 

doXoirotfc, 831 

doXQiriSy 1050 

56ijx>i = y vvaiKcoviT is, 689 

56s /tot <r^avr6y=Tt^oO pot, 11 17 

dp&Kwu, of a river, 1 1 



Spav roiavrd run. (instead of rtva), 807 ff. 

opJa, 1012 

dpo/JLcuos, 927 

fyfc, 765 f. 

W o8<rat, 539 

5u(7/xax€i»', 492 

5v<nrdp€vvov t 791 

E 

Idv 7TWJ, 584 

h/K\r]/xa )( aMa, 360 f. 
iyKOPCip 1255 
£yX o s=#0°*> 10 14, 1032 
iyx&pioi $eol, 181 ff. 
tytaye, in answer, 1248 

e* & M, 587 
ef flij, 27 
c/ /ca/, 71 
d ti jt«J, 712 
efow, 1067 
elKadbvra, ii76f. 
elv6firfp kclkois, 1074 
eZpre, 237 f., 750 
-eis, repeated, 1241 
eh wXetoras, 460 
etW/fy, dative after, 298 
€(<r<a and &rw, 202 ff. 
eic 7Xc&<r<n75 /ta/t^s, 281 
& 8vofp...<bp4>avi<rfi£pos plop, 941 f. 
lie KaXv/xfxdrup, 1078 
^/t wdrrdv, 780 

e'/c raxefaj, adverbial phrase, 395 
& TOio&rov, 1075. & rptwv ft>, 734 
eicdidaxfels followed by genitive, 934 
€K€i0€P t ol, 314 f. 
iKeWev, t&, 632 
€K$pri<rKeiv f 566 ff. 
^c/cX^ttcij', 436 f. 
^/fXiJcty 653 f. 
licXifercu = e/cXtfet, 21 
iKfialveiv, 1 1 42 
^KT\ay?7i/cu, of fear, 24 
„ of joy, 629 

?KTCL, 38 
£KTetP€W t 679 

eKTifipeiv, 1 1 96 
£ktotos, = 'external,' 1 132 
eicrds £X0ois, sc. row opicov, 1189 
ifccptpo/jLcu, 497 

14 — 2 



212 



INDICES. 



iK<t>4p<a, 741, 824 f. 

iXavvew, constructions with, 1045 

£Xc60€pos as = iXevBipios, 61 ff. 

eXei/crerai, 594 f. 

iXirtfa, of evil foreboding, iiof. ; cp. 

eXwfs, 951 
iXvls, in neutral sense, 723 f. 
i/xfidXXetv X^pv fei-i&v, 1181 
£p6s t without vats, 1158, 1205 
ifXTreXdfav, with gen., 17 
„ with dat., 748 

e/JLirvetVy 1 1 60 
e/jLTro\dv, 93, 250 f. 
ifiirdXrifM, 537 f. 

A* Off, 1 1 18, 1 122 

iv 6/x/mktip, 241, 746 
fr TOfiq. (iv instrumental), 887 
ip rofiy %&Xov, 669 f. 
ivapyrfs, 11, 224 
cvdaroijfievos, 791 
ivdvHjp, 674 

fr0a /*ij rtj eialdoi, 903. See also Ap- 
pendix 
evdtpfxalvciv (hScpfios), 368 
ewoJiffaaa, 578 
twvxos, 501 
ivrcLKclri, 462 f. 
^reXett = reXe/ovs, 760 
e£ d/ftv^rou iro56s, 875 
e£ inrowfai, adverbial phrase, 727 
e£cup&i> and itjaipov/xai, 245 
it-alpeiv, 147 
il-alpofiat, 491 
^ap/ofr, 333 f. 
#£«/u with ace, 159, 506 f. 
l£6/uXos, 964 
iiraKrds, 259, 491 
iweppdOrjac, 264 

^iri with gen. o!f/cwi>, = 'at,' 1275 
„ with dat., 356 f., 911, 981, 994, 1 100 
evifieivat. . .6%vpaA, 1 1 76 
iviirovot afiipa, 653 f. 
^rt<Tic^irTW with double ace, 122 1 
evfora/tfu, 543 f. 
ctiotoXiJ, 493 
ivKrTptyf/as, intrans., 566 
tvovposy 953 ff. 
iiribfxoTOS=5pKLOt 1 1 1 88 
£p7<>v /m7<ris, 230 



'EptvtJs, 807 ff., 105 1 

I/mcoj (cr0/>a7?8os), 614 f. 

ipdicta, iigff. 

tpxercu with ace. of place, 259 

is= 'with regard to,' 486 f. 

is ixiaov Uvai, of a fight, 513 f. 

&rr/a, altar, 658 f. 
^nun-is, 953 ff. 
itrxov* 8 
£ri, 7, 161 ff 

„ in threats, 257 

,, pleonastic, 305 
iroi/xdo-as, 360 f. 
ev Tpaaaew, 92 f. 
Etf/3o?5a, contr. for Evpotda, 74 
etfXcKTpos, 515 
evpacrOcu, 1006 

evpiffKetv, to discover by reflection, 1 1 78 
dxf>-r)nLa y 178 f. 
4<pdvT€tv t 933 
e'0' jjfLtpay, 1128 
^"Hpa/cXet, 585 
itpltTTCLfiai, 339 
i(popdu } 1269, 1270 
#0v as =ey4v€T0j 36 
J?XW with aor. partic, 36 f. 
2ws without rfv, 147 f. 



Zei)s d7w^ioj, 26 

,, 'Ep/retbs, 904 ff. 

„ *E0^(TTtos, 262 

,, called KpovLdrjs, kclt itoxfy, 498 ff. 

„ Kr^atos, 690 

,, Btvios, 262 

„ vaTp$o$, 287 f., 753 

„ rporcuos, 303 
tyyaarpov, 692 
fwi', with x/^^Wf "69 



fl» 553 f-» "35 

77 — 17, difference in form between clauses 

after, 100 f. 

17 following re, 445 f. 

7; koX in questions, 246, 398 

rj K&pra, 379 



/. GREEK. 



213 



7} WOU, 846 

ilfo )( (Mot, 547—549 

"hyopG), 601 

W*«M55, 531 

17V at end of line, 819 

ijiruao) (not rjvvcas), 995 

17 rot... 17, 149 f. 

7ltiyfiip 9 610 



OdWw, of radiant health, 234 f. 
Oadfia, of persons, 961, 1003 

0&7«> 335 
deoiai, dissyll., 183 

dcoTrpdirov, 822 f. 

Oepp-ds, 1046 

Oecfiol, regular plural, 682 

Bcffwlfav, 1 131 

flew?, monosyll., 498 ff. 

#77X1/5 for tfTjXeta, 1062 

$,)p=K£i>Tavpos, 555 f., 680, 1096, 1 162 

d^jpeios ftta, 1059 

Ovrp-^i (ppovovaa 0WQT&, 473 

flod?, adverbial, =rax^wJf 857 

0p£fina...ti6pas, periphrasis, 574 

dpopfiibdeis dcppol, 701 f. 

dpyvKu, foil, by accus., 58 

0v/<t6s, impulse of passion, 882 ff. 

dv/xo<pdopu) } 142 

dvpadev, 102 1 

tfupcuos, fem., 533 

I 

t, elision of datival, 675 

i5t, lboi>y followed by plurals, 821, 1079 

tdt^.ThXiirfaoVy 1070 

fXeott, 763 

tva with gen., i-vfupopas tv eVTa/*ev, 1145 

16s at/MiTos, 716 ff. 

lov lov, 1 143 

liriro^d/j.cov } 1095 

l<7Topovfiei>os = 2f>urTU)fA€VOS, 415 

fo-Xcty with dat., 137 ff. 

ftJJtoiS 787 

/w dai/xov, 1025 

K 

Ka5Aco7ev^s, 116, and Appendix 
Kadalpuv, ion, 1061 



Kadeardpcu, 1091 

/cai giving scornful tone to question, n 40 

„ emphasising the verb, 314, 490,600, 
1124 

,, = 'nevertheless,' 1048 

,, followed by 6V, 1076 f. 
jtai ydp, 92 
/cat ty, 345 
koX Tavra, 'even this,' 12 15 

KCUvlfrlVy 866 f. 

/tcuvoTa^s, 1277 

Kaivoiroutv, 873 

/ccuvy KawbV) 613 

icd.#r rwde, 1 109 

/ra/ir6s=aT«rros, 347 f., 468 

Kafici, 1 215 

/card in /card £qT7i<rtv t 54 f. 

icar' dwcpat, 678 

/rard 7\cD<r<ra»', 746 f. 

icar' 6V/ia, 102, 379 

/car ovpop, 468 

Karapalveiv, in certamen descaidere, 503 ff. 

Karay/ia, 695 ff. 

Kardpxcw X670V, 1 135 

Kan7i$X6TO, 764 

KaTovplfciv, 826 f. 

/cdroxoir with dat., 978 

KeLpeiv, 1 196 

/ceiae 5e0p6 re, 929 

ife/cX^(r0at, 149, 736 

/reXcui^s, 856 ff. 

jrAXw, construction with, 804 

KevOew, 988 f. 

**>. 454 

KljpCS, 132 ff. 

KJjpvKes under the patronage of Hermes, 

620 ff. 
tcXto/xcu, 639 
KKjj^ffBat, 659, 1268 
/cXi0efc, 100 f. 
tfXi/ta£, 520 
jrotXa dV/ma, 901 
/rotXos added picturesquely in poetry, 

692 
jrot»-d, 'kindred things,' 952 f. 
icou'fc fem., 207 ff. 
ko/atJtt/s, 566 ff. 
ffytyi 536 
Kdfffup re koX ffTo\y=KO<rnlq. arokfi, 764 



214 



INDICES. 



Kprprls, 993 

Kplvw=&paKpl»u), 195, 314, 388 

KfKTOV, 245 

Kpovlday, 498 ff. 

KpVTTTOfXat )( Kp&TTW, 474 
JCnjfftOJ, 69O 

#crij<rij tpyov, 230 

KTlffCU, 898 

jcwXetp intrans., 1 29 f. 
mJros, 12 



Xti/Set?, ' conceive,' 669 f. 
\adlirovop, 102 1 

Xaxeti', of oracular utterance, 824 f. 
\cupvpa dperas, 645 f. 

M/3i?s, 555 f - 

X£yw, as=* command,' with ace. and 

infin., 137 ff. 
oi> X£y«, of religious e&tfnjfda, 498 ff. 
Xefoffw, 6 /u/j, = 6 fJ.rj /SX^rftv, the dead, 

829 f. 
Xe%os, 'bride,' 27, cp. 360. In plur. 

5*3 *• 
\iX°* Kyticteiv, 1227 
Xryvfa, 794 
\t$0K6\Xrrrw t 1 261 
Xtyy/ferai, 943 f. 
X670S dvdpurrrwv, 1 
\6y<p, 1046 
Av&7, 17, 70 
Avdla, 17, 432 
Xuti}/xos, 553 f. 

Xwfiap idov /j.€=i\u)^r}cru) fie, 996 
XwjSirros, m a ct. sense, 537 f. 
\(a</ymia t 553 f. 

M 

|MNTT1//>, 73I ff. 

/uaratos = ' wanton,' 564 f . 

,, adj. of two terminations, 863 
fUyas=deiv6s t 1276 
/i#tes (or /u« $4t) 9 799 
fji€i£ov...rj Kard, 1018 f. 
fieXayxcdTTis, 836 f. 
/xeXdyxoXos, 573 

/JL€\\6vV/J.(pOS, 205 f. 

n£K\w, with ellipse of infin., 74 f., 952 
Hcn7)XdvqTai rovpyov, 584 ff. 



fUjjufnfjuu, constructions with, 470 f. 

fUv followed by re, 10 12 

fidXuTra yAv % 799 

flip without a corresponding 84, 6, 69, 

380, 689 
fUv omitted before 84 9 198, 517, ii47f- 
Iktv vvv, 441 f. 
pkv ovv &>;', 153 
fxivGi <rc, 1 scoff. 

fi£TalTios...$tu>€iv, without rov, 1233 f. 
fx-f} interrogative, 316 
„ generic, 722, 725 
fttidtv, emphatic, 1107 

„ generic, 447 f., 818 
rb fiydiv w, 1 107 
fjLijX<wai$, in a bad sense, 774 
noipa, 1238 f. 
fi6va, 886 
fibv7}...b-f} i 1063 
/xdvov, modo, 596, cp. 1109 
fxovvov, 956 ff. 
fj.6x0oi, of Heracles, )( the aOXoi proper, 

1101 
fivc\6s, 781 
fJ-6<?Vi & Tt ***» 1009 
fjuafUvy, 1136 

N 

vcU, £*/«* metruniy 425 
p4fi<a=yofilfa 1 483 
v4opros, 893 ff. 
v€<f>4Xrj t 831 
pojwfc, 270 f. 

pfyioj, * rule, '616, cp. 1177 
^cxretv followed by dat. , 543 f. 
vixroi, pangs of frenzy, 882 ff. 
p&ros, of love, 445, 544 
wfi</>€ia 9 920 

H 

J^oj, ii-evufjbtvos, 65 
£4v<av...fld<ris=t-4vot padlfovres, 964 
$wetXe, corripuit % 882 ff. 
j-vpSrifiaTa, 157 f. 
^wrpexcii', 880 

o 

5 T6, neut. of the epic relat. 6$ re, 824 f. 
#yicos, 817 



/. GREEK. 



215 



&8e t after 60ns, 23 

,, after o&ros, 476 ff. 

„ thrice repeated, 716 ff. 
6$€v t 701 f. 
ol t 650 
oliceioSf 757 
olicoi, fig., 730 
olKovpia, 542 

olicrlfcuf, epexegetic, 853 ff. 
oUrrprfOels, 653 f. 
6\€0pla= 'undone,' 878 
6\oo, adverbial neut. plur., 846 
6/x/ju v6/uf>as t periphrasis, 527 f. 
6fw6vat...K&pa, 1185 
6/jlov, pleonastic, 545, 1237 
6/uas, 1 1 15 
dtyifxapos, 962 f. 
fiwov, not 6Voi, 40 
6irov...firj rts ctyerai, 799 f. 
6iruf>a= 'fruit,' 703 f. 
6Vws with fut. indie, after verbs of asking 
or commanding, instead of infin., 604 f. 
6tws &r after <p6\aave pdfxov, 618 f. 
00710, 765 f. 

6p06s t of oracles coming true, 826 f. 
dplfav pw/jioijs, 754 
dplfrcBat, fiiofioiJSy 237 f. 

6/>/«$, 719 f - 
orXos, 7 

6Vov= 6f tivoj, 905 

otov with subjunctive without ay, 250 f. 

oi> followed by otirc, 1058 

01) $1} in a question, 668, 876 

oti drjr (y<ay\ oXXa, 1208 

ov firj with fut. indie, in prohibition, 

978, 1 1 83 

otf Tt /*?/, or otf rot /*ij, 620 ff. 

oiU emphasising a person, 126 ff. 

,, adverbial, after otf, 279 k 

odd* av et, 462 

o6&...o£67, 340 f. 

otfirw, after ot), 159 

otWa, as= 'property,' 91 1 

ovre followed by 84, 1151 ff. 

oxn^a yaos, 656 

oxflos and 6x0*;, 524 f. 



n 



ir£ \f/a6eis y 1007 f. 



jrayxphrTty, 661 f. See also Appendix 

xaXou, expressing impatience, 1121 

xaXaifc )( dpx<ouos, 555 

ira\aL<paTos, 821, 822 f. 

raXa/urcuos, 1207 

raMrropot, 511 f., and Appendix 

irdfivXriKTa, 506 f. 

rdVouros, 294 

iravdiKQJSy 611, 1247 

Tavlfiepos, 660 

TdVra as an adverb, 338 

TafT$, ' utterly,' 647 ff. 

vap rf/wf, 588 f. 

trap u/jluv, 596 

wapturras, 195 

xapeto'o'lxeo'lac, 537 

Tapefirfyrca, 1 124 

iraprjXde, 900 

Trapdtve, 1275 

wai , ' complete,' 645 f. 

Tarpo^oVrqs fern., 1 125 

Tarpyos fern., 478, 562, and Appendix 

veiraijaoiicu, 587 

irivapa, 727 f. 

vcvclparrai, 581 

TrtirXos, 601 : how fastened, 924 f. 

weirovrifUvos, 985 

vepauripw absol. , 663 

mpy^ dcucpOtaVy 852 

tJhtcii' /caXws, metaphor from dice, 61 ff. 

«-ioT«$eii'='obey,' 1228, 125 1 

irfcrrij, 588 

fl-lw, 703 f. 

xXe/oTaj eff, 460 

vX4op redundant, 1065 

„ followed by drrl <rov, instead of by 

aov merely, 577 
tXIovs, tX^w, 943 f. 
wXeH/fiuw =TV€6/JM» f 566 ff., 778 
vXevpdBep, 938 
wMjv, 41 

Tr\-/)pwfxa )( Tr\r)f>o><ns, 12 13 
iroeu>, 385, 743 

wotfe?, 'from what motive?' 707 f. 
v60€P icr4; 10 ro 
vodovfUva = vodofoy, 103 
to0ovj', t6, 196, and Appendix 
wot followed by gen., 705 
voutlXa? (f), 412, cp. 1 12 1 



2l6 



INDICES. 



volviiAos, of avenging deities, 807 ff. 

votoiy 427 

TroXk6p = Tro\ijVy 1 1 96 

toXiJ^Xoj, 185 

vofJLirevu), 620 

t6pos, of warfare, 21 
vopdfids, 569 if. 
irdppwdev, 1003 

w6pr« ^ifr/ax, 530 

w6<ns )( d*4p, 550 f. 

woW, 31 

v&repa vp&repop, 947 

iroT^avioVy 1 2 14 

irou followed by gen., 375 

irov Vtiv, mode of writing, 65 f. 

wpoKTup fern., 860 ff. 

*7>a£ts, 879 

wp€<rj8etfw, 1065 

vfAv Kal, 395 f. 

vpb ydpw, 503 ff. 

Tpb d6p.on>, 960 

irpopdWeiVy 810 

TrpoKTjpalvu), 29 

TTpd/xaxos, 856 ff. 

vpofaei, 725 

irpowenjs, 976 

rpds /Slew, 387 f. 

irpfa Kaipdv, 59 

irpds with ace, after <popov/xai } 121 1 

wpds with gen., 149 f. 

irpds r6£ou Kplaiv, 265 f. 

w/>As <f>6civ, 308 

wpds Keivov, 479 

wpd* roO dripds, 935 

t/»6s 7 ^/aoO, emphatic, 738 

irpoaayciVt sc. ry fiufjup, 760 ff. 

wpwrapfidffai, 494 

irpoo-pdWeiPy 580, 844 

wpoa64x°f ML t 15 
irpoafyetl-ei', 821 

irp6<T€<TTtv, 454 
irpoadov, 1224 
TTpoaXafApdveiv, I025 

TepwjyjaLxQtv, 1053. 

Trp6<TV€tfjuu, instead of irpbavtLixov, 12 16 
irpoffo/uXeiP, 590 f. 

irpoorar/ipioSt Trpwrrdrris, titles of Apollo, 
207 ff. 



TrpocTeraicibs, 836 f. 
irporlOrffu, 1049 
vpoTiiMv, foil, by infin., 722 
*yx>6&d<i£aro, 680 f. 
vpo&t-c<pU<ro, 759 
wp6<pacns cpdpovs, 661 f. 
vpoxplciv, 695 ff. 

*7>V\ 631 

wtficnys, 441 f. 

IIvXdTifles, ctyopal, 638 f., and Appendix 

wvpytbdrjs v\&£, 272 f. 



{>apdovofJL€tp y 515 f. 

/fet?, 698 

/&?t£cu ddtcpva, 919 

t>6ira\ov, club of Heracles, 511 f. 

£oinJ, 82 

^o06ty, 1055 



<ra(p-/)s=d\rjdr)$, 387 

a^, position of, 65 

SeXXof, the, n66ff. 

(ri^ia, 614 

arifiabw, 345 

o^os irora^oO, periphrasis, 507 f. 

(«7i;X6j, 415 f. 

cr^, rA, 52 f. 

troOrcu, 645 f. 

airapaypM, 778, 1254 

ard<rts, 1 1 79 

artyeiv, 596 

cHpycaff 486, 992 

<rWp7i7/Ao, 1138 

GTCpoicq., 99 

<tt6\os, 562 

OTOPfelS, 887 

crdvos, 521 f. 
oro/wiWa, 902 
<rrpar6s =Xews, 794 f. 
<TTpt<pU), 116 ff. 
a-vyyvw/JL-qv Jf^et, 327 f. 
ffvyyviOfuxrfori, 1265 
<ru7*raroiicTtovjuA'i7, 534 f. 
avyicpaOek, 661 f. 

avfipalrcip, 173, 1164, 1174 

, , wore with infin. , 1 15 1 ff. 



/. GREEK. 



217 



rtfo, of attendant circumstances, 185 

obv bppuj, 719 f. 

avvaWayais, 845 

awrdvcfi, 923 

cr^dXXw, 621, 727, 1 1 13 

<r<f>payls, 614 f. 

<rx^r\tos, 879 

ffipfyficu, ' remember/ 682 



Tapav<pJ)$, 602 

TapPeiv with ace., 296 f. 

TCLvpoKTOPei, 760 

raOpos, of a river, 1 1 

raOra, instead of rafrrriv, as antecedent 

to ^f, 1233 ff. 
raOr' ofa, 550 
TaW and rairrbv, 425 
tc after j^p, 1012 

„ followed by M, 143, 285 f., 333 f., 
1151 ff. 

,, followed by 17, 445 f. 

racvodffffa, 308 

t^ktojv, 768 

reXetv, when intrans., 824 f. 

T«Xet(r0ai, fut. with pass, sense, 1171 

TeXeur^...i&0T(£n7, 1256 

rtpas, 1 131 

rerpdopos, 507 f. 

T?/Xavyifc, 524 f. 

r^5e (instead of r66e) dfxaprlap fl/ttets, 483 

Tr}<r6e=4fu>v, 305. Cp. 1013 

ti, used adverbially, 586 

rl 4>yfd; a more vivid form of rl <f>(a\ 

865 
tis enclitic, before its substantive, 898 
„ with second of two clauses, where it 

affects both, 3 
„ to avoid using name, 35 
,, followed by 65c, 184 
rfc dvdpibircov ; 744 f. 
Hs trbBev; 421 
» rb 64, referring to previously expressed 
verb and subject, 11 72 
rb /«J, 90 
rb pJi) otf, 622 
rot, 190 

Toia6rrii>, giving the ground for a state- 
ment, 46 



roibfffe retrospective, 144 

Toi<Ti=Tl<n i 984 

T6\/Mi<rov, 404 

tocovtov, referring to what follows, and 

associated with roadpde, 569 f. 
TOffouros, l so potent,' 1 140 
Tpovcua, 751 
r i/0X6 ?, unseen, 11 04 
t$5€=£/xoL, 1013. Cp. 305 



v/3pis, a deed of violence, 888 

itTayK&kifffia, 539 ft 

viretcdpa/Aeip, 164^". 

tovkp ?/s = ^s I^e/ca, or &' rjp t 707 f. 

vTT€ppa\w/x€da> 584 

inrcprcXfjs, 36 

^T6pxXiovr6j, 281 

uird with gen. in local sense, 1035 f. 

inrb with dat., 356 f. 

far' dyvolasy 419. See also Appendix 

vnb xkcdvrjs fuas, 539 f. 

tiffrepov, rb, 80, and Appendix 

l»0' 9jirap *ai <pp4vas, 929 ff. 

{upcwrbs, 1052 

<(>a^wv, 239 f. 

(fxivels, 432 f. 

<f>av6tv, 742 f. 

(pda/jia rw&pov, periphrasis, 507 f. 

<f>&apLa...V5pas, periphrasis, 836 f., where 

see also Appendix 
4>&tw, 693 f. 

0l/>etir as= 'suggest,' 123 
<t>tp€<r6ai, 462 

<pdL<ru) and tyltcra, quantity of, 709, 1042 f. 
<p66vr]<jis, 12 1 2 
<piTiju), and the phrase 6 <f>iTti<ras waHjp, 

3" 
0o/3e? wpds tovto, 1 2 1 1 
0otrds, (poiTav, 980 
06vot )( 0oycU, 557 f. 
0/x£fa>, 928, 1 1 22, 1 24 1 
0iJ<rts, 'birth,' 379 
<pvT(op t 1032 



\atp€iv, constructions with, iri8f. 



2l8 



INDICES. 



X<£\t//3o* \l$ok6\\7jtov <rr6fuov, i?6of. 
See also Appendix 

XCLfACLlKOIT&V, Il66ff. 

X^ifxnroietPt 891 

Xeipor^xyrjt laroplas, 1000 f. 

X*pov<rOcu, 379, 1057 

XeiffOcu, 853 ff. 

Xcp&v, valour, no?, cp. 488 

X^odvrjs fab fuas, 539 f. 

XXwp6y, said of tears, 847 f. : of blood, 

1055 
Xo\6w, 1035 *• 
X/«?MO, rd, 1 1 36 
Xpv<raX<£«caros, 633 ff. 
XUfxiv els, M t or irpdf rim, 303 f. 
Xupls Zijvds, 1002 

^6w04<r o /* a( » followed by gen., 712 
^5, 678 

n 

w ZeO, at the end of a sentence, 995 



(Z t6toi, 853 ff. 

w rticrov, w rat, affectionate form of ad- 
dress, 61 

wde^fevpo, 403 

ipKTipa, 464 

uXcicdfJuw, 1013 

wXXwo=senJicero, 651 f. 

u>p<pavi<rfUvos filov, 941 f. 

cfc, prefixed to the partic. after an im- 
perative verb of thinking or knowing, 
289 

(J»f=e/s, 365 f. 

cfa denoting intention (u>? eir i^6S<p), 532. 
Cp. 1 182, cfa irp6j W; 

<ta = afore, 590 

<fa, passages where w? should be corrected 
to £ott, 714^ 

uttwith fut. partic, 133?, 1262 f. 

U>* toucat (instead of wr cot/cep), 1241 

wy ex«J e*x«»S **34 

cus 5ifr, 889, 1 192 

afore jLtiJ, wore 06, how used, 576 f. 



II. MATTERS. 



** 



** 



»» 



»» 



»» 



a 



ti 



»» 



>» 



acc, cognate, 49 ff., 79, 325, 562 f., 620, 
1062, 1227 

after Opdxricw, 58 

in apposition, 74, 97 f. 

with pass, partic, 157 f. 

of respect, 339, 914 f., 942 

double, 559 ff., 1206 
Achelous, the river, 9, 11, 14, 507 f., 517, 
518. See also Appendix, pp. 185, 186 
adj., proleptic use of, 106, 240, 276 

verbal, of two terminations, 161 ff. 

used adverbially, 1, 338, 846, 857, 

compounded with noun of like sense 
asthesubst. [voXvSfrrovs. . .<r<f>ay&s), 

756 
properly only masc. or fern, used in 
oblique cases with neuter nouns, 
929 ff. 
altars, various, of domestic gods, 904 ff. 
Amphictyonic council, 638 ff. 
amplification, poetical, 29 n. 
antecedent, ellipse of, 1161 

attracted into relative clause, 

1060 f. 
attracted into the case of the 
relat. pron., 151 f. 
aor. , as = perf. , 1 26 ff. 

used for pres., 498 ff. 
infin. combined with pres. infin., 
52 f., 988 f. 
Apollo, 207 ff., 213 ff. 
Apollodorus on Heracles, pp. 3, 4 
apples, golden, from the garden of the 
gods, 1098 ff. 



»» 



11 



it 



»> 



Archilochus on Heracles, pp. xviii, xx 
Arnold, Matthew, quoted, 783 
Artemis, 207 ff., 213 ff., 6336°. 
article, place of, 92 f., 383 f., 742, 761, 
1 048 
,, used as relative pron. in dialogue 
without metrical necessity, 47 
asyndeton, instances of, 555, 750, 900 
Athena, 103 1 

augment, prodelision of, 559 ff. 
augment omitted (/Spi/garo), 904 



Bear, the Great, 129 f. 
Bias, maxim ascribed to, 1 



caesura, absence of, 27, 11 46, 11 90 

Calydon, 7 

Cenaeum, 237 f., 333 f., 753, 780, 788, 

804 
Centaurs, 557 f., 559 ff., 564 f., 714 f. f 

1095 f. 
Cerberus, 1098 ff. 
Cejhc, king of Trachis, 40 
Cheiron, 714 f., 1095 f. 
chiasmus, 94 f. 
Chorus, composed of maids of Trachis, 

94 n. 
Cicero, his version of Trachiniae 1046 — 

1102. See 1046, 1055, 1058 f., 1067 f., 

1070 f. 
clause, third repeating sense of first, 432 f. 
concubinage among the Greeks, 447 f. 
continents, the two, ioof. 
council, Amphictyonic, 638 ff. 



220 



INDICES. 



dance-song, 205 — 224 
dative, causal, no, 240, 755, 845, 1127 
,, locative, 112 

„ of attendant circumstance, 147 
of interest, 205 
of the occasion } 267 ff. 
after cUrtfa, 298 
bold, 434 f. 
after /Ufupofuu, 470 f. 
after voeelv, 543 f. 
local after irl, 356, 11 00 
after paKXeiv, 916 
after inrcpPdk&fieOa, 584 ff. 
of manner, 596 f. 
depending on the verbal notion, 

668 
of respect, 669 f., 1229 
ethic, 810, 1233 
after k&toxov, 978 
Deianeira, associated with Heracles in 
legend, pp. xix, xx 
„ character of in the Trachiniae, 
pp. xxxi — xxxv 
deities, avenging, 808 f. 
diction, Sophoclean, pp. xlv — xlix 
Dione, cult of associated with that of 

Zeus, n66ff. 
Dionysus, 217, 2i8ff. 
Dodona, oracle at, 9, 44 f., 171 f., 1164, 

1 166 ff., where see Appendix 
domestics, kindly relations with, 907 ff. 
Doric forms, 173 f., 213 ff. 
dowry, usages as to, 161 ff. 
dragon, slain by Heracles, 1098 ff. 
dust, a symbol of violent effort, 509 f. 



» 



11 



1* 



>» 



»» 



»» 



»» 



» 



»» 



»» 



»» 



»» 



n 



»» 



education a permanent influence, 144 ff. 
Euboea, 237 f., 788 

Euripides, his Mad Heracles, pp. xxii, 
xxiii 
„ limit to his influence on 

Sophocles, pp. xlix, 1 
Eurystheus mentioned, 1049 
Evenus, the river, 559 ff. 
extra metrum, words placed, 425 



it 



flute, use of in religious enthusiasm, 217: 

in wild or mournful music, 641 ff. 
rat. indie, after oti /*ij, in prohibition, 
978, 1 183 
„ with 8rw , after verbs of asking 
or commanding, instead of 
infin., 604 f. 



genitive, after \<ofirrr6p f 537 f. 

„ drappfa 23 

„ &0UCTOP, 685 f. 
objective, 41 f. 
at beginning of clause, 56 f. 
epexegetic, 56 f. 
causal, 122, 267 ff., 287 f., 339, 

807 ff. 
of connection, 169 f. 
after adj. felt as a subst., 347 f. 
partitive, 548 
dependent on prep, in &/x<pl0p€ir- 

TW, 572 f. 

double, 644, 1266 f. 

after ti, 668 

after rfe, 744 f. 

after dXa/jacfy, 691 

after yf/evcd^jaofiai, 712 

defining, 716 ff. 

of partic. with omission of pers. 

pron., 803 
after ojokvos, 841 
in line 927 f. 
after iicdidaxOels, 934 
of price, 994 

of position after M, 1275 
Gigantomachia at Olympia, 1058 f. 
gods, various altars of domestic, 904 ff. 
greetings, Greek sensitiveness to the 
manner of, 230 f., to behaviour of 
neighbours, as showing their opinions 
of their good or bad fortune, 230 f. 



»» 



11 



»» 



»» 



»! 



»» 



»» 



»» 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



II 



Hades, called * sweet,' 1039 f. 

Hera, 1048 

Heracleia of Panyasis, p. xvii 

,, of Peisander, pp. xvi, xvii 
Heracles, Apollodorus on, pp. 3, 4 



//. MATTERS. 



221 



Heracles, why called the son of Cadmus, 
116, cp. 510, 1 15 1 ff. 
sold to Omphale, 252 
represented as inebriated on a 

vase, 267 ff. 
legendary loves of, 460 
archer type of, 511 f. 
styled UpSfxaxos at Thebes, 

856 ff. 
his deeds on the sea, 10 12 ff. 
his various exploits, 1047, 1058 f., 

1089 — 1 102 
his funeral pyre, 1 195 ff. 
Argive legends about, pp. x 

— xu 
Boeotian legends about, pp. xii 

— xiv 
Thessalian legends about, p. xiv 
in the Homeric poems, pp. xv, 

xvi 
Archilochus on, pp. xviii, xx 
Stesichorus on, pp. xviii, xix 
Pindar on, p. xix 
in Comedy and Satyr-drama, 

pp. xx, xxi 
in Euripides, pp. xxii, xxiii 
character of in the Traehiniae, 
pp. xxxv — xxxix 
Hermes, the patron of mfrpwces, 620 ff. 
hiatus, instance of, 1203 
homicide, purgation for, 258 
hydra, the Lernaean, 574, 1094 
Hyllus and Iole, 12 16 — 1251 

character of in the Trachiniae^ 
p. xxxix 



»» 



Ictus, case of, 1078 
imperfect, in commands, 759 

vivid force of, 76 and Ap- 
pendix, 234 
used in ref. to failure, 359 
= * proceeded to,' 762 
indie, and optat. combined, 143, 582 ff. 
infin. expressing result, without c&rre, 
997 ff. 
, , pres. combined with aor. infin. , 5 2 f., 
988 f. 



*f 



>» 



»* 



infin. without art., as nomin. to verb, 
132 ff. 
„ with art., placed at beginning of 

sentence, 545 
„ with art., and representing an ob- 
lique case, yet with its subject in 
the nom., 616 f. 
Iole, supposed symbolism in, 380 f., 
p. xli 
„ and Hyllus, 12 16 — 1251 
islets, rocky, called Lichades, 780 
ivy sacred to Dionysus, 218 ff. 



Lerna, the hydra of, 574, 1094 
Lichades, the rocky islets so called, 780 
litotes, 314 f. 
Locris, 788 

Love, power of, 441 f., 443 
lyre, peculiarly associated with joyful wor- 
ship, 641 ff. 



Malis, and the Malian Gulf, 188, 194, 

213 ff., 237 f. 
masc. gender used in a general statement, 

though referring to a woman, 151 
masc. plur. used by a woman with ref. to 

herself, 492 
metrical analysis of play, pp. lv — lxviii 
middle, use of, 558, 572 f. 



names omitted, 35 
Nemea, 1092 

Nessus, meaning of, 557 f. 
nightingale, note of, 962 f. 
nom. for voc, 986, 1041, 1143 



Oechalia, 237 f., 365 f., 478 

„ * Capture of,' epic so called, p. 
xviii 
Oeneus, 7 
Oeniadae, 509 

Oeta, uplands of, sacred to Zeus, 200, 
436 *"•> 1 191 



222 



INDICES. 



»» 



»» 



j> 



»> 



»» 



>> 



»» 



»» 



Omphale, Heracles sold to, 252 
optative, deferential, 56 f., and Appendix 
abstract generality of, 93 
potential, 113, 631 
in combination with indie, 143, 

582 ff. 
ellipse of, 462 f. 
with &y t a courteous form, 614 
after vpb, because of preceding 

opt, 657 
of indefinite frequency, 906 
in relative clause, due to optat. 
of wish in principal clause, 

953 ff . 
oracle, the, at Dodona, 9, 44 f., 171 f., 

1 164, 1 166 ff., where see Appendix 

oracles in the Trachiniae> pp. xli, xlii 

order of words, unusual, 1 

Ortygia, 213 ff. 



Pallas, 1 03 1 
parataxis, 468 ff. 
partic. in reply, 193 

,, expressing leading idea, 592 

,, in gen., with omission of pers. 
pron., 803 
pause after second foot, and absence of 

caesura, 27, 1146, 1190 
Peleiades, priestesses called, 1166 ff. 
perfect of instant result, 698 
periphrasis, instances of, 38, 507 f., 

527 f-> 574» 836 f., 964 
person, third, used by a speaker with ref. 

to himself, 431 
philtre, the fatal, 494, 555—581, 582 f., 

687 
Pindar on Heracles, p. xix 
Pindaricum schema^ 520 
Pleuron, 7, 559 ff. 
plur. neut. instead of sing., 64, 126 ff., 

409, 947 ff., 1 1 16 
plur., poetical, instead of sing., 494, 571, 

574, 628, 668, 901, 920, 1276 
plur., 1st pers., combined with 1st pers. 
sing., 632 

,, masc. used by a woman in ref. to 
herself, 492 
Poseidon, 502 



predicate, 620 ff. 

preposition, same repeated, 695 ft 

pres. and aor. infin. combined, 52 f., 

988 f. 
pres., historic, between two aorists, 267 ff. 

, , , t as a secondary tense, 267 ff. 

„ ,, combined with past tense, 
701 f. 

„ ,, expressing tension of mind, 
748 

,, „ representing an imperfect, 
760 

,, imperat. )( aor. imperat., 470 
prisoners of war, sometimes made Up6- 

SovXoif 245 
proleptic use of adj., 106, 276, 573, 1018, 

1021 
pron. relat. referring back, 358, 997 
proverbial phrases, 1 — 3, 473, 506 f., 

539 f -» 734 
pyre, the, of Heracles, 1191, 1195 ff. 



quasi-caesura, 493 

quasi-proleptic use of aor. partic., 1025 
questions repeated, though already an- 
swered, 184, 877 



Racine quoted, 137 ff. 
repetitions of words, 88, 807 ff. 
robe, incident of the, pp. xl, xli 



mchema Pindaricum, 520 

Selli, the, 11 66 f. 

Seneca, his Hercules Oetaeus, pp. xliii, 

xliv 
solar imagery, supposed, p. xli 
Solon, saying of, I 
Sophocles, diction of, and successive 

styles, pp. xlv — xlix 
Stesichorus on Heracles, pp. xviii, xix 
styles, various Sophoclean, pp. xlv — xlix 
subject, change of, 362 ff. 
subjunct., prohibitive, rare in the first 
person, 801 f. 
„ delib. combined with fut. in- 
die, 973 



//. MATTERS. 



223 



superlative, followed by cf t«, 8 
synizesis, instances of, 85, 181 ff. 
synonym used, instead of repeating the 
same word, 203 ff. 



tribrach, in more than one word, 4 



unity of time neglected, pp. xlii, xliii 



Thebes, birthplace of Heracles, 116, 510, 

1151 ff., 1154 
Thermopylae, 633 ff. 
time, unity of, neglected in play, pp. xlii, 

xliii 
Tiryns, 270 f., 1151 ff. 
tmesis, instances of, 139, 925 
Traehiniat) different views as to merit of, 
pp. ix, x 
date of, p. xxiii 
analysis of, pp. xxvi — xxxi 
minor characters in, pp. 

xxxix, xl 
oracles in, pp. xli, xlii 
dramatic structure of, p. xlii 
unity of time neglected in, 

pp. xlii, xliii 
the fable of in Art, pp. xliv, 

xlv 
manuscripts and editions of, 

pp. li — liv 
metrical analysis of, pp. lv 
— lxviii 
Trachis, 39, 40, 188, 194, 365 f. 



»* 
>» 
>» 

»» 

»j 
>> 

»» 

»i 

»» 



▼erb in first person, with ace. of pron. of 

first person and participle, 706 
verb, principal, attracted into relative 

clause, 1238 
verb, simple, followed by compound, 

336 f., 449 f. 
verb, singular with plural subject, schema 

Pindaricum , 520 
verbs, desiderative, 1232 
Voltaire, remark of, 1259 ff. 

W 

water, power of self-transformation in 

deities of, 10 
words, same repeated, 964, 967, 11 14, 
1115 

,, unusual order of, 1 
wrestling, tricks in, 520 



Zeus and Oeta, 200, 1191 
, , cult of associated with that of Dione, 
n66ff. 



CAMBRIDGE : PRINTED BY C J. CLAY, M.A. & SONS, AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. 



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